Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> vol. 30 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[El rol del psicólogo en el equipo Interdisciplinariasciplinario de cirugía bariátrica]]> La obesidad ha sido declarada por la OMS como una epidemia y es factor de riesgo para diversas enfermedades tanto físicas como psicológicas, por lo que supone una creciente carga económica para los sistemas de salud. Actualmente el tratamiento que mayor efectividad ha mostrado para tratar la obesidad severa es la cirugía bariátrica; sin embargo, a pesar de los cambios anatómicos realizados por la cirugía, no todos los pacientes se ven beneficiados por la misma. Se ha reportado que el 20% de estas cirugías fracasan y generalmente este fracaso es atribuido a causas psicológicas. El número de cirugías bariátricas realizadas en el mundo está aumentando exponencialmente y dentro de las guías norteamericanas se sugiere el tratamiento Interdisciplinariasciplinario, incluyendo en este el tratamiento psicológico. El trabajo que se informa busca describir el rol del psicólogo en un equipo Interdisciplinariasciplinario de cirugía bariátrica.<hr/>Obesity has been declared by the WHO as an epidemic. It has been described as a multicausal disease and that it's etiology is influenced by biological, psychological, environmental and other factors. It is a risk factor for many diseases not only physical (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, an so on) but also psychological (depression, anxiety, eating behavior disorders, etc.); reason for which it's supposed to be a raising charge for worldwide health systems. Among the approved treatments for overweight and obesity are included: nutritional (caloric restriction), increase physical activity and behavioral therapy. When talking about patients with severe obesity (BMI <img border=0 width=7 height=13 src="/img/revistas/interd/v30n2/a01n1.gif">40), the most effective treatment that has been proven is bariatric surgery, indicated for patients with a BMI <img border=0 width=7 height=13 src="/img/revistas/interd/v30n2/a01n1.gif">40 or <img border=0 width=7 height=13 src="/img/revistas/interd/v30n2/a01n1.gif">35 in case of presenting co morbidities. It has been described that surgical treatment for obesity promotes mayor weight loss, generates significant improvement of the co morbidities associated with the obese condition and helps to prolong life expectancy and to increase quality of life. Despite all of the advantages that this treatment has proven to offer, not all of the patients benefit from it, even with the anatomical changes made by the surgery, some of the patients don't get to loose a significant amount of weight; differences in the variations of weight after the surgery at short and long term have been reported. It has been reported that approximately 20% of bariatric surgeries fail due to poor weight loss and that this failure is generally attributed to psychological or behavioral causes. Nowadays the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) guidelines suggest that surgical treatment for obesity must be performed in a Interdisciplinariasciplinary approach that includes surgeon, nutritionist, internist, physical rehabilitator and a psychologist. According to the same guidelines, the psychologist's role in this team consists on initially evaluating surgery candidates in order to determine if there is existing psychopathology and their ability to implement the lifestyle changes needed before and after the procedure, to give psico educational interventions in order to prepare patients for these changes and to make an informed decision about this treatment. This preparation helps patients having realistic expectations about the surgery results, helps to decrease the uncertainty that generates anxiety. For this reason, psychologist´s work should be focused on motivation and adherence on lifestyle changes by psycho educational and cognitive behavioral specific interventions. In conclusion, the goal of the psychologist in the bariatric surgery team is to identify possible contraindications for the surgery and to identify possible post-surgical challenges as well as to give behavioral specific strategies in order to cope with those challenges. The prevalence of obesity is rising across the world and, in order to treat it, the increase in the number of bariatric surgeries performed. As ASMBS guidelines suggest a Interdisciplinariasciplinary approach where the psychologist plays a fundamental role in order to get a better prognosis after the surgery, it is important to increase the number of psychologists with the necessary skills to work with these patients, and with knowledge about obesity and bariatric surgery. The present research aims to describe the psychologist's role in a bariatric surgery Interdisciplinariasciplinary clinic and some of the strategies described for psychological obesity treatment suggested to be used before and after the surgery, in order to promote a lifestyle change. <![CDATA[Propiedades léxicas del entorno lingüístico generadas en clases de Ciencias Sociales en la escuela primaria: Un estudio del vocabulario al que se hallan expuestos los niños]]> El trabajo que se informa tuvo por objeto estudiar las propiedades léxicas del entorno lingüístico (cantidad, diversidad, abstracción y grado de familiaridad del vocabulario) que se generan en las situaciones de enseñanza de Ciencias Sociales en la escuela primaria. Por medio de un procedimiento cuantitativo se analizó comparativamente la cantidad, la diversidad y la abstracción del vocabulario que configuraba el discurso de las maestras durante las situaciones de enseñanza en primer, tercer y quinto grado de escuelas primarias urbanas y rurales. Asimismo, se elaboró una escala para medir el grado de familiaridad que las palabras empleadas en las clases tenían para los niños. Los resultados de este estudio mostraron que las diferencias más importantes en las propiedades léxicas del entorno lingüístico a que se hallan expuestos los niños a lo largo de la escuela primaria no se encontraron entre primer y tercer grado, sino entre estos grados y quinto grado. Estos resultados no mostraron que los contextos de tercer grado conlleven más oportunidades de aprendizaje de vocabulario que los entornos de primer grado. Esto podría atribuirse a que en los intercambios en las clases de Ciencias Sociales en tercer grado no se observó una descontextualización progresiva de los conocimientos con respecto a primer grado. Los intercambios se centraron, en cambio, en conceptos muy cercanos al entorno de los niños y en vocabulario familiar. Por su parte, no se observaron diferencias entre las escuelas rurales y las escuelas urbanas.<hr/>This study is based on the concern for the differences observed between students in relation to the breadth and diversity of vocabulary that they have. These differences undoubtedly affect the comprehension and production of texts and also the opportunity of learning from them. From the psycholinguistics, sociopragmatic (Tomasello, 2003, 2008) and experiential perspective (Nelson, 2007), which is the frame of this research, it is assumed that vocabulary acquisition occurs in those conversational exchanges in which social support and situational context, nonverbal and linguistic, allows the child to infer the meaning of unknown words. Research focused on pre-school children showed that the type of language used by adults, in particular the use of unknown, abstract and semantically complex vocabulary, affects the development of children's vocabulary (Beals, 1997; Beals & Tabors, 1995; Weizman & Snow, 2001). Moreover, recent studies focused on the school environment have emphasized the important role that vocabulary acquires not only in the first steps of literacy, but also throughout the whole process that leads to the command of comprehension and production of written and verbal texts (Joshi, 2005; Perfetti, 2007; Protopapas, Sideridis, Mouzaki & Simos, 2007; Sénéchal, Ouellette & Rodney, 2006). However, these researches have not explored the opportunities that children have to learn vocabulary during Science classes in elementary school. In this sense, this study aimed at analyzing the lexical properties of the linguistic environment -quantity, diversity, the degree of familiarity and the abstraction of vocabulary- which is generated in teaching situations of Social Science in elementary school. The corpus under analysis is made up of 11,318 interactional turns -children: 6,306; teachers: 5,012- produced in 12 spontaneous teaching situations which took place in Social Science classes. The situations were registered in 12 courses -4 courses of 1st grade, 4 courses of 3rd grade and 4 courses of 5th grade from elementary schools; 2 of them from rural areas and 2 from urban areas located in the Province of Córdoba (Argentina). Through a quantitative procedure, the amount, diversity and the abstraction of vocabulary that shaped the discourse of teachers during the teaching situations in 1st, 3rd and 5th grade from schools in urban and rural areas were analyzed comparatively. Besides, a scale was elaborated to measure the degree of familiarity of words used by teachers during classes. The results of this study showed that the major differences in the lexical properties of the linguistic environment to which children are exposed to all throughout the elementary school, were not found between 1st and 3rd grade, but between these two grades and 5th grade. These results did not show that the contexts of 3rd grade entail more opportunities to learn vocabulary than the environments of 1st grade. This could be attributed to the fact that exchanges in Social Science classes in 3rd grade did not show a progressive decontextualization of knowledge regarding 1st grade. Instead, the exchanges focused on concepts closely related to the children's environment and familiar vocabulary. Moreover no differences between rural and urban schools were observed. The results of this study have important pedagogical implications insofar as they highlight the need to increase opportunities for learning the vocabulary further than preschool age, since the breadth of the child's vocabulary is a predictor of the acquisition of the writing system (Goswami, 2003; Perfetti, 1992, 2007), as well as the comprehension and production of texts (Joshi, 2005; Perfetti, 2007; Protopapas, Sideridis, Mouzaki, & Simos, 2007; Sénéchal, Ouellette, & Rodney, 2006). In this sense, the primary school should be a favorable environment in which all students have during his career in the school increasingly more opportunities to listen to and, therefore, learn different, abstract and unfamiliar words. <![CDATA[School violence: Subjective theories of academic advisory board members from six chilean schools]]> Se estudiaron las teorías subjetivas acerca de la violencia escolar de seis docentes directivos de seis establecimientos educacionales de la comuna de Coquimbo (Chile), tres de escuelas municipales (públicas) y tres de colegios particulares. El estudio fue de tipo cualitativo y la estrategia de recolección de datos utilizó una entrevista semi-estructurada de aplicación individual, seguida por un instrumento de auto-reporte. Los resultados fueron analizados, organizados e interpretados en base a la teoría fundamentada, lo que permitió reconstruir las explicaciones que los directivos han construido acerca de la violencia escolar. Los resultados indican que todos los participantes conciben la violencia escolar como un problema social importante pero poco común en sus instituciones educativas. Además, asumen que la violencia se origina fundamentalmente por influencias externas que provienen de la sociedad en su conjunto, tales como el tipo de estructura familiar y los procesos de socialización en el hogar, la calidad de la educación recibida y la influencia de los medios de comunicación. Cuando piensan en variables del propio sujeto, usualmente atribuyen la violencia a una baja autoestima. En esta concepción, al dejar de lado la participación del individuo como un agente racional que discierne y elabora juicios morales para guiar la acción, los directivos asumen una visión pasiva del sujeto como meramente respondiente a las influencias ambientales. Los hallazgos del estudio se discuten principalmente enfatizando sus implicaciones para la educación, específicamente para la educación moral y la prevención de la violencia.<hr/>This study analyzes the subjective theories regarding school violence held by six school officials of the city of Coquimbo (Chile). School violence is action carried out by a member of a school community that intends to cause harm against any member of that community. The study's main objective is to identify and interpre tthe various subjective theories regarding school violence held by the school officials as well as to explore whether there is a moral dimension to their subjective theories. We are interested in the moral dimension of the problem because research has shown that processes such as moral reasoning, moral identity, or moral motivation are linked to students' behavior in schools. Furthermore, social interactions are critical for the development of more advanced levels of moral reasoning. The study focuses on six members of the academic advisory board from six different schools, three municipal (public) schools and three subsidized private schools in the region of Coquimbo (Chile). Because the role of the administrative team is becoming increasingly important in the proper functioning of educational institutions, characteristics of school officials such as their leadership skills, negotiation skills, or abilities solve conflicts, have a direct impact on the success or failure of any educational program. Due to the qualitative approach of this study, each participant was interviewed using an individual semi-structured interview followed by a self-report questionnaire. Results were analyzed, organized, and interpreted based on grounded theory, which has been shown to be useful in analyzing subjective theories. Participants' explanations regarding school violence were reconstructed using the semantic categories that emerged in their interview responses. Results indicate that participants view school violence as an important social problem that should be contested; however, at the same time participants feel that it is not prevalent at their own educational institutions. Moreover, all participants believe that school violence takes place because of social influences, such as socialization processes at home, family values, quality of education, and influence of mass media, among others. This shows that participants hold a concept of the individual as merely respondent to environmental forces, lacking rational process and agency to discern and make moral judgments as a base for their actions. This is problematic because school violence has a moral dimension, as it involves issues of fairness, cooperation, conflict, negotiation with others, justice, and welfare. Results show that none of the participants understand violence as related to morality. Consequently, participants support traditional approaches to combat school violence aimed either at making students behave as it is prescribed by school norms or at enhancing students' social skills. However, such approaches disregard any moral education or moral discernment, even though research has identified moral values, the main variable in the study of social behaviour (Delfino & Zubieta, 2011), and moral development as factors related to violence. In general, school officials regard violence as externally originated, caused mainly by social forces and cultural factors. They also have subjective theories that hold the causes of school violence to be external and un manageable, minimizing their responsibility and their sense of efficacy in dealing with the problem. Assuming that a major role of education is to facilitate a better understanding of the world and knowing that teachers' beliefs are very important into explain teachers' behavior, the results of this study are discussed regarding its implications for education, particularly moral education and the prevention of violence. <![CDATA[The promotion of older adults' sense of coherence through Person-Centered Therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study]]> El objetivo del estudio que se informa fue explorar si una intervención individual de terapia centrada en la persona (TCP) en personas adultas mayores puede promover su sentido de coherencia, en comparación con un grupo control (lista de espera). Se plantea que los participantes asignados al azar a TCP informarían mejoras en SDC de pre y post-intervención en comparación con el grupo control. Un grupo de 87 participantes de 65 a 86 años (M = 72.4; DE = 5.15) fue evaluado con la Escala de Sentido de Coherencia (ESDC) y el cuestionario sociodemográfico en tres momentos diferentes: al inicio del estudio (t1), post-tratamiento (t2) y a los 12 meses de seguimiento (t3). Los resultados indicaron que los participantes en TCP evidenciaron un aumento significativo en cuanto a su SDC (16.7%), mientras que en el grupo control se encontró una disminución significativa (-2.7%), entre el inicio del estudio y el momento de seguimiento. El tamaño del efecto en el grupo TCP fue alto (n²p= .776). En concreto, tanto en la post-intervención como en el momento del seguimiento, los participantes que se sometieron a TCP tenían un SDC significativamente mayor (M = 3.84, DE = .219). Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el grupo de intervención y el grupo control en la post-intervención y en el seguimiento. Se concluye que los cambios en SDC fueron positivos y mantenidos, por lo tanto, los resultados sugieren que la TCP es favorable a la mejora de SDC. Por otra parte, ya que la SDC se asocia con el bienestar relacionado con la salud de las poblaciones de mayor edad, hay que enfatizar el desarrollo de SDC en la vejez.<hr/>Sense of Coherence (SOC) derived from the salutogenic approach and seems to be a health promoting resource, which strengthens resilience and develops a positive subjective state of health. Older adults' SOC is often challenged by specific issues in later adulthood such as grieving for losses, illness, feelings of worthless and solitude, retirement, disability and death, which require distinctive consideration. To our best knowledge, there are no previous studies that indicated the relation between a person-centered therapy (PCT) and older adults' SOC. Therefore, this study aims to explore if a brief eight-session individual PCT intervention on older adults can promote their SOC, as compared with a control group (waiting list). Specifically, this is a randomized controlled pilot study designed to explore the promotion of SOC through an individual-based PCT intervention. We posited that participants randomized to PCT would report improvements in SOC from the pre- to the post-intervention moments when compared to those on the waiting list. The Orientation to Life Questionnaire (OtLQ) and demographics were assessed at the baseline (t1), post-treatment (t2) and at the 12-month follow-up (t3), in a group of 87 participants between 65 - 86 years (M = 72.4; SD = 5.15), from community and health centers in the Great Lisbon area, in Portugal. Participants were mostly women (59.8%), married (65.5%) and professionally inactive (63.2%). The Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for SOCS were .878, .989, and .988, in the three moments, respectively. Inclusion criteria determined their eligibility to participate in the study. No participant with a compromised cognitive function integrated the sample. All potential participants were given a brief description of the study and gave their informed consent. After the baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. The eight-session intervention was conducted in an adequate setting and with a weekly frequency. Comparisons between the three assessments (t1, t2 and t3) for the two groups were done using Repeated Measures ANOVA. Post-hoc Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test for mean differences was used to compare the three assessments for the SOC, in each group (PCT and waiting list). After the intervention, a significant increase of 17.3% (M = 3.86, SD = .218) was observed in the participants who did the PCT. The SOC evidence dat follow-up (t3) (M = 3.84, SD = .219) by these participants was significantly higher (16.7%) in comparison to the baseline score (M = 3.29, SD = .245). Conversely, participants in the control group experienced a minor decrease between baseline (M = 3.28, SD = .236) and follow-up (M = 3.19, SD = .244) (- 2.7%). The effect size in the PCT group was high (n²p = .776). Significant differences between the intervention group and the control group were found at the post-intervention and follow-up. Findings also showed that participants in PCT experienced an increment in the three dimensions of SOC. The highest increase was observed in the Comprehensibility dimension (71.2%). Manageability and Meaningfulness sub-scales showed an increase of 32.9% and 12.1%, respectively. Changes in SOC were positive and maintained, thus, findings suggest that PCT is favorable to enhancing SOC. In particular, for the participants who did PCT, the significant increase of their SOC was mainly due to the high increase of the comprehensibility of events. This study contributed to filling a gap in gerontological literature and this intervention has the potential to offer a reasonably low-cost self-regulatory approach to the SOC. In this context, PCT is also a personal resource to promote SOC, in late adulthood. Moreover, since SOC is associated with health-related well-being among older populations, SOC development in old age should be stressed. <![CDATA[Confiabilidad intercalificadores y validez de constructo del Test Gestáltico de Bender (segunda versión)]]> Hace algunos años, se ha publicado el nuevo Test Gestáltico de Bender, segunda versión (Bender-II). Esta nueva versión usa el Sistema de Calificación Global (SCG) para obtener los puntajes, que enfatiza la reproducción exacta de los diseños; junto con otros cambios estructurales, consiste en la mayor modificación realizada al Test de Bender para evaluar la habilidad visomotora en varias etapas del desarrollo humano. Pero aún hay pocas investigaciones que han estudiado su funcionamiento psicométrico en muestras hispanas y especialmente el error de medición en el procedimiento de la calificación. Se investigó el efecto de la variabilidad de la calificación del nuevo Bender-II sobre su validez de constructo con una medida de inteligencia. Se administraron el Bender-II y el Test Breve de Inteligencia de Kaufman (K-BIT) a 60 niños preescolares, y tres calificadores calificaron las figuras reproducidas mediante procedimientos estandarizados y el SCG. El análisis comparó las correlaciones obtenidas por cada calificador entre los puntajes del Bender-II y del K-BIT. Se halló que la variabilidad de los puntajes proveniente de la interpretación del SCG afectó moderadamente las correlaciones con el puntaje total y de las subescalas del K-BIT. Un calificador fue menos confiable y sus puntajes mostraron al menos 5% menos variancia compartida al compararlo con los otros calificadores. Se concluye que la interpretación de la validez se puede distorsionar aun cuando el error de medición es moderado pues interaccionan con otras fuentes de error. Esto sugiere que se debe garantizar un buen acuerdo en la calificación de pruebas que requieran juicio.<hr/>Although the impact of the measurement error in the accuracy of the classification of subjects and validity correlations is theoretically established, in a practical situation has not been explored the degree of impact on the new Bender-II (Brannigan & Decker, 2003). The practical situation of assessment is that which occurs in the professional context, in which one or more examiners of an assessment team assessing children in a particular institution. The new Bender-II has substantial modifications in its structure and functioning, making it different from the original instrument proposed by Bender (1938, 1946). Structural changes consisted in more of items (16 designs), complementary tests (fine motor and visual perception) and two major tests (Visual Constructive Memory and Visual Motor), the rating method Global Scoring System (GSS) and standardized record sheet for the child's behavior during the test administration. The GSS was created ad hoc for the Bender-II, and it is a method that emphasizes the exact reproduction of the designs; its origin is in the original gestalt approach of Bender. Main studies have been published in the manual (Brannigan & Decker, 2003), and subsequent studies have used the American standardization sample. However, in non-immigrant Hispanic population, to date there are some unpublished and published only one (Merino, 2012); therefore, it is not known how generalizable the findings and psychometric properties obtained in the American standardization sample are. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the variability of the scoring of designs of the new Bender-II on construct validity with a measure of intelligence. The Bender-II and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT - Kaufman, A. S. & Kaufman, A. L., 1994) was administered to 60 preschool children (between 4 and 5 years, 33 girls), and three scorers rated the designs reproduced, by standardized procedures and GSS. The analysis consisted of two steps: first, we estimated the consistency and inter-rater agreement using random two-way intraclass correlations (McGraw & Wong, 1996; Shrout & Fleiss, 1979). Second, for each scorer, correlations were calculated between scores on the Bender-II and K-BIT, and finally these correlations were compared with a test for dependent correlations with a common element (Steiger, 1980, Williams, 1959). The results indicate that there were slight differences between two scorers, but one of them had comparatively lower coefficients of consistency and agreement. In the all scorers, the magnitude of the consistency coefficients (> .85) and agreement (> .84) between the qualifiers indicate good levels of concordance with even moderate exercise time (two or three sessions). Correlations between scores on the Bender-II and K-BIT were around .43 and .61, and the lowest correlations occurred in the scorer that showed less consistency and agreement with other scorers, clearly indicating the impact of measurement error in the validity correlations. Compared with one of the rating, this difference was statistically significant, and the percentage reduction of covariance was at least 5%. Finally, the results indicate several points. First, we present other evidence for inter-rater reliability of the Bender-II, and that there were good levels of agreement and consistency. Second, there is potentially a reduction in the correlations of validity when a scorer has trouble for interpret consistently and correctly Global Scoring System. Correlations decreased, however, are not equal in all the scorers, and therefore must be verified the goodness of fit between scorer and the Bender it's qualification method approach. The results can be are idiosyncratic to the sample and study conditions, and the sample size constraints threaten the generalizability of the findings. However, the study conditions are close to professional practice and therefore can be generalized to some extent. In addition, can serve as a baseline to compare future studies of reliability in the Bender-II. <![CDATA[Predictores de la adaptación sociocultural de estudiantes universitarios extranjeros en Argentina]]> El interés para realizar esta investigación surgió a partir de que Argentina recibe un número creciente de estudiantes de otros países latinoamericanos, atraídos por el idioma, el prestigio académico y las condiciones económicas. Como resultado del contacto intercultural, los estudiantes atraviesan el proceso psicológico denominado aculturación, que implica cambios afectivos, comportamentales y cognitivos. En virtud de lo antedicho, este estudio se propuso identificar predictores de adaptación sociocultural en función de variables sociodemográficas, culturales y psicológicas de estudiantes que decidieron realizar sus estudios universitarios en Argentina. Participaron 216 estudiantes migrantes que se encontraban cursando diferentes carreras universitarias, el 57% eran mujeres (n = 124) y el 43% varones (n = 92), con un promedio de edad de 24.18 años (DE = 4.55). El 86% (n = 186) había nacido en Latinoamérica. El restante 14% provenía de países de Europa y Asia. El tiempo promedio de residencia en Argentina era de 3.31años. Se emplearon diferentes instrumentos diseñados ad hoc y/o adaptados para medir las variables involucradas en el estudio. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, no se pudo corroborar la influencia por parte de variables sociodemográficas (edad y tiempo de residencia). En cambio, entre las variables culturales se constató que percibir bajos niveles de discriminación y ansiedad intergrupal predice buenos niveles de adaptación sociocultural. En cuanto a las variables psicológicas, se corroboró que el apoyo social y la satisfacción percibida contribuyen a la adaptación sociocultural. En términos globales, las variables culturales y psicológicas predicen con mayor éxito la adaptación sociocultural en relación alas sociodemográficas.<hr/>The interest of this research arises from that Argentina received a growing number of students from other Latin-American countries. International migration has risen exponentially in recent decades due to advances in technology and communications. According to the International Organization for Migration (OIM, 2010), the estimated number of international migrants in the world for that year was 214 million, doubling the previous two decades. Globalization has promoted exchanges among different cultures, but also caused the collision between different value systems, beliefs and customs that, in many cases, generates situations of confusion or discomfort in people (Furnham & Bochner, 1986). Approximately 2.9million people each year decide to make or complete their studies in other countries (OECD, 2008). Argentina receives an increasing number of students from other Latin-American countries, attracted by the language, the academic prestige of the local universities and the favorable economic conditions (Filmus, 2007). At the present, international students represent 1.6% of university students in Argentina. Therefore, Argentina is the fourth host country of America, after United States, Canada and Uruguay. As a result of intercultural contact, students go through the psychological process called acculturation, which involves affective, behavioral and cognitive changes. Taking into account the antecedents mentioned, this research proposed to identify predictors of socio-cultural adaptation based on socio-demographic, cultural and psychological variables, in international students who decided to make their university studies in Argentina. The participants of the study were 216 migrant students who were studying different careers. 57% were women (n = 124) and 43% males (n = 92) with an average age of 24.18 years (SD = 4.55). 86% (n = 186) were born in Latin-America. The remaining 14% came from Europe and Asia. The average residence time in Argentina was 3.31 years. The reasons for their arrival in Argentina were diverse, 50% (n = 108) of them considered that Argentina was a good place to study for its academic prestige and low costs. The remaining half was divided between family reasons (n = 47, 21%), to have a different cultural experience (n = 30, 14%), for student exchange (n = 19, 9%) or others reasons (n = 13, 6%). Regarding socio-economic status, the majority of respondents said they were in the middle class (n = 107, 50%) and upper middle (n = 82, 38%). Different instruments, designed ad hoc or adapted, were used to measure the variables involved in the study. To measure cultural variables were used instruments to assess perceived cultural distance, frequency of contact with foreigners and local habitants, intergroup anxiety and perceived discrimination. To measure psychological variables, were used instruments to assess social supportand life satisfaction. Besides, were used instruments to assess the level of socio-cultural adaptation. Based on results obtained, it could not be verified influence by socio-demographic varia bles (age and residence time). In contrast, among the cultural variables it was found that low levels of perceived discrimination an inter-grupal anxiety predicts good levels of socio-cultural adaptation. Regarding psychological variables, it was confirmed that social support and perceived satisfaction contribute to this adaptation. In summary, cultural and psychological variables predict most successful socio-cultural adaptation than socio-demographic variables. One of the limitations of the study was the low inclusion in the sample of immigrants from countries with greater cultural distance. Futures studies can focuses on the analysis of the processes of adaptation with foreign students with language and customs more distant than Latin-American students. Other future re search can study the perceptions of those who receive foreign students (host country) and analyze their relationship and influence on the perception of discrimination and prejudice from immigrants. <![CDATA[Construcción de una escala para evaluar el contexto familiar desde la perspectiva de los padres]]> Se presenta la construcción y validación de una escala que mide el contexto familiar desde la perspectiva de los padres, teniendo en cuenta la estimulación temprana que recibe el niño, y que Galvez (2007) define como la actividad de contacto con el bebé, que propicie sus potencialidades. Dentro de la línea ecológica sistémica de Bronfenbrenner (1987), Rodrigo y Palacios (1998) proponen tres aspectos del contexto familiar que afectan el desarrollo del niño: ideas y cogniciones de los padres con respecto al desarrollo, estilo de socialización y escenario e interacción educativa. Una versión preliminar con 73 ítemes fue administrada a una muestra de 229 sujetos para estudiar sus propiedades psicométricas. Se examinó el poder discriminativo de los ítemes, mediante la prueba t de diferencias de medias, resultando discriminativos 59 ítemes. Estos últimos fueron analizados factorialmente para determinar el número y la naturaleza de las dimensiones subyacentes. El análisis factorial exploratorio indicó la presencia de cuatro factores: ambiente familiar en relación a la estimulación personal, ambiente familiar con objetos estimulantes, ideas y creencias y prácticas de crianza. Los ítemes se agruparon guardando coherencia teórica con el planteo inicial. Se estudió la confiabilidad como consistencia interna, mediante el coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach obteniéndose un valor satisfactorio igual a .838. A partir de los cuatro factores hallados se seleccionaron los 16 ítemes (cuatro por factor) con mayor pesaje, que conformaron la escala definitiva de tipo Likert que presentó buenos indicadores de fiabilidad, poder discriminativo de los ítemes y validez de constructo.<hr/>The purpose of this work is to present the construction and validation of a scale about ideas and beliefs that parents have respect the cognitive development of their children, the kind of breed adopted and the quality of the family context. Among the different aspects that can be considered in what we call early relations, it is found the early stimulation that Galvez (2007) defines as the contact activity or play with a baby or child that propitiates, strengthens and develops appropriately its potentialities. The family plays a fundamental role in the evolutional development of the child. Different models of family organization agreed in the recognition of its importance (Richaud de Minzi, 2005). It also greatly influences the organization of structural and material processes of the home, the planning of activities taking place there and how parents interact with the child (Muñoz Silva, 2005). This organization is determined in part by the parents´ ideas and beliefs on the process of development of children and on the breeding practices (Siegel, McGillicuddy-Delisi & Goodnow, 1992). Taking into account an ecological systemic perspective, Bronfenbrenner's model (1987) shows the individual experience as a set of nearby structures, each inside the next, being the family the closest to the individual and which will offer the first stimulation experiences. From the point of view of the ecological theory of the individual's development, Rodrigo and Palacios (1998) have defined three family context aspects that will affect the child's development and have been taken as indicators for the construction of this instrument. These are the parents' ideas and beliefs regarding their children's cognitive development, the parenting style adopted by them and the quality of the family context. The items proposed by the authors were selected and reformulated taking into account the direct observation of Argentine parents and presented in a Likert format. The preliminary scale remained constituted by 73 items presented in a Likert scale of three points. No agreement, Moderately agree, and Highly agree. Questions referred to the level of education of the parents, age, and quantity of offspring was also incorporated. The preliminary scale was administered to 229 families of children attending four schools in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). To study the psychometric fitness of the scale it was first examine the discriminative capacity of the items using t test of mean differences or the contrasting group's method. The test was performed for the original 73 items, founding that 14 of them were no discriminatory. The preliminary scale was then reduced to 59 items. Factorial analysis of these 59 items was done, as a exploratory mode, to determine the number and nature of the dimensions present in the instrument. This test indicated the presence of four factors: (a) family environment related to personal stimulation, (b) family environment which includes stimulating objects, (c) ideas and beliefs, and (d) breeding practices. The items were grouped in coherence with the initial theoretical hypothesis. Based on factorial analysis the four heavier items in each factor (> .40) that they were not factorially complex were taken into account to constitute the final version of the scale. The factorization of the final 16 items clearly showed the items grouping in the four factors observed before (see Figure 2). These four factors explain 60.39% of variance (see Table 1). Reliability as internal consistence of the scale of 16 reactive through the Cronbach Alpha was analyzed and a coefficient of .738 was obtained. The scale here presented enables us to evaluate ideas and beliefs that parents have with respect to the evolving development of the child and how these materialize in its conduct related to the style of breeding as well as to the patterns of action and their interaction. The scale presents good psychometric properties, specially referring to the factorial structure being its reliability as its internal moderate consistency. <![CDATA[Propuesta para el cálculo del Índice Dm para la validez de los ítemes]]> Se presenta un programa en formato MS Excel para calcular el índice Dm para la validez de los ítemes. La validez es un proceso de acumulación de pruebas para apoyar la interpretación y el uso de las puntuaciones de los tests psicológicos, siendo las relaciones de los puntajes con otras variables externas una importante fuente de validación. Una variante es la llamada validez relacionada al criterio, en la cual se espera una correlación significativa con aquellos criterios externos que son teóricamente relevantes. Para ello se consideró el índice Dm. En tal sentido, el uso adecuado de estos métodos y su falta de implementación en los paquetes estadísticos tradicionales justifica su construcción como una herramienta adecuada para el investigador en Psicología y específicamente en Psicometría, disciplina en la cual es común el uso de correlaciones como un indicador absoluto de validez, sin considerar otros aspectos conceptuales. Se discute el uso y las limitaciones de la herramienta.<hr/>The aim of this paper was to propose a program in MS Excel for quick calculation of Dm index, which could be used in psychometrics to evaluate the item validity of psychological instruments. Validity is a process of accumulating evidence to support the interpretation and use of psychological test scores, with scores relations with other external variables an important source of validation. A variant is called criterion-related validity, which seeks to demonstrate the accuracy of the hypothesized relationships between measurements made with other measurements, using correlations or other measures that indicate some kind of relationship. This was considered the Index Dm, which is expected to be significantly correlated with those external criteria that are theoretically relevant, so achieving specify prior, as a hypothesis, what direction it will take and what the correlation coefficient is expected. Dm index indicates a measure of the absolute deviation of the observed correlations regarding hypothesized values. In this index, we then consider the number of external criteria, the correlation coefficient between the item and the external criterion, the squared distance between the coefficient of correlation and .50 by the sign of the correlation coefficient between the item and the criterion external. In social sciences rarely expect a correlation greater than .50, although this constant researcher can vary depending on the background you have about the test to investigate and the relationship you have with other constructs. The range of this indicator ranges from 0 to 1, with the result 1 when there is perfect and criterion validity is obtained when each observed correlation is hypothesized correlations like. As such, the proper use of these methods and their lack of implementation in traditional statistical packages justifies its construction as a tool for researchers in Psychology, and specifically in Psychometrics, discipline which is common to use correlations as an indicator absolute validity, without considering other conceptual aspects. One advantage of this program is that it provides a quick calculation of a useful procedure when you do not have the number of data required for more sophisticated procedures such as factor analysis. Furthermore, it gives more relevance to the findings of previous form as defined a network of concepts expressed by measurements, which correspond to the instrument you want to work, all expressed by correlations. It exemplified the use of the tool with data presented in research presented at an event, where we explored the validity of the items of School Burnout Inventory (SBI) in a sample of adolescents, using external criteria the complete Magallanes Anxiety Scale (MAS) and State-Trait Depression Inventory (STDI). The latter has four scales: Eutimic State and Eutimic Trait (both positive affect) and Dysthymia State and Dysthymia Trait (both negative affect). In this regard, being a measure of stress burnout is hypothesized positive direction between items of School Burnout Inventory (SBI) and Magallanes Anxiety Scale (MAS), subscales Dysthymia State and Dysthymia Trait (both negative affect) from State-Trait Depression Inventory, and negative between the subscales Eutimic State and Eutimic Trait (both positive affect) from State-Trait Depression Inventory. Data have been entered, the calculation of Dm index from the expression is performed automatically, and finally to the index and the level that has this indicator. You can display the graph to see the differences between the hypothesized and observed correlations. The findings presented by the tool match background research. The main limitation of the tool is that it can be used Microsoft Office must be installed on the computer, so it is recommended to interested researchers expand the scope of this tool to other formats or by some programming strategy that is wider dissemination and outreach.