Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Espacios en blanco. Serie indagaciones ]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1515-948520120001&lang=pt vol. 22 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[The secondary school obligation: Inclusion-exclusion tension in politics, institutions, and school actor's experiences]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Comparative studies and unthinking comparative "thought": the paradox of "reason" and its abjetions]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Analizo estudios comparados examinando los sistemas de la razón para considerar los principios que históricamente ordenan qué se piensa, qué se conoce y de acuerdo a qué se actúa en los distintos tiempos y espacios de la educación. El concepto de cosmopolitismo se utiliza como una "herramienta" analítica para considerar las diferentes redes sociales y culturales que permiten que la educación y el estudio de la juventud sean comprensibles. En la primera y segunda sección se examina la razón como un fenómeno histórico. Me centro en el cosmopolitismo de la Ilustración para señalar un campo heterogéneo que abarca tesis culturales particulares acerca de la agencia y progreso humanos diseñados por el uso de la razón y la ciencia. Los conceptos de razón, agencia y progreso son efectos de poder que generan principios comparados que formulan diferencias en las sociedades y en la individualidad. En la tercera sección se examinan otros conceptos de cosmopolitismo fuera de Occidente y los asuntos de estudios comparados de múltiples modernidades. La cuarta sección se centra en las ciencias de la educación y las ciencias sociales como prácticas sociales que comparan, excluyen y marginalizan en sus impulsos a incluir. El propósito del análisis es prestarle atención a lo político de la educación en las reglas y estándares de la razón que generan los principios acerca de "lo que somos", "lo que deberíamos ser", y también acerca de lo que se expulsa y excluye de sus espacios normalizados.<hr/>I explore comparative studies through examining systems of reason, to consider the principles that historically order what is thought, known, and acted on in different time/spaces of schooling. The notion of cosmopolitanism is used as an analytical 'tool' to consider different social and cultural grids that give intelligibility to schooling and the study of youth. The first and second sections explore reason as historical phenomena. I focus on the Enlightenments' cosmopolitanism to point to a heterogeneous field that embodies particular cultural theses about human agency and progress designed by the use of reason and science. The notions of reason, agency, and progress, are effects of power that generate comparative principles which frame differences in societies and individuality. The third section explores other notions of cosmopolitanism outside of the west and the issues of comparative studies of multiple modernities. The fourth section focuses on social and education sciences as social practices that compare, exclude and abject in its impulses to include. The intent of the analysis is to give attention to the political of schooling in the rules and standards of reason that generate principles about what 'we are, should be', and also about what is cast out and excluded from its normalized spaces. <![CDATA[Que tem a Europa para oferecer aos recém-chegados a uma longa escolaridade obrigatória?]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Neste artigo debate-se a tensão existente entre a prescrição normativa da obrigatoriedade de frequência da escola até ao fim do ensino secundário superior (12 anos de escolaridade) e a capacidade sociopolítica de garantir a universalidade da frequência deste nível de ensino. Nos últimos vinte anos regista-se um elevado investimento na escolarização de toda a população até aos 12 anos de escolaridade. A expansão do modelo da escolarização de massas prossegue (Meyer, 1992; Meyer, Ramírez, Soysal, 1992), com diferenças regionais muito sensíveis. As estratégias políticas e o envolvimento social têm sido muito diversos; retomando a categorização de Soysal e Strang (1989) umas incidem mais sobre a prescrição normativa, outras na construção política de soluções e outras na mobilização social dos actores. Também serão contextualizadas as tendências de desenvolvimento do ensino secundário quer por "subordinação regressiva" ao ensino superior quer por subordinação à economia local e internacional. Entre as principais tendências comuns no espaço europeu, este artigo situa e analisa criticamente não só a criação de dispositivos legais tendentes a criar novas oportunidades de educação e formação para os jovens, como as medidas tomadas para fortalecer as oportunidades de todos os jovens realizarem percursos escolares pessoalmente significativos dentro do ensino secundário superior, independentemente do prosseguimento de estudos no ensino superior.<hr/>In this paper I aim to discuss the great question of the extension of compulsory education in European countries; this extension is politically presented as a greater benefit for all citizens. Although public policies that intend to implement a longer school are focused on the compulsory aspect, this new education requires an appropriate response to its inherent and less focused universality: a time of quality education for all children and young people, without exception. In order to think about that, first I update the data relating to compulsory schooling in Europe and the relative degree of compliance, and then discuss the issue of universality versus compulsory, arguing that the guarantee of the first precedes the application of the second and, in educational terms, that one is the larger issue; thirdly, I present some of the main measures taken in various European countries to welcome newcomers to schooling , to combat drop-outs and lack of compliance with the new compulsory education; fourthly, I discuss the relevance of these measures in light of the ultimate goal of greater universality of an quality education for all, especially for those newcomers to the compulsory schooling of more than nine years' duration. In this discussion I adopt a three-dimensional perspective: ethical and epistemological, socio-political and polycentric and finally academic. With this I advocate the need to use any strategy of school diversification and flexible curriculum as a springboard for more and better education for each and every one, through increased educational personalization, avoiding the easy fall on reproduction in school environment, of the starting social stratification, poverty and exclusion. <![CDATA[Compulsory secondary education: variations in the academic regimes]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt En poco más de una década, la definición de la obligatoriedad escolar produjo profundas transformaciones y redefiniciones en la estructura de la escuela media en Argentina. En este contexto, diferentes políticas educativas han volcado importantes esfuerzos para sostener la inclusión de todos los adolescentes y jóvenes en el nivel. El artículo presenta resultados de una investigación sobre dos iniciativas del Área Metropolitana Buenos Aires: las Escuelas de Reingreso (Ciudad de Buenos Aires) y las Escuelas Secundarias Básicas (Provincia de Buenos Aires). El análisis profundiza en los modos de concreción de los regímenes académicos en estas instituciones. Revisaremos tres componentes del régimen académico: la asistencia escolar, la evaluación para la calificación y promoción, y la convivencia o disciplina. Y analizaremos dos aspectos del trabajo institucional sobre el régimen académico: su explicitación a los alumnos y el acompañamiento/formación de que son objeto para aprender a moverse en el régimen.<hr/>In little more than a decade, the definition of compulsory education produced deep transformations and redefinitions in the structure of the middle school in Argentina. In this context, several education policies have made significant efforts to include all the adolescents and young people in this level. This paper presents some results of a research on two initiatives in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Escuelas de Reingreso (Re-ingress Schools, Buenos Aires City) and Escuelas Secundarias Básicas (Secondary Basic Schools, Buenos Aires Province). The analysis deepens in the way of concretion of the academic regimes in these institutions. Three components of the academic regime will be reviewed: school attendance, assessment for qualification and promotion, and convivence or discipline. Besides, two aspects of the institutional work on the academic regime will be analyzed: the processes by which it is explained to students, and the accompaniment/ formation they receive to manage within the school rules. <![CDATA[A cartography on the school in Colombia from the point of view of the critical pedagogy]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este artículo desarrolla una mirada contextual y comprensiva sobre la escuela de sectores populares desde los presupuestos de la pedagogía crítica, asumida ésta como un proyecto ético-político de formación en condiciones de exclusión, múltiples violencias y conflictos. Se organiza en tres apartados: en el primero se analiza contextualmente la escuela en términos de las demandas y funciones que se le formulan, en el segundo se caracteriza la trama de los conflictos en la escuela, y finalmente, se presentan las texturas de la convivencia en relación con la construcción de vínculos escolares.<hr/>This article develops a contextual and comprehensive overview on the school of popular sectors from the critical pedagogy perspective, assumed as an ethical-political project of formation in conditions of exclusion, manifolds violences and conflicts. The article is developed in three sections: in the first, the school is analyzed contextually in terms of its demands and functions, in the second the net of the conflicts in the school is characterized and finally, the textures of the coexistence in relation to the construction of scholar links is presented <![CDATA[O que queremos da escola média?A perspectiva de pesquisadores, professores e estudantes de ensino médio]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt O ensino médio brasileiro tem se caracterizado pelo dilema do atendimento a duas demandas específicas: a preparação para os estudos superiores e a preparação profissional. Seus percursos diferenciados têm atendido a uma divisão técnica e social do trabalho, marcada pela origem socioeconômica dos alunos e se traduz nos baixos índices de acesso ao ensino médio pelos jovens das camadas mais pobres da população. Diversas políticas, embates e articulações por parte dos poderes públicos e dos grupos de interesse envolvidos com a questão têm sido empreendidos, no sentido de superar a dualidade estrutural historicamente construída neste nível de ensino. A recente aprovação da obrigatoriedade do ensino médio no Brasil retoma reflexões sobre o sentido, finalidades e estrutura de um ensino que possa atender a um percentual maior do que os 50,9% dos jovens brasileiros de 15 a 17 anos que atualmente o frequenta. Neste artigo examinamos algumas questões, apresentadas por pesquisadores de diferentes centros de pesquisa do Rio de Janeiro, por professores e alunos de ensino médio, participantes de Programa de Iniciação Científica desenvolvido com alunos da escola média.<hr/>The high school in Brazil has been characterized by the dilemma of meeting two specific demands: preparing students to higher education and to the job market. Their differentiated pathways have attended to a technical and social separation of labor, marked by the students' socioeconomic background and revealed by the low levels of access to secondary education by young people from the poorest sections of the population. Several policies, disputes and articulated enterprises have been promoted by the government and by the interests of the groups involved with the issue, in order to overcome the structural and historical duality in this level of schooling. The recent adoption of compulsory secondary education in Brazil incorporates reflections about the meaning, the objectives and the structure of an education that can meet a higher percentage than the 50.9% of young Brazilians aged 15-17 that currently attends it. The present article examines some questions, presented by researchers from different research centers of Rio de Janeiro and by high school teachers and students participating in Scientific Initiation Program, developed with high school students. <![CDATA[The consequens of territorial stigmatization: Reflections from a paradigmatic example]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El artículo analiza las consecuencias de la estigmatización territorial en los habitantes de un barrio discriminado. Se basa en un caso paradigmático del conurbano bonaerense: el Complejo Habitacional Ejército de los Andes rotulado por los medios como Fuerte Apache. El interrogante central es en qué medida la estigmatización territorial ha generado privaciones específicas en la población así como ha agravado otras ya existentes. En primer lugar se precisan las dimensiones del concepto de estigma y se examina las percepciones y las implicancias subjetivas en los sujetos estigmatizados. Luego se centra en la llamada discriminación estructural para seguidamente enfocarse en las consecuencias de la estigmatización en los jóvenes. Se trata por último el lugar de la escuela y la educación. El artículo finaliza con una revisión de las dimensiones en que la estigmatización afecta la vida de la población del barrio.<hr/>The article aims to analyze the effects of territorial stigmatization for the inhabitants of a discriminated housing estate. It is based on a paradigmatic case of Buenos Aires: the neighborhood Ejército de los Andres labeled by the media and known for the public opinion as Fuerte Apache. The central question is to what extent territorial stigmatization generated specific deprivations in the population and exacerbated existing ones. First we specify the dimensions of the concept and the subjective effects of territorial stigma. Then we focus on structural discrimination and on the consequences of stigma in younger. The last point is the place of school and education in this process. The article concludes with a summary of the dimensions in which stigma affects the lives of the inhabitants of the place. <![CDATA[Los instrumentos de mediación en la escuela media: un estudio de las actividades didácticas]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El presente artículo se desprende de las conclusiones a las que hemos arribado en el proyecto de investigación "La construcción cognitiva en estudiantes del nivel medio: un estudio desde las actividades didácticas" (2007-2009). Esta investigación se situó en un espacio de intermediación entre la Psicología y la Didáctica, vinculadas en la preocupación por la construcción del conocimiento en el ámbito escolar. En tal sentido, se seleccionaron aquellos referentes teóricos que estuvieron comprometidos en la formulación del problema de investigación: construcción cognitiva, aprendizaje, motivación, enseñanza, actividades didácticas, sistema de actividad. Se inscribió en una perspectiva metodológica cualitativa de carácter exploratorio. A partir de los distintos niveles de análisis de los datos obtenidos en el trabajo de campo se logró establecer una tipología de actividades didácticas. Éstas fueron consideradas como herramientas de mediación, no como instrumentos neutros a través de los cuales se ejecutan determinadas operaciones, sino que integran las comprensiones de las prácticas en que se usan.<hr/>The present article comes off from the conclusions to those that we have arrived in the investigation project "The construction cognitive in students of the half level: a study from the didactic" activities (2007 -2009). This investigation was located in an intermediation space between the Psychology and the Didactics, linked in the concern by the construction of the knowledge in the school environment. In such a sense, those theoretical referents were selected that were committed in the formulation of the investigation problem: construction cognitive, learning, motivation, teaching, didactic activities, activity system. He/she registered in an exploratory methodological qualitative perspective of character.Starting from the different levels of analysis of the data obtained in the fieldwork, it was possible to establish a tipología of didactic activities. These were considered as mediation tools, I don't eat neuter instruments through which certain operations are executed, but rather they integrate the understandings of the practices in that you/they are used. <![CDATA[Teachers working conditions in Buenos Aires province: 2004-2010]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este estudio, de carácter descriptivo y exploratorio, analiza, desde una perspectiva macrosocial, la evolución de la Rama de Enseñanza y de las condiciones laborales básicas de sus ocupados en la Provincia de Buenos Aires durante la primera década de este siglo. Se han utilizado como fuentes de información, la EPH para el período 2004-2010, fuentes documentales y entrevistas a informantes clave. El análisis realizado permite concluir que, entre el 2004 y el 2010, se observan importantes mejoras en las condiciones laborales de los ocupados en la rama de enseñanza, aunque todavía persisten algunos problemas a resolver.<hr/>This descriptive and exploratory study analyzes the evolution of the Education Branch and the basic working conditions of its workers in Buenos Aires Province during the first decade of this century, from a macro social perspective. Documentaries, the EPH for the period 2004-2010, and interviews to key informants have all been used as information sources. This analysis allows us to conclude that, between 2004 and 2010, important improvements were made in the working conditions of the workers in the education branch, although some problems still persist and need to be resolved. <![CDATA[The State in the twenty first century argentinian educative's laws: estructures and senses]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El presente artículo, sobre la base de los resultados parciales de una investigación en curso, busca aportar elementos para la caracterización de las modificaciones, los cambios y las transformaciones que, en las reformas educativas recientes (2004-2006), han afectado al Estado, analizando dónde está el Estado -qué capacidades, funciones y significados en relación con la educación escolar, adopta/le son adjudicados- en las reformas educativas del siglo XXI, y ello desde la perspectiva de la gobernabilidad en un doble sentido: como distribución territorial de la capacidad de gobierno (toma de decisiones vinculantes, soberanas y colectivizadas), es decir, como definición de estructuras de gobierno; y, por otro lado, como proceso de legitimación, de elaboración de prácticas articulatorias tendientes a otorgar un sentido hegemónico.<hr/>The following article, based on partial results of an investigation on course, try to provide elements for the characterization of modifications, changes and transformations on recent educationals reforms (2004-2006), have affected the state analyzing 'where the state is', meaning, what capabilities, functions and senses adopted or are awarded to it, in relation with school education, in the twenty-first century educational reforms. The perspective is analyzing the governance in two ways: as a territorial distribution government capacity (making binding decisions, sovereign and collectivized), ie as a definition of governance structures and, secondly, as a process of legitimation, articulatory processing practices designed to give a hegemonic sense. <![CDATA[La formación docente en educación física: Perspectivas y prospectivas]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1515-94852012000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El presente artículo, sobre la base de los resultados parciales de una investigación en curso, busca aportar elementos para la caracterización de las modificaciones, los cambios y las transformaciones que, en las reformas educativas recientes (2004-2006), han afectado al Estado, analizando dónde está el Estado -qué capacidades, funciones y significados en relación con la educación escolar, adopta/le son adjudicados- en las reformas educativas del siglo XXI, y ello desde la perspectiva de la gobernabilidad en un doble sentido: como distribución territorial de la capacidad de gobierno (toma de decisiones vinculantes, soberanas y colectivizadas), es decir, como definición de estructuras de gobierno; y, por otro lado, como proceso de legitimación, de elaboración de prácticas articulatorias tendientes a otorgar un sentido hegemónico.<hr/>The following article, based on partial results of an investigation on course, try to provide elements for the characterization of modifications, changes and transformations on recent educationals reforms (2004-2006), have affected the state analyzing 'where the state is', meaning, what capabilities, functions and senses adopted or are awarded to it, in relation with school education, in the twenty-first century educational reforms. The perspective is analyzing the governance in two ways: as a territorial distribution government capacity (making binding decisions, sovereign and collectivized), ie as a definition of governance structures and, secondly, as a process of legitimation, articulatory processing practices designed to give a hegemonic sense.