Authors should read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission to El Hornero. Submit the manuscript formatted in A4 paper size (210×297 mm), leaving at least 2.5 cm for all margins. Use an ordinary 12 points serif typeset (Courier New, Times New Roman or similar) and double line spacing (including abstract, tables, legends and bibliography). Number all pages, including text, tables and figures. Headings and footnotes should be avoided. Do not indent paragraphs or titles. Use left alignment and do not hyphenate. Do not use the carriage return (enter) at the end of lines within a paragraph. Use two returns at the end of paragraphs (i.e., one empty line between paragraphs). Insert only a single space between words and after punctuation. Number the lines of text (in the left margin) to facilitate the work of reviewers and editor.
Assemble the parts of the manuscript in this order: (1) cover page (page 1), (2) abstract in the paper’s language (p. 2), (3) abstract in the alternative language (English or Spanish) (p. 3), (4) text, (5) literature cited, (6) tables, (7) figure legends, (8) figures.
Number it as page 1. Cover page must contain (in this order): (1) the complete title (do not use all capital letters and make it as short as possible) in the paper ’s language and in the alternative language; (2) complete names of authors; (3) institutional affiliation and postal address of each author during the period when the research was carried out, identifying the corresponding author; (4) electronic mail of the corresponding author; (5) present address of each author if it is different from (3); (6) short title (not longer than 50 characters including spaces).
Abstract and resumen
Number the abstract in the paper’s language as page 2, and the abstract in the alternative language as page 3. The abstract should be concise and informative rather than descriptive, and intelligible without reference to the manuscript’s text. The abstract often is the most widely read part of a paper; as such, it should be prepared with care and dedication. Include the purpose of the study, the major findings and main conclusions. The abstract should be in a single paragraph (no longer than 250 words for articles; no longer than 100 in communications). Do not include statistical information or bibliographic citations in the abstract. The abstract in the alternative language should be an accurate translation of the abstract in the paper’s language. Include four to eight key words in alphabetical order after the abstract (and its own palabras claves in Spanish). Choose key words carefully; a good election will be useful as an entry point for a search.
Text – general
Begin text on page 4. Write with precision, clarity, and economy. Use the active voice and first person where appropriate. Give the scientific name of the species in full at their first mention (in the abstract as well as in the text), even after a full mention in the title. Do not give subspecific identification unless it is pertinent and has been critically determined. Scientific names should follow the usage of the Handbook of the birds of the world (Lynx Edicions, Barcelona), or The Internet Bird Collection (URL: http://ibc.lynxeds.com/) for families still uncovered by the Handbook. When using other source, the election should be justified in the text and cited in the references. Common names of Argentinean birds should follow the usage of the Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Argentina (Mazar Barnett y Pearman, 2001, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona). Common names of birds are capitalized (e.g., Burrowing Parrot), whereas generic mentions are not (e.g., “the parrot flew”).
Italics should be used exclusively for scientific names (never underlined), to refer to other sections of the manuscript (e.g., “see Methods” or “is shown in Results”), and for the following Latin terms: in vivo, in vitro, in situ, ad libitum, a priori y a posteriori. Use “e.g.,” (for example), “i.e.,” (that is) and “et al.” (and others) without italics. Do not use bold fonts.
Use “.” (period) as decimal symbol. Insert a space to separate thousands digits in numbers greater than 9999. Use leading zeroes (at the left) with all number lesser than 1, including probability values (e.g., P < 0.001). Numbers from zero to nine should be spelled out in the text, except when used with units or in percentages (e.g., two thrushes, 12 penguins, 4 g, 5 days, 3.5%). If number is in a series with at least one number being 10 or more, then use all numerals (e.g., 6 males and 13 females). At the beginning of a phrase always spell out numbers (e.g., “Thirty-two coots...”). Use 24 hours time format, with “:” as separator (e.g., 15:45 h). Use day, month and year as date format (e.g., 22 June 1996). English names of months are capitalized; these may be abbreviated with their first three letters and capitalized (e.g., May, Aug) if needed in tables or figures. Give years in full (e.g., 1994-1999). Always indicate geographic coordinates of study area; these should be indicated as: 34°03'S,67°54'W.
Define all symbols, abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used. However, minimize their use: the reader should memorize them in order to follow your paper. In the text, when only one unit appears in a denominator, use the solidus or slash “/” (e.g., g/m2); for two or more units in a denominator, use negative exponents (e.g., g.m-2.h1). Use the International System of Units (SI). Use “L” instead of “l” for litre. Use “h” for hours, “min” for minutes, and “s” for seconds, and do not abbreviate “day”. “Meters above sea level” should be abbreviated as “masl”. Express temperature in degrees Celsius (e.g., 46°C). Mathematical expressions should be carefully represented. If possible, please format formulae in their final version (for example, you may use the equations editor included in MS Word); otherwise, make them understandable enough to be formatted during typesetting (e.g., use underlining for fractions and type numerator and denominator in different lines).
Use the following statistical abbreviations italicized: n, x, y, X, P, r, R2, F, G, t, Z and U (and, in general, all symbols for variables and constants). Symbols should be italicized in the illustrations to match the text. Use the following statistical and mathematical abbreviations without italics: ln, e, exp, max, min, lim, SD, SE, CV, df, ANOVA, ns, %2 (and, in general, all Greek letters). Names of statistical tests usually are capitalized.
Each table and figure must be referenced in the text, and numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript. Use “Fig.”, “Figs.”, “Table” or “Tables” when quoted in parentheses (e.g., Fig. 2, Tables 1 and 2), but the colloquial forms “figure”, “figures”, “table” or “tables” in the main text (e.g., “in the figure 2”, “as in tables 1 and 2”). Avoid repeating information among tables, figures, and text. Nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units used in a figure should match those used in the text.
Cite references in the text without comma between author and year when quoted in parentheses, using “and” between two authors, “et al.” for citations with three or more authors (“al.” always with period), and comma between citations by the same or different authors (e.g., Wiens 1989, 1999, Wiens and Rotenberry 1991, Wiens et al. 1993). List multiple citations in chronological, not alphabetical, order; when more than one paper from the same author are cited, they should be mentioned together (as shown above). Use lower-case letters to distinguish between two papers by the same authors in the same year (e.g., Wiens and Rotenberry 1980a, 1980b). This distinction must be also present in the Literature Cited list. You may refer to specific pages in a work by putting, in the text, the page numbers after the year (e.g., Wiens 1983:400); in the Literature Cited list, the reference should be to the entire work. The expressions “in litt.” and “op. cit.” should be avoided. The following form should be used: “(Holmes 1981, cited in Wiens 1989)”; both should appear in full in the reference list. Manuscripts that are accepted for publication but not yet published must be cited as “in press”, and unpublished materials as “unpublished data”, “pers. obs.” (personal observation) o “pers. com.” (personal communication), always attributed to its author.
Text – organization
Organize your manuscript with internal headings, using up to three hierarchical levels. Type first-order headings (in capital letters) and second-order headings (in lowercase letters) in separate lines. Tr y to keep them short so that they will fit within a single column (approx. 30 characters, including spaces, for first-order headings, and 40 characters for second-order ones). Third-order headings must be in italics, with period and followed by a dash, in the same paragraph as the following text. Preferred first-order headings are (in order): Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, and Literature Cited. Note that there is no heading for the introduction. Communications may not require internal headings.
The first section of the manuscript (introduction), without heading (see above), should provide the aims and significance of the research and place it of existing knowledge on the subject. State explicitly your objectives. Including your data in a theoretical background and/or in a hypothetical-deductive scheme will usually produce a more appealing article.
Methods.– This section should provide enough information for the reader to be able to critically evaluate the research. Study area may be described within this section. Describe data-collection procedures as well as statistical analyses used. Avoid the development of tests features and the operational steps; usually only the reasons for the election and the relevant literature citations are necessary.
Results.– This section should include only results pertinent to the objectives, questions or hypotheses raised in the introductory section and treated later in the discussion. The text must not duplicate information presented in tables or figures. The text should make clear the sample sizes, degrees of freedom, values of statistical tests, and P-values. Be clear when describing the variables under consideration. If possible, include mean values with the corresponding dispersion measures (SE or SD).
Discussion.– It is useful to start this section with one or two brief sentences that summarize the main results of the study. Then, the discussion should develop the significance and importance of these results, especially in relation to previous research. The discussion should follow the same logical scheme of the objectives, questions or hypotheses raised in the introductory section and the results presented. Additional results and analysis are usually inappropriate in this section; they should be treated in the section of results. In the elaboration of the discussion, you should consider the use of a good dose of both healthy scepticism and critical attitude.
Acknowledgements.– Keep them short and specific to direct contributions to the paper and the research involved. Use the name of the people you acknowledge, but do not include their institutional affiliation.
Before submitting the manuscript, check each citation in the text against the literature cited to see that they match exactly (authors and date) and that they conform the required format. All publications cited in the text must be included in the list of references and viceversa. Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal title, volume and page numbers, and year of publication. Include authors’ complete names in the list of references.
References should be ordered alphabetically. For complicated surnames, the capital letter usually indicates the alphabetical order (e.g., A Di Giacomo under “D”, but M de la Peña under “P”). Where several references correspond to the same authors, they should be placed in chronological order in the list. If there is more than one reference by the same series of authors they should be listed in alphabetical order of the subsequent authors, and then chronologically.
Citations must follow the format below: Mezquida ET and Marone L (2000) Breeding biology of Gray-crowned Tyrannulet in the Monte Desert, Argentina. Condor 102:205–210 Trejo A, Ojeda V and Sympson L (2001) First nest records of the White-throated Hawk (Buteo albigula) in Argentina. Journal of Raptor Research 35:169–170 Dunning JB Jr (1990) Meeting the assumptions of foraging models: an example using tests of avian patch choice. Studies in Avian Biology 13:462–470
Books, chapters, proceedings, theses (and
other material) must follow the format below:
Ridgely RS and Tudor G (1994) The birds of South America. Volume 2. University of Texas Press, Austin
de la Peña MR (1994) Guía de aves Argentinas. Tomo 3. Second edition. LOLA, Buenos Aires
Hudson GE (1974)  Aves del Plata. Libros de Hispanoamérica, Buenos Aires
Burger J and Gochfeld M (1996) Family Laridae (gulls). Pp. 572–623 in: del Hoyo J, Elliott A and Sargatal J (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 3. Hoatzin to auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona
Wiens JA and Rotenberry JT (1980a) Bird community structure in cold shrub deserts: competition or chaos? Pp. 1063–1070 in: Nohring R (ed) Actis XVII Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft, Berlin
Cueto VR (1996) Relación entre los ensambles de aves y la estructura de la vegetación. Un análisis a tres escalas espaciales. Doctoral thesis, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires
Pezzanite B (2003) The foraging behavior of lesser snow geese and Ross’s geese on La Perouse Bay. Doctoral thesis, City University of New York, New York
BirdLife International (2007) Species factsheet: Anthus chacoensis. BirdLife International, Cambridge (URL: http://www.birdlife.org/)
Type authors’ names with small caps (do not use capital letters), without period after each initial of an author’s name. These initials must always follow the author’s surname. Use “and” (or “y” for manuscripts in Spanish) before the last author, irrespective of the language of the cited article. Type the year of publication in parentheses. For papers still in press, use “in press” to replace the date, and consider them as the latest in the chronological order, with the name of journal included. Journal titles should be written in full and not abbreviated, in italics. Cite articles in edited journals (e.g., Current Ornithology, Studies in Avian Biology) as journals rather than edited volumes (as shown above). Type volume number, but do not include issue number. Avoid the final full stop (period) in references.
All book titles should be spelled out completely, in lower-case letters, in italics. Provide the publisher’s name and city of publication, both in lower-case letters without italics; separate them with comma and without full stop (period). Do not include total number of pages. For reissued classical books, the new edition can be cited with original publication year within brackets. Use “in” (or “en” for manuscripts in Spanish) after pages in book chapters, irrespective of the language of the cited chapter. Book editors’ names should be cited in the same format as the names of articles’ authors. Titles of theses and dissertations must be in lower-case letters, in italics. Provide name and city of the university, both in lower-case letters without italics; separate them with comma and without full stop (period). Do not include total number of pages.
Do not include in the references abstracts, unpublished material or reports not widely distributed and easily available.
Tables and figures
Make tables and figures understandable without reference to the text. Do not include any type of information in tables that is not discussed in the text of the manuscript. Never repeat the same material in figures and tables; when either is equally clear, a figure is preferable. Check numbers of tables and figures (Arabic numerals) against their references in the text. Legends should be exhaustive; include information about the location where data were obtained or the referred taxa. All legends should use a similar style.
Each table must start on a separate numbered page, after its legend. The table should be typed double-spaced throughout (as the rest of the manuscript, including legends). Keep tables as simple as possible. Do not use an excessive number of digits when writing a decimal number; they should reflect the precision of the measurements. Do not divide tables in two or more parts. Do not use vertical lines and try to minimize the horizontal ones. Include horizontal lines above and below headings, and at end of table. You can check tables in recent issues of El Hornero as a guideline. Tables should be prepared in table format within the word–processor. If this is not possible, separate each field or data with tabs (never with spaces). Tables structured for column width (70 mm) are preferred over those for full page width (145 mm).
Each figure must occupy a separate numbered page, after a page grouping all figures’ legends (“Figure legends”). Figures should not be boxed; try to minimize the number of lines (e.g., do not draw top and right lines in an ordinary scatterplot). Do not use titles on the graphs. Refer to keys and other explanations by name in the figure legend (i.e., do not include symbols themselves in the legend, only their reference), except when the description becomes difficult. Do not send colour figures. Use black, white (open) and bold hatching for bars and symbols. Tr y to avoid grey shades or use them as distinctly as possible (only 50%, or 25%, 50% and 75%). Use of tones and shades, especially within boxes, makes the design and printing difficult. Preferred symbols are open or closed black circles, squares and triangles. Symbols should be of approximately 1.5 mm in their final size. Nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units used in a figure should match those used in the text (including use of italics). All figures should use a similar style. Do not use three-dimensional graphs. Include north, graphic scale and coordinates in maps. Figures prepared for column width (70 mm) are preferred over page width (145 mm). Figures can be submitted in a larger format, but they should be designed at final size in their original software. Use a letter size of at least 8 points in axes and for units, with Arial typography. Avoid the use of too many values in axes.
Include figures in the word–processed file, pasting them (by using the clipboard) as “image” or Windows Metafile Format (WMF). For example, in MS Word for Windows you can (1) copy the image from the original application and then paste it in the word-processor, using the “Edit/Paste special…” command, and selecting “Image” as the format to paste, or (2) create a WMF file with the image, available as “Export” or “Save as…” options in most graphic packages, and then insert it in the word-processor file using “Insert/Image/From file...” command. As detailed above, the image must be at its final size (70 mm wide preferred). Do make sure that the image in the word-processor file adjusts to what you expect (e.g., texts and symbols sizes); it helps to design the figures at final size in the original software. If made in MS Excel, Corel Draw, Adobe Ilustrator, Statistica, Sigma Plot or S-Plus, in addition to the figures in the word-processor file, please also send the original files.
If you cannot follow these procedures, you can paste or insert the figures in the word-processed file as a bitmap (TIFF and PNG formats are preferred; GIF or BMP are also acceptable) of 600 dpi, in greyscale (8 bits depth) and the final estimated size (better for one column width of 70 mm, not more than 145 mm wide). You may get the bitmap from the original application (graphics and drawing packages usually provide an export option) or by scanning a good quality print of your figure. Please also send the original file. Supplying uncompressed TIFFs is preferable but, if the image size is very large, compressed versions are acceptable (LZW, ZIP, RAR, ARJ).
For figures consisting of more than one element (e.g., parts a, b and c), please supply the different parts separately (i.e., paste or insert them separately on the same word-processor page). The reason for this is that the components of the figure may require some modification of their layout. Each figure should be on a different page and at final size with the correct orientation.
If you find any problems in applying the above methods, you can contact the editor by e-mail for help or specifications.
Photographs should only be included if they convey information that is essential to the understanding of the article. They should be “clear” and have high contrast. Name and number them as figures. They should be sent as files; when scanned, they should be done at greyscale (8 bits depth) at least at 300 dpi, preferably for a final size of one column (70 mm wide). They should be saved as TIFF (.tif), PNG (.png) or GIF (.gif) files, available as exporting formats in most graphic and scanning packages. Supplying uncompressed TIFFs is preferable but, if the image size is very large, compression versions are acceptable (LZW, ZIP, RAR, ARJ).