Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1668-702720140002&lang=pt vol. 31 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[Novelty and modulation of memory: Neurobiological mechanisms involved]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt La exposición a estímulos novedosos es un protocolo simple de emplear que involucra múltiples sistemas y procesos de memoria tales como codificación, consolidación y recuperación de la información. Esto hace plausible de emplearlo como un tratamiento útil para estudiar los mecanismos comportamentales, fisiológicos y moleculares implicados en esta función cognitiva. Se presentan estudios en modelos animales que dan cuenta de cómo la exploración de un ambiente novedoso puede ser útil para mejorar o deteriorar la memoria, en diferentes períodos ontogenéticos. Además, se presentan investigaciones que demuestran la participación de los diversos sistemas de neurotransmisión en este fenómeno así como los mecanismos moleculares implicados en este tipo de tratamiento. De este modo este tipo de tratamiento, no invasivo y sencillo de aplicar, adquiere relevancia para la ciencia aplicada como una posible alternativa para el desarrollo de estrategias de intervención en la temática.<hr/>Exposure to novel stimuli is a simple procedure to use that involved several systems and memory processes, such as acquisition, consolidation and recall of the information. Which make it a possible treatment to study the behavioral, physiological and molecular mechanism involved in this cognitive function. Novelty detection plays an important role in adaptation to the environmental changes and in the avoidance of possible dangerous. A novel stimulus elicits a response that will produce habituation when it becomes familiar. When animals are first exposed to a novel environment they explore it actively and in parallel they compare it to previous experiences, stored in its memory to evaluate the degree of novelty. On one side, it includes the response to novelty, activation, and stress-related factors and on the other hand, a response that decreases as the environment becomes familiar, which requires different processes related to learning, recall and recognition. Also, multiple studies showed that animals prefer to explore novel objects, compared with those with whom they had previous experience. Moreover, it has been shown that the ability to respond to novel stimuli is related to self-administration of various drugs, the discovery of spontaneous tumors, and even life expectancy since it was found that neophobic animals die younger than their counterpart's neophilic. In this work we presented studies that indicated how the exploration of a novel environment could be a useful tool to enhanced or deteriorated memory in different ontogenetic stages. The modulation of memory depends on the different characteristic of the treatment presentation. It was reported that the novelty presented prior to an acquisition of some training task can generate an improvement in memory performance. Although, it was founded that the novelty exploration produce an amnesic effect if it was presented after learning, showing the opposite effect. This have been shown in different paradigms such us consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) paradigm and inhibition avoidance, in different phases of the training. It was also important to note that this phenomenon involves different time window parameters, for example it is required that the novelty were presented at least one hour before the learning. Furthermore we mentioned data that shows that exposure to novelty during infancy induces a lasting effect of improved cognition and long-term memory that persists even in adulthood. The study of the effect of novelty in the postnatal period and its subsequent influence on other periods opens the possibility of the creative developing of strategies to improve learning and memory processes throughout the subject's life. Besides, we presented research that exhibited the implication of several neurotransmitter systems in this phenomenon and the molecular mechanisms involved in this treatment. Practically all the principal neurotransmitter systems, such as cholinergic, glutamatergic, adrenergic, among others, are involved. A lot of studies indicate that cholinergic neurotransmission plays a critical role in the processes of attention, learning and memory. The same functions correspond to the adrenergic system. The gabaergic system is also involved in the perception of novel stimuli. Glutamate receptors play an important role in the memory processes mainly. In addition, a vast number of studies also reported that the molecular brain activation is very extensive in all the process of explore a novel environment, realizing the complexity of this mechanism. Thus, this type of treatment, non-invasive and easy to apply, becomes relevant for applied science as a possible alternative for the development of many intervention strategies in the topic. Also the study of this phenomenon in post -natal period, allows thinking about possible strategies applicable in the development of this cognitive function. <![CDATA[Attentional performance assessment in children: Effectiveness, efficiency and yield]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt En el ámbito educativo, las conductas problemas y los desórdenes atencionales son factores de riesgo que afectan el rendimiento académico y social del niño. La importancia del desarrollo de los procesos de aprendizaje genera la necesidad de evaluar las habilidades atencionales de los niños en el ámbito educativo con instrumentos válidos, confiables y adaptados a la población escolar. Desde la Neuropsicología del Desarrollo se proponen nuevos indicadores para la evaluación atencional a través del Test CARAS denominados: eficiencia atencional y rendimiento atencional. Esta prueba es utilizada para evaluar la atención focalizada y sostenida y la aptitud para percibir, rápida y correctamente, semejanzas, diferencias y patrones estimulantes parcialmente ordenados. Las expresiones matemáticas derivadas de los indicadores propuestos surgen de la revisión cronológica de los avances producidos en este instrumento de evaluación y la necesidad de conocer con mayor precisión las capacidades de los sujetos evaluados. Los indicadores propuestos han evidenciado en la prueba piloto con 48 sujetos una mayor representatividad de las habilidades atencionales y sus fluctuaciones, a partir del estudio de éstas en diferentes tiempos de evaluación. El trabajo que se informa permite introducir el término desempeño atencional como resultante de integrar los conceptos de eficacia atencional (EA), eficiencia atencional (FA) y rendimiento atencional (RA) en tareas de búsqueda visual. Con este tipo de estudio se pretende brindar una modalidad de análisis que contemple los diferentes aspectos que intervienen en tareas de búsqueda visual utilizadas para evaluar el desempeño atencional.<hr/>In the educational field the behavior problems and attentional disorders are risk factors, which affect the academic performance of the child. In the teaching-learning process, a child uses different forms of attention. In one task, the child selects relevant information and inhibits the others. Perhaps, should divide his attention and switch his focus of attention between two or more sources of information, holding -intentionally- these activities for a specified time. The importance of the development of learning processes requires the evaluation of the children's attentional abilities in the educational field as valid and reliable instruments adapted to the school population. This work, focused from the Development Neuropsychology approach, proposes two new indices called attentional efficiency and attentional yield for the evaluation of attention through the Perception of Differences Test - CARAS. As a main feature, the CARAS, has 60 blocks stimuli each composed of three schematic drawings of faces (with elementary strokes representing the mouth, eyes, eyebrows and hair), one of which is different. The task is to determine the different side and cross it off. These proposed indicators arise with new modes of administration of the Test CARAS and the need for greater accuracy in evaluating attentional. Attentional efficiency is defined (AF) as the cognitive ability to regulate and optimize the attentional mechanism to select and maintain attention for an extended period of time, using minimal resources of time available. Moreover, attentional yield (AY) is the product resulting from the level of effectiveness and efficiency obtained in selection and sustained attentional task. Mathematical expressions derived from the proposed indicators, arising from the chronological review of developments since the original technique to methods and scores currently used today. We believe that the progress made in this work have enriched the analysis in the evaluation of attention and use of the CARAS Test. Although, attentional efficiency, produced advances in the interpretation of the results, new developments in the application of the test methods, that is, analyzing the execution after 3 minutes, have proposed new challenges. Currently with these contributions not only have the chance to meet attentional efficacy (AE) in a period of focused attention mainly, but also its attentional efficiency (AF) and attentional yield (AY) in periods of sustained attention (after three minutes until completion of the task). The proposed indicators have been evident in the pilot test with 48 children greater representation of attentional skills and fluctuations, from the study of different evaluation times. The pilot test was conducted in the institution primary school, located in the city of Mendoza (Argentina). This paper presents the limitation of being a pilot study on a small sample of students. However, it served to apply in real cases the proposed concepts. These results come from children in urban public schools so the interpretation of the results must be contextualized. It must also recognize the importance of further assessments for adequate attentional diagnosis. Currently being developed complementary to regional scale attentional efficacy (AE) with attentional efficiency indicators (AF) and attentional yield (AY) from a random sample of 5000 students in first through seventh grade belonging to marginal - urban and urban primary schools state of Mendoza. This work allows introducing the term attentional performance as the result of integrating the concepts of attentional efficiency (AE), attentional efficiency (AF) and attentional yield (AY) in visual search tasks. With this type of study is to provide a form of analysis, which considers the different aspects involved in visual search tasks used to assess attentional performance. <![CDATA[A bibliographic path through subject-society, body and clothing concepts and their interrelationships]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Se parte de la hipótesis de que la indumentaria funcionaría como metáfora de la propia personalidad y de los vínculos que establece el sujeto con su entorno y la sociedad en su conjunto. Se informa un recorrido bibliográfico proponiendo la creación y búsqueda de conceptos ordenadores. La construcción de yuxtaposiciones de conceptualizaciones provenientes de distintas disciplinas que dan cuenta de un fenómeno común, permitiría producir visiones novedosas sobre la temática estudiada. A partir del rastreo bibliográfico realizado se concluye que la indumentaria, en su relación con el cuerpo puede pensarse más que como una metáfora, como una dialéctica. Puede aventurarse que el vestido formaría parte constitutiva de la o las imágenes corporales que se tienen de sí mismo, por lo cual integraría la identidad de los sujetos e intervendría en la regulación de los intercambios sociales que los individuos establecen con otros y con su entorno.<hr/>The objective of this essay was to perform a bibliographic exploration that engages sources from different social science disciplines, aiming to establish some of the connections that occurs between culture and body image's construction, and between the latter and clothing. Body and clothing are taken as object of study with the purpose of continuing the work already carried on in a previous paper (Velázquez, 2011). Although the preceding investigation takes the hypothesis that the dress would work as a metaphor for the personality and the connections the subject establishes with its immediate environment and society as a starting point, the traditional hypothetico - deductive method was not used. The social sciences, among which are included some of the disciplines that will be taken here as a reference, can be considered multi-paradigmatic. They are not regulated by a single theoretical paradigm as Kuhn (1971) praised, but instead they rely on multiple theories or logic-bubbles (de Bono, 1992) that achieve partial statements, or attempts at explanations, reduced to the portion of reality that each of them take as object of study. In this context, the multiple theories that coexist in social sciences overlap explanations, arise conceptual conflicts and let, most certainly, gaps and blind spots in the limits of their conceptions. It is therefore proposed, for the sake of scientific progress out of conflict and creativity, the search and creation of organizing concepts according to Saltalamacchia (1997). The articulation of theories from different disciplines, understood as overlapping metaphors that try to explain the same reality, enables the production of novel insights about the studied subject and the creation of new theories. Given the bibliographic research done, it can be visualized that subjectivity and society are in fact a network of relationships which effect on actual practice and daily life is structured by imaginary significations (Castoriadis, 1975) that configure the way we act and think. It can be also be stated that body and clothing can become a privileged observable for the study of the workings of this web of interrelationships. Therefore, studying the field in which clothing, inextricably related to the body, intervenes, and the ways in which it does, involves analyzing the discourses, practices and institutions that shape the representations of body, identity and society. Clothing, in its relation to the body, can be conceived as dialectic rather than as a metaphor. If, in opposition to substantialism (Carpio, 2003), things cannot be considered in themselves but only in terms of their relations, it is possible to conceive the biological body as the thesis and clothing as the anti-thesis, the synthesis of which would be body image or images. In this line of thought, it can be ventured that clothing may be a constituent part of the body image that we form of ourselves, reason because it also would integrate the identity of subjects and intervene in the regulation of social exchanges that individuals establish with others and with their environment. The study of the specific ways in which clothing is involved in the relationships that individuals establish with their surroundings and society can be enriched from different disciplinary perspectives and under the scrutiny of various methods of analysis. All these lines of analysis will be stimulating and appropriate for the planned study. In this respect, this assay attempts to register a particular bibliographic tour, among many possible others, that is concerned with the issue under study and report on the significant contributions that may be useful for investigations of this nature. Un doubtedly, this task has an initial character and will achieve its full significance once the contributions collected are tested in the fieldwork. <![CDATA[The comparative psychological study of perception of intonation contours for declarative and interrogative sentences]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Si bien existen numerosas investigaciones sobre la percepción del lenguaje en recién nacidos, la percepción de la entonación en adultos y la Psicología Comparada del lenguaje, son muy escasos los estudios en cuanto a la percepción de los contornos de entonación declarativo e interrogativo con bebés, y los estudios sobre este mismo tema en modelos animales son al parecer inexistentes. En este artículo se plantean los fundamentos del estudio comparado de la percepción de dichos contornos de entonación en bebés y en animales. En primer término se discute acerca de la composición del lenguaje y el enfoque de estudio psicolingüístico comparado. A continuación se tratan los temas de la isocronía y de los contornos de entonación declarativo e interrogativo, argumentando que en ambos casos existe un alto grado de universalidad. Finalmente se analizan los alcances del tipo de estudio propuesto, indicando su viabilidad y pertinencia.<hr/>One of today's most influential theories of language development and acquisition assumes that the human faculty of language is made-up of three components: syntax, phonology, and semantics. Of these components, the syntactic one may be exclusive of humans, while some specific aspects of the semantic and phonological ones may be not. One implication of this division of the language faculty is that aspects of the semantic and phonological systems could also be found in non-human animals, with their function not necessarily being related to communication. Even though not all the scientific community accepts such explanation of the components of the language faculty, diverse academic groups that do so, have been doing research with humans, non-human primates, rodents, birds, and even with cats, for the last 25 years or so. Usually, the purpose of this type of studies has been to determine what human capacities related to speech have emerged from different precursor systems that were already present in ancestral species, and would have been inherited by men, which components of language are specifically human, which are specifically linguistic, and which ones could be domain-general mechanisms or have served originally for other purposes. Several of these studies imply the existence of a universal division of languages according to rhythmic considerations, known as isochrony. According to this concept, each natural language possesses stable units of constant duration that occur regularly, making it sound in a particular way. But isochrony is not the only universal language feature that can constitute a valid variable in this sort of study. Some characteristics of intonation may also be. Specifically the declarative and interrogative intonation contours, which have been considered a universal phenomenon present in comparable ways in all natural languages. In this regard, though in the different languages of the world the distinction between declaratives and interrogatives can be marked by means of morphsyntactic modifications and intonation, not be marked by intonation, or be only marked by intonation, it is believed that there is a universal tendency to use rising intonation contours to indicate questions (especially in the case of unemphatic yes / no questions) and falling intonation contours to indicate statements. This phenomenon would be related to certain non-linguistic universal codes shared by the human broad phylum, and derived from biologically determined relations. However, while there are numerous investigations in the newborns' and infants' general speech perception processes, in perception of intonation of declarative and interrogative sentences in adults, and in Comparative Psychology of language, studies with infants and newborns in terms of the discrimination of questions and statements are insufficient, and studies on this topic on animal models are, as far as we know, non-existent. In this paper we theoretically validate the comparative study of the perception of intonation contours for questions and statements in infants and in non human animals. We conclude that is feasible and relevant to increase the study of the infants' perception of declarative and interrogative intonation contours, with meaningful variations with respect to the experiments already done, such as the length of the utterances, the type of speech register, the words order, the use of grammatical auxiliaries, the ages of the participants, and the experimental methods. Moreover, it is also desirable to make that same kind of perceptual studies of intonation on animal models, such as rats, birds and monkeys. Pursuing these objectives would make it possible to deepen the knowledge about the language components that are unique for humans and those that are shared with other species. It also could shed some light on the form-function relationships in the phonological component of the language, and about the linguistic universals and precursors. <![CDATA[Relations between decoding, lexical-semantic knowledge and inferences in primary school children]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt La comprensión lectora es un complejo proceso que se asienta en tres habilidades básicas interrelacionadas: la decodificación, el conocimiento léxico-semántico y los procesos de integración textual. Investigaciones previas han indicado que las dificultades en la comprensión lectora pueden deberse a la decodificación ineficaz, las carencias en el conocimiento léxico-semántico y los problemas para realizar inferencias. Los objetivos del trabajo que se informa fueron estudiar las relaciones entre las habilidades de la comprensión lectora y estudiar la contribución de las habilidades de decodificación y del conocimiento léxico-semántico, a la realización de inferencias textuales. Participaron 94 niños de escolaridad primaria de 8 a 10 años de edad. Se administraron las subpruebas de Identificación de Letras y de Procesos Léxicos de la Batería de Evaluación de los Procesos Lectores (Cuetos, Rodríguez, Ruano & Arribas, 2010), la adaptación del Subtest de Vocabulario de la Escala de Inteligencia de Wechsler para Niños de Contini, Figueroa, Cohen Imach y Coronel de Pace (2000) y las Tareas de Inferenciasde Cain y Oakhill (Canet Juric & Burin, 2006). Los resultados indicaron correlaciones moderadas a altas y significativas entre las habilidades lectoras. Las habilidades de decodificación y conocimiento léxico-semántico explicaron el 51% de las inferencias, pero la única que realizó una contribución significativa fue el conocimiento léxico. En el caso de las inferencias puente, el conjunto de las variables explicó el 48% de éstas y en el de las elaborativas, el 45%. En ambos casos, el único predictor que hizo una contribución significativa fue el conocimiento léxico. En conclusión, las habilidades lectoras se hallan relacionadas y el vocabulario es un componente básico para las habilidades de mayor nivel como las inferencias.<hr/>Reading comprehension is a complex process which lies upon three interrelated basic skills: decoding, lexical semantic knowledge and word to-text integration processes. Decoding entails the reader’s ability to recognize grapheme-phoneme correspondence. Lexical semantic knowledge refers to the knowledge of words in a given language, and it includes both word identification, i.e., visual processing of the graphemes’ shapes and lexical activation; and semantic awareness, i.e., knowledge of meaning. Decoding and lexical semantic knowledge are deemed as pertaining to a lower level in relation to integration, in which category we include such skills as inference - generation. Previous research, notably in England, the United States of America and Argentina, has shown that difficulties in reading comprehension may be due to faulty decoding, poor lexical semantic knowledge and inference making failures. Although each of these skills is necessary to achieve comprehension, none of them alone can guarantee it. It is considered that decoding and lexical knowledge are associated skills, and influence each other. The effects of decoding in text comprehension are mediated by knowledge about the meaning of words and the effects of comprehension in decoding depend on the achievement of sufficient word meanings. Thus, the aims of this paper were to study the relations among reading comprehension skills and to study how decoding skills and lexical semantic knowledge contribute to inference-making generation. In broad terms, the hypotheses were reading comprehension skills are interrelated and decoding skills and lexical knowledge are significant predictors of inference-making generation. This survey was conducted among 94 primary school children of an average age of 8 to 10 years old. They were given the Letter Recognition and Lexical Processes Tests from the PROLEC Test Battery, the Vocabulary Subtest from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and the Inference-making Ability Assessments from Cain and Oakhill (Canet Juric & Burin, 2006). Results have shown that in the decoding assessment, the highest number of errors and correct answers are found in pseudo word reading. Regarding lexical knowledge, the highest average of right answers is found in word reading. As regards word-to-text integration, the average number of inferences incorrectly drawn is 14.62. Since the tests we used measured right and wrong answers, indices of decoding and lexical knowledge were created. Moreover, our findings suggest significant and moderate-to-strong relations among reading comprehension skills. Decoding skills and lexical semantic knowledge have accounted for 51% of inferences. However, lexical knowledge alone has made the most significant contribution. The set of variables has accounted for 48% of coherence inferences and 45% of elaborative inferences. The only significant predictor of both types of inference-making was lexical knowledge. To conclude, as posited by international research and our first hypothesis, comprehension skills are interrelated. Taking into consideration our second hypothesis, our findings suggest that comprehension skills account for inference-making generation and that lexical knowledge reveals itself as a predictor of the children’s potential ability for inference-making. In other words, vocabulary is a basic component of more complex skills such as inference. This is consistent with what international research suggests. As regards the performance of the general sample in the assessed comprehension skills, it resembles that of the child population of the same age, surveyed in Tucumán and in. Taking into consideration the way in which comprehension skills relate to and affect each other could allow us to develop intervention programs which would help improve the performance of children who demonstrate text comprehension difficulties. <![CDATA[Neuropsychological, biographic, psychological, familiar, and communities differences between female and male adolescents with and without conduct disorder]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El objetivo del estudio que se informa fue comparar un grupo de adolescentes de ambos sexos que cumplían los criterios diagnósticos de trastorno disocial (TD), entre sí y con respecto a un grupo de adolescentes de ambos sexos sin TD, en un conjunto de variables neuropsicológicas, biográficas, psicológicas / conductuales, familiares y comunitarias. Asimismo, se comparó la frecuencia general y específica de las conductas disociales reportadas por los participantes con TD. Todos los participantes tenían entre 11 y 18 años de edad. Los adolescentes con TD (60 varones y 11 mujeres) fueron seleccionados en tres instituciones reeducativas de libertad vigilada, mientras que los adolescentes sin TD (74 varones y 25 mujeres), en un centro de capacitación laboral para adolescentes de escasos recursos. Las mujeres con TD reportaron castigos físicos severos más frecuentemente que los varones con TD, aunque a una edad mayor que éstos, presentando mayores puntuaciones en Neuroticismo y menores en Retroalimentación personal, así como una frecuencia mayor de conductas disociales. Las comparaciones por sexo revelaron que tanto los varones como las mujeres con TD, comparados con los adolescentes sin TD, presentaron puntuaciones más altas en Extroversión y un mayor consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, cambios y expulsiones escolares, escapadas del hogar, pensamientos suicidas y una menor edad de consumo de marihuana. Sin embargo, las mujeres con TD evidenciaron puntuaciones mayores en Machismo y menores en Empatía, Fluidez fonémica y Retroalimentación personal. Estos resultados sugieren más dificultades entre las adolescentes con TD que deberían considerarse en la evaluación y el tratamiento.<hr/>Gender differences in risk behaviors for health, risk factors and symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) have not been sufficiently investigated, although knowledge of these differences help define more effective strategies for assessment, prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to compare a group of male and female adolescents who met the diagnostic criteria of CD, among themselves and with respect to a group of male and female adolescents without CD, on a set of neuropsychological, biographical, psychological / behavioral, family and community variables identified in the specialized literature. Also, the general and specific frequency of antisocial behavior was compared between participants with CD. All participants were between 11 and 18 years old, with a mean of 16 years, and living in low socioeconomic neighborhoods. Adolescents with CD, 60 males and 11 females, were selected in three re-educational institutions of probation, while adolescents without CD, 74 males and 25 females, were selected in a job training center for low-income teenagers. The two groups did not differ significantly in age, sex and socioeconomic status. The instruments used were: Color-word Test (Golden, 1994), Neuropsychological Assessment of Children (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solís, 2007), Self-Report Questionnaire of Partner Violence Incidents (Rey-Anacona, 2008), Spanish Version of Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Echeburúa & de Corral, 1998), Depression Inventory (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1983), Masculinity and Femininity Inven tory (Lara, 1993), Scale of Empathy (Martorell, González& Calvo, 1998), Eysenck Personality Inventory (Eysenck, H. J. & Eysenck, S. G. B., 1984), Questionnaire of Child and Adolescent Self-Control (Capafons & Silva, 2001), Brief Questionnaire for Diagnosing Attention Deficit (Pineda et al., 1999) and two questionnaires developed in the research, reviewed by judges on methodology and content. An observational, descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional design was used, involving both adolescents and their mothers, implemented the following statistical tests: (a) t-test for two independent samples and effect size (Cohen's d) for interval and ratio variables, (b) Mann Whitney Ufor ordinal variables, and (c) Ji Square and Odds Ratio for nominal variables. Women with CD reported severe physical punishment more frequently than men with CD, although at an older age, and they showed higher scores on Neuroticism, and lower on Personal Feedback, as well as a higher frequency of antisocial behaviors, both aggressive and covert, and difficulties at work as a result of such conducts. Comparisons by sex revealed both men and women with CD, compared to adolescents without CD, had higher scores on Extraversion, and increased consumption of psychoactive substances, school changes and expulsions, runaways, suicidal thoughts and younger of marijuana. However, women with CD showed higher scores on Machismo, and minor in Empathy, Personal Feedback, and Phonemic Fluency than women without CD, while the mothers of men with CD reported most frequently gangs in their place of residence. These results suggest that women with CD may have a higher frequency of antisocial behaviors and antisocial profiles similar or more severe than male adolescents with CD, and both males and females have a high frequency of conditions and behaviors that undermine their physical and mental health, which may worsen prognosis, aspects that should be considered in the evaluation and treatment. They also suggest that greater importance should be provided to treatment alternatives that minimize the effect of multiple risk behaviors for physical and mental health that demonstrate these adolescents. <![CDATA[Developmental items of the Two Human Figures Test in a sample of yaqui indian children: A normative study]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Los objetivos del estudio que se informa fueron analizar las propiedades psicométricas del Test del Dibujo de Dos Figuras Humanas - Madurativo (T2F-M) de Maganto y Garaigordobil (2009a) y obtener normas de este test en una muestra de 654 niños del grupo indígena yaqui (México) de 5 a 11 años de edad. El análisis de la validez se realizó a través del estudio evolutivo de los ítemes madurativos y de la correlación entre el funcionamiento de los niños en el T2F-M y el Test de Matrices Progresivas Coloreadas (MPC) de Raven (1993). En cuanto a la fiabilidad, se estudió la consistencia interna de los ítemes evolutivos y el acuerdo interevaluadores. Las normas específicas se compararon con las de Maganto y Garaigordobil (2009a) para determinar la adecuación de estas normas en la población yaqui. Los resultados indicaron: (a) diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el número total de ítemes madurativos según la edad de los niños, con un aumento en la media de ítemes presentes en los dibujos a medida que se incrementa su edad, (b) una correlación positiva significativa de baja a moderada entre el funcionamiento en el T2F-M y el MPC, (c) una consistencia interna muy alta entre los ítemes del test, (d) un acuerdo intercalificadores muy alto y (e) diferencias entre las normas de puntuación obtenidas en la muestra de niños yaquis y las de Maganto y Garaigordobil (2009a). Se concluye que el T2FM es útil para evaluar el nivel de madurez mental de los niños de esta comunidad indígena, pero con el uso de normas locales que aseguren la realización de interpretaciones correctas de las puntuaciones que obtienen estos niños.<hr/>The study aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the developmental items of the Two Human Figures Test (T2F-M - Maganto & Garaigordobil, 2009a) and to obtain standards of this test on a sample of 654 children from the Yaqui indigenous group (Mexico) between 5 and 11 years old. The validity analysis was performed using the developmental study of items and the correlation between the performance of children at T2F-M and the Coloured Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) (Raven, 1993). The internal consistency of developmental items and interrater agreement was studied to determine reliability. In order to obtain the T2F-M norms of the Yaqui children sample, the criterion of assignment of standardized scores of Maganto and Garaigordobil (2009a) was applied to the data obtained in this study, to each of the developmental items of both human figures (feminine and masculine) and for the different age groups. That is, items with a frequency of 85% or more were classified in category 1, items with a frequency between 84 and 50% in category 2, items with a frequency between 49 and 15% in category 3 and items with a frequency of 14% or less in category 4. Specific rules were compared with those of Maganto and Garaigordobil (2009a) in order to determine the suitability of these standards to the Yaqui population. The results on the psychometric qualities of the T2F-M indicate: (a) statistically significant differences in the total number of developmental items according to children's age [F(6, 654) = 100.374; p < .01], the mean of items present in the two drawings increases with children's age, from 27.52 for the 5 years old to 59.20 for the 11 years old, (b) significant positive correlation, low to moderate, between performance in the T2F-M and the CPM; in most age groups the correlation between T2F-M and the CPM was significant, positive and with low values (between .211 and .382), except for the age group of 7 years, where the correlation was not significant; considering the total sample, the correlation was positive and significant and presented a moderate value (.608); (c) high internal consistency among test items; Cronbach Alpha coefficients and Spearman-Brown in the different age groups ranging from high (.814) and very high (.922); in the total sample, both coefficients were very high (.950 and .939, respectively), (d) high interrater agreement (.993). Regarding the second objective of this work, obtaining specific rules in the T2F-M and comparing them with those of Maganto and Garaigordobil (2009a), the results show a decrease in developmental items of categories 1 and 2 and an increase of items in categories 3 and 4 in the sample of Yaqui children when compare with Maganto and Garaigordobil (2009a) standards. These differences indicate that the use of Maganto and Garaigordobil (2009a) scoring rules of the T2F-M is not adequate to establish interpretations of Yaqui children performance in this test because, in all age groups, the use of these norms under -estimates their performance. In general terms, the Yaqui children of this sample drew less T2F-M elements in their drawings of feminine and masculine human figures, than did the Spanish children sample of Maganto and Garaigordobil (2009a). We conclude that T2F-M is useful in assessing the level of conceptual maturity of the indigenous community children, but only the use of local rules can ensure the correct interpretations of the scores obtained by these children. <![CDATA[Discrimination and victimization against gay men and lesbians in Chile: Two patterns or just one?]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt La marcha por el Orgullo Lésbico, Gay, Bisexual y Transgénero se realiza cada año en Santiago de Chile y aglutina a minorías sexuales, pero también a heterosexuales que asisten para apoyar a dicha población en la reinvindación de sus derechos. Específicamente, el propósito del estudio realizado fue describir a gay y lesbianas participantes en la Marcha del Orgullo desde el punto de vista de la discriminación y la victimización. Se centró solo en dicha población ya que mayoritariamente es la que asiste a la marcha y porque no existen estudios previos que comparen en el país a ambos grupos. Además, tuvo como objetivo mostrar que los hombres gay sufren más discriminación y victimización que las lesbianas. La muestra consistió en 203 gay y lesbianas mayores de 18 años. Con respecto a los resultados, la proporción de gay que reportaron haber percibido eventos de discriminación fue igual al 72.7% y 79.6% en las lesbianas. Asimismo, el 81.8% del total de los gay reportaron eventos de victimización y un 75.3% del total de las lesbianas. Se observan diferencias significativas entre gay y lesbianas, afectando solo a las últimas, en la prohibición de entrada o permanencia en lugares de entretención, discriminación ejercida por agentes de seguridad y discriminación laboral. Entre los eventos de victimización, gay informaron más burlas que las lesbianas. Se concluye que hay similaridades en los eventos de discriminación y victimización percibidos por gay y lesbianas, pero también algunas diferencias. La existencia de un patrón diferenciado entre gay y lesbianas deberá ser confirmada en futuros estudios.<hr/>The Lesbian, Gay men, Bisexual and Trans -gender (LGBT) Pride Parade takes place in Santiago (Chile) every year. It gathers sexual minorities and also heterosexuals who attend to support LGBT population rights vindication. Specifically, the objective of the study was to describe gay men and lesbians who participate in the LGBT Pride Parade, from the viewpoint of discrimination and victimization. In this sense, this study is innovating because it is based on questionnaires administered in the context of LGBT Pride Parades. In Chile, data on this issue are scarce. There are few previous studies on the topic, revealing that many LGBT people report discrimination and victimization in different situations and contexts. Nevertheless, these studies have not clearly stated the existing differences in the patterns of discrimination and victimization events that affect the different groups (for example, those that affect gay men and lesbians). So, the study focused only on this population for two reasons: first, mainly LGBT subjects attend the parade and secondly, there were no previous studies to compare both groups in the country. Second, the study also aimed at showing that gay men suffer greater discrimination and victimization than lesbians. A non-probabilistic sample of 343 participants was collected. From this sample, 140 subjects were excluded as they did not identify themselves as gay men or lesbians, thus totaling a sample of 203 participants. There were a total of 110 gay men (54.2%) and 93 lesbians (45.8%), aging from 18 to 53 years (M = 24.62 and SD = 6.62). Concerning results, 72.7% of gay men reported discrimination events perceived, as compared to 79.6% of lesbians. In addition, 81.8% of gay men reported victimization events, while lesbians reported 75.3 %. Significant differences are observed between gay men and lesbians, affecting only the latter in: prohibition to enter or stay in entertainment venues, discrimination by security guards, and discrimination at work. Among victimization events, gays reported more mockery than lesbians. This study has various implications. One of them is the fact that an important place where gay men and particularly lesbians are discriminated is their workplace. Future studies will have to focus on investigating the impact of discrimination due to sexual orientation in a work context. In addition, future studies should further examine whether verbal mockery-type victimization and its impact on the gay men population is a common pattern of victimization toward the country's LGBT population. Likewise, it would be necessary to study whether other relevant dimensions in the country, such as social class and religion, contribute to experiencing this type of victimization. Also, there are therapists in Chile who consider homosexuality as an illness and apply reconversive therapies, thus contributing to stigmatization and violence toward sexual minorities. Therefore, this study may contribute to the training of future therapists and health personnel assisting gay men and lesbians since sexual minorities have reported that they face various barriers that prevent them from having equal access to health services, a fact that could have a great impact on their quality of life. Finally, considering the differences in discrimination and victimization found between gay men and lesbians in Chile: Do gay men experience more discrimination and victimization events than lesbians? Are there two different patterns of discrimination and victimization or, instead, a general one that affects both gay men and lesbians in Chile? Data are not conclusive. They indicate that there are many similarities in the discrimination and victimization events perceived by gay men and lesbians, but they also reveal two different patterns. Therefore, the existence of a differentiated pattern of discrimination and victimization between gay men and lesbians should be confirmed by future studies.