Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1668-702720140001&lang=pt vol. 31 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[National identity and its relationship with social dominance and tolerance transgression in Buenos Aires' residents (Argentina)]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El objetivo del estudio que se informa fue describir y analizar los componentes de la identidad nacional argentina y su relación con la orientación de la dominancia social (ODS) y la tolerancia a la transgresión normativa. Para tal fin, se realizaron encuestas a 170 sujetos que residían en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y el Conurbano Bonaerense (República Argentina). Los resultados evidencian un grado de identificación medio-alto con la categoría social argentino, a la vez que muestran una autoestima colectiva medio-alta. Los atributos autoestereotípicos que conforman la identidad nacional comprenden tres dimensiones: argentino positivo, argentino negativo y argentino avivado. Esta última dimensión fue la que presentó mayor consenso entre los participantes, lo que sugiere que la viveza es percibida como una interface entre lo negativo y lo positivo por sus características adaptativas y funcionales. Los resultados muestran además que la ODS se relaciona inversamente con los componentes positivos, y directamente con los componentes negativos de la identidad nacional, lo que lleva a pensar que el ser argentino no necesariamente se vincula con el estatus o poder en personas dominantes. Finalmente, en relación con la tolerancia a la transgresión, los niveles de acuerdo con la misma son bajos en la muestra. Las caracterizaciones del argentino negativo y argentino avivado se vinculan con la tolerancia hacia ciertos comportamientos transgresores, especialmente con aquellos considerados menos graves y que no perjudican directamente a terceros.<hr/>From early beginnings of the last century, the stereotypes and categorizations about the Argentineans where predominantly negative, both for foreigners as for Argentineans themselves (D’adamo & García Beaudoux, 1994). This lack of a positive nationalism has been related to the lack of adherence to the norm and corruption, as well as to the bias towards the European countries shown by the Argentinean society and its members. This negative social self-concept among Argentineans is not unique in the region, in fact, a study carried out in the 90’s revealed that most of Latin American countries had negative national identities (Salazar, J. M. & Salazar, M. A., 1998). However, more recent studies carried out in countries such as Peru or Mexico suggest that there might be a shift in some aspects of their national identities, from a mainly negative one to a more ambivalent one, with some positive and some negative aspects. Some of these studies also evidenced certain relations between the national identity and other psychosocial variables such as the social dominance orientation (SDO) and the political ideology. Both high levels of SDO and a right wing political ideology had a negative impact on the different components of the national identity. These results may enlighten the study of the national identity in Argentina, that’s why the aim of this study was to describe and analyze some components of the Argentinean national identity and their relationship to SDO and tolerance towards transgressive behaviors. To this end, a survey with 170 residents in Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires and its surroundings was carried out. Results showed middle-high levels of identification and collective self-esteem related to the Argentinean social category. The national self-stereotypes that conform Argentinean identity were gathered in three dimensions: Positive argentine, Negative argentine, and Crafty argentine. The last dimension was the most consensual among participants, suggesting that craftiness is perceived as an interface between the negative and positive self-stereotype dimensions, because of its functionality and adaptability characteristics. The results also showed that the SDO was inversely related to the positive dimension, and directly related to the negative dimension of national identity, which suggests that the Argentine social category is not linked to status or power in dominant people. Finally, scores of tolerance toward normative transgression were low in the sample. However, negative argentine and crafty argentine dimensions were more tolerant toward transgressor behaviors that could be considered less serious and not harmful to others. The results confirm the negative relation between the SDO and the positive national identity, although the causes of this relation are yet to be studied. The research also suggests that there might be a shift in some of the components and expressions of the national identity. As well as in other countries of Latin America, this shift is characterized for its ambivalence between some positive aspects and other negative ones. Perhaps this ambivalence is best characterized by the craftiness, where the negative aspects of norm transgression and individualism meet the positive aspects of social warmth, adaptability and creativity. As for further investigations, it’s important to study how the different national identities interact with specific scenarios, and how this interaction has an impact on the individual behavior. Altogether, this kind of research helps to understand the national identity more deeply, and therefore, enlighten us to make a positive change in order to develop a healthy social identity, based on mutual trust and respect. <![CDATA[Letter learning in preschool children growing in poverty]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El trabajo que se informa se propuso explorar las diferencias individuales en las habilidades asociadas al aprendizaje de letras en 50 niños de 5 años de edad y de nivel socioeconómico bajo. Motivó este estudio la evidencia existente acerca de las dificultades que el dominio de las letras representa para parte de los niños en contextos de pobreza. A fin de identificar las variables que diferenciaban a los niños con mayor o menor facilidad para el aprendizaje de letras, se administraron pruebas que evalúan sensibilidad fonológica, memoria visual, memoria fonológica y denominación rápida. A continuación, se llevó adelante una situación experimental de aprendizaje de letras desconocidas, a las que se asignaron pseudo -nombres elaborados en base a las características de los nombres de las letras en español. En dos sesiones se presentaron cuatro letras (dos por sesión) y se evaluó la capacidad de los niños para reconocerlas por su nombre. En función del desempeño en la situación de aprendizaje de letras se dividió al grupo en niños con alto y bajo nivel de desempeño y se comparó a los subgrupos en las restantes habilidades evaluadas. La única tarea en la que se obtuvieron diferencias significativas fue en la prueba de denominación rápida de objetos, tarea que capturaría el componente de asociación visual-verbal del aprendizaje de letras. Se analizan las implicancias educativas de estos hallazgos.<hr/>Together with phonological sensitivity, letter knowledge has been shown to be one of the best predictors of reading acquisition (Lerväg, Bratën & Hulme, 2009; Muter, Hulme, Snowling & Stevenson, 2004). But letter learning represents a considerable challenge for many children growing in poverty contexts, as evidenced by studies conducted with both selected and unselected samples of different ages (Diuk, Serrano & Ferroni, 2013; Duncan & Seymour, 2000). Even though letter knowledge has been largely attributed to experiential factors such as learning opportunities provided by a child's home or school, there is growing evidence that individual differences in several cognitive and linguistic variables are related to the ease with which children learn letter names or sounds. This paper aimed at exploring letter learning in 50 Argentine, 5-year-old children growing in poverty. Children were tested towards the end of their kindergarten year. An experimental training situation was adapted from Levin, Shatil-Carmon and Asif-Rave (2006). In this situation children were presented with unknown letters (letters from the Cyrillic alphabet). Pseudonames for these letters were created attending to the characteristics of letter names in Spanish. Training involved a card game consisting of a mixed pile of letter cards and picture cards. In each round of the game, the child uncovered one card after the other from the pile and, when a letter card turned up, he or she was asked to provide the letter's name. Children were presented with four letters, two per session. A point was awarded when the child could accurately name each letter. In order to identify cognitive and linguistic variables which might establish individual differences among children in the ease of acquiring letter names, before the training situation children were given tests evaluating phonological sensitivity (syllable and initial sound recognition), phonological memory (digit span and pseudoword repetition), visual memory and rapid naming (RAN) of objects, colors and digits. Based on the scores in the letter learning situation, two subgroups of children were established. The high- and the low - performing subgroups were then compared on the cognitive and linguistic variables previously examined. No differences between groups were obtained in either phonological sensitivity test, in phonological memory (digit span or pseudoword repetition) or visual memory. Statistically significant differences were only found in the rapid naming of objects (results from the rapid naming of colors and digits tests were excluded from analyses given that a high percentage of the sample could not name all five colors or numbers included in the task). The precise cognitive substrate tapped by rapid naming tasks has given rise to considerable debate in the field of Reading Psychology, but there is a growing consensus that these tasks probably capture the efficiency of basic neural mechanisms participating in the establishment of visual-verbal associations (Lervåg & Hulme, 2009). In terms of educational implications, rapid naming has proven to be hard to improve (de Jong & Vrielink, 2004). However, abilities strongly associated with RAN, such as reading fluency, can be enhanced through practice, even if rapid naming itself doesn't improve. RAN performance could consequently be considered an indication of the intensity of the intervention a child will need to achieve learning. Given that many low-income children have few opportunities for learning letter names and sounds in their communities, the fact that current kindergarten curricula do not include teaching letters may put many children in the situation of having to acquire alphabet knowledge in a short period of time once they enter 1st grade. Individual differences in rapid naming can thus be expected to play a role in the ease with which children learn in such a demanding context. <![CDATA[Playful transformations: A preliminary study on type of play and type of setting]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt En la actualidad las modalidades lúdicas de los niños se han ido modificando. En las últimas décadas, en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires se han producido cambios en los espacios lúdicos, que llevan a los niños a realizar cada vez más actividades en espacios privados o semipúblicos, haciendo variar su manera de jugar. El objetivo del estudio que se informa fue describir y analizar las transformaciones lúdicas, a partir de los juegos de los niños, los espacios y la percepción, y el recuerdo de personas pertenecientes a distintas generaciones. Participaron 516 sujetos de estrato social medio, agrupados en cuatro franjas de edad: niños, adolescentes, jóvenes y adultos y se les administró el Cuestionario Semiestructurado sobre Juegos (Stefani, Andrés & Oanes, 2010). Los datos obtenidos fueron clasificados de acuerdo a los diferentes tipos de juegos y espacios lúdicos, a fin de describir semejanzas y diferencias entre las respuestas dadas por los diferentes grupos de la muestra. Además se calcularon frecuencias y porcentajes de los juegos y de los espacios predominantes por edad. A fin de evaluar la asociación entre las variables tipo de juegos y tipo de espacios con las distintas franjas de edad, se aplicó la prueba de independencia de atributos chi-cuadrado. Los resultados permiten observar que los juegos se fueron transformando junto con los espacios donde se desarrollan, llevando a los niños a realizar sus prácticas cada vez más puertas adentro.<hr/>Nowadays, children’s play culture has changed. Over the last few decades, in Buenos Aires City, there have been many changes in play settings, which lead children to carry out activities in private or semi-public environments, modifying the way in which they play. Children’s play, understood as a space where children formerly trained their different skills, is being increasingly influenced by new technologies. At the same time, these new environments allow children to have new experiences. Children’s play has been changing as time goes by; some games have been passed down, such as traditional games; some others have been modified, for example role-playing, and others have disappeared or tend to do so. Digital options for children, which offer play and interactivity, are fully in line with the logic of consumption and they vary according to social economical level. New generations incorporate these tools since their childhood, modifying childlike habits which held good for decades. We find that some decades ago, children used to play group games outdoors, on the streets around their neighborhood, at parks or at sport centers. Games such as elastics, hide and seek, skipping the rope, etc. were played on a daily basis while an adult was looking after the children. Nowadays, due to insecurity in the streets, children play indoors, in closed environments, or in private or institutional settings, and they play individually. The objective in conducting this study was to describe and analyze the changes in play habits which have been taking place, from information taken from research on children’s play, play settings, and perception and recollection from subjects belonging to different generations. In this study, 516 participants belonging to the middle class in Buenos Aires City (Argentina), who were grouped in four age ranges: young children, adolescents, young adults and adults, were given a semi-structured questionnaire (Stefani, Andrés & Oanes, 2010). About play formats N and A which has been devised to build up knowledge about different types of play and play settings across generations. The constant comparison method was used to classify the obtained data into different types of play and play settings, in order to describe similarities and differences among the answers given by each study group. Furthermore, frequencies, averages, mean, median, and standard deviation prevailing in each age group were drawnfromthat. Statistically significant proof tests were per -ormed: analysis of factor variance for the variable Type of play, and Chi-square Attribute Independence Test for the variable Type of setting. The results allow us to observe that play habits have been changing together with the places where they are developed, leading children to carry out their playful activities primarily indoors. Traditional games are shared by all generations, with slight variations, but without altering their essence, many of them consist of physical play like chase (chasing games), and hide and seek. Pretend / role-play has changed, as children use technology to play, increasingly incorporating electronic devices that grown-ups use for their work and social activities. In this way it is observed that play reflects and reproduces society. We are in a moment of transition, changes in play habits and settings will make an impact on the way new generations build emotional and social skills. This leads us to think that this moment of transition, or experience crisis, comprises new possibilities, but at the same time, new risks such as individualism, isolation, negation of the other as a fellow human being, as the use of technology is basically an individual activity. A new virtual agora has been incorporated, with a new social order in which children are just one click away from socializing and opening the door to go out to play. <![CDATA[Global belief in a just world: Validation of the Lipkus Scale in university students from city of Buenos Aires]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El objetivo principal del trabajo que se informa fue adaptar y validar la Escala de Creencia Global en un Mundo Justo (Global Belief in a Just World Scale - GBJWS) de Lipkus (1991) en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Se administró un instrumento de evaluación a 328 estudiantes con edades entre 18 y 40 años (M = 24.1;DT = 3.88), de los cuales el 36.6% eran hombres (n = 120) y el 63.4% mujeres (n = 208). Los resultados obtenidos sugieren adecuadas propiedades psicométricas de la escala GBJWS en la muestra con la que se trabajó. Los análisis realizados confirman la unidimensionalidad de la escala. Asimismo, las puntuaciones en la GBJWS se relacionan positivamente con el autoritarismo del ala de derecha (Right Wing Authoritarianism -RWA), la orientación a la dominancia social (Social Dominance Orientation - SDO)y negativamente con el autoposicionamiento ideológico político. Se considera que el estudio realizado abre una línea de investigación que permite la indagación sistemática de la creencia global en un mundo justo en contextos hispanoparlantes a partir de la construcción de una medida confiable y válida para el contexto argentino. Se recomienda la realización de futuros estudios que utilicen la GBJW en poblaciones diferentes a la estudiada, para así avanzar con respecto a la generalización y representatividad de los resultados presentados en este trabajo.<hr/>The researches on the Belief in a Just World (BJW) started in the 60’ with the experimental studies carried out by Lerner (Lerner, 1965, 1980; Lerner & Clayton, 2011; Lerner & Simmons, 1966). Those studies pointed out that social injustices are frightening for individuals, therefore they need to belief that everyone gets what deserve during his or her life to maintain the control over their environment. If people do not believes that things happen as consequences of their acts, they will feel exposed to undesirable situations that today happen to others, but tomorrow could happen to them. Then, to deny this threat, they blame the victims of injustice, attributing to them the responsibility for their suffering. During the last decades, different studies have shown that individuals from different cultures around the world believe that the world is a just place, and the relations between this belief and socio-political factors (Furnham, 1993, 1998, 2003). In this vein, the system justification theory proposes that the BJW, together with the social dominance orientation (SDO; Jost & Hunyady, 2005; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth & Malle, 1994), contributes to support and rationalize the social order denying social injustices by appealing to the merit of the dominant social groups. Moreover, there are evidence that the BJW is positively associated to right wing authoritarianism (RWA- Altemeyer, 1996; Dalbert & Yamauchi, 1994; Moore, 2008) and political ideology self positioning (PI -Schlenker, Chambers & Le, 2012). The aim of this paper is to adapt and validate a Spanish version of the Global Belief in a Just World Scale (GBJWS) by Lipkus (1991) in a sample of university students. Hence, a self-reported questionnaire was administered to 328 university students of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (Argentina) aged between 18 and 40 years old (M = 24.1, SD = 3.88), 36.6% were male (n = 120) and 63.4% female (n = 208). Besides, 61.28% of the participants studied Psychology and the remaining 38.72% studied Sociology, both at the University of Buenos Aires. Firstly a descriptive analysis of the items was performed. Secondly, the reliability of the scale was tested studding its internal consistence (<img border=0 width=22 height=11 src="/img/revistas/interd/v31n1/a04n1.gif"> .83). Simultaneously, the construct validity was test by an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, the validity of criteria was studied by analyzing the relations between the GBJW, RWA, SDO, and PI. The results suggest adequate psychometric properties of the GBJWS in this sample of university students and verified the unidimensionality of the scale (X²(df) = 54,01(14); S-B X²(df) = 41,77(14); S-B X² / (df) = 2,98; NNFI = .93; CFI = .96; <img border=0 width=8 height=16 src="/img/revistas/interd/v31n1/a04n2.gif">2= .96; RMSEA = .08). Furthermore, GBJWS was positively associated with RWA (r = .35; p < .01), SDO (r = .36; p < .01) and negatively with PI (r = -.37; p < .01). It is considered that this paper contributes to the measuring of the GBJW since presents an adaptation and validation of ascale that wasn’t available in Spanish. This study had been done with a university sample because the construction and following adaptations of the original scales were made in such population (Bègue, 2002; Dalbert, Lipkus, Sallay, & Goch, 2001; O`Connor, Morrison, T. & Morrison, M., 1996). The relations between political conservatism are coherent with the support of the status quo, since if the world is thought as a just place, there is no reason to transform it (Furnham, 2003; Jost & Hunyady, 2005). This study had been done with a university sample because the construction and following adaptations of the original scales were made in such population (Bègue, 2002; Dalbert, Lipkus, Sallay & Goch, 2001; O`Connor, Morrison, T. & Morrison, M., 1996). However, it’s necessary to point out that this limitation doesn’t allow the generalization of the results to a general population. Hence, it is recommended for future studies to consider other populations to improve the generalization and representatively of the results presented in this paper. <![CDATA[Double blind design and the use of psychological placebos in outcomes research in psychotherapy: Is it possible? A pilot feasibility study]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El uso de placebos y diseños a doble ciego ha cumplido un papel crucial en la investigación clínica en Medicina. Su aplicación a la investigación de resultados en psicoterapia ha sido controversial. Muchos autores niegan la posibilidad de su aplicación debido a que el terapeuta debería conocer la condición del procedimiento aplicado. Se presenta detalladamente un estudio en el que se utilizó un procedimiento placebo correspondiente a EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing- Desensibilización y Reprocesamiento por Movimientos Oculares) con un Diseño Experimental de Caso Único. Los objetivos fueron los siguientes: poner a prueba la viabilidad de la implementación de un placebo de tipo psicológico en EMDR y la aplicación de un diseño a doble ciego en el estudio de resultados en EMDR. Se seleccionaron tres pacientes que sufrían de Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático. Se estableció una línea de base de la sintomatología presentada. Luego, los sujetos fueron asignados aleatoriamente a tres condiciones experimentales durante tres sesiones: (a) aplicación del protocolo EMDR sin ningún tipo de estimulación con auriculares en silencio (placebo 1), (b) aplicación del protocolo EMDR con estimulación bilateral auditiva simultánea (no alternada) (placebo 2) y (c) aplicación del protocolo estándar de EMDR con estimulación auditiva bilateral alternada (tratamiento activo). Tales procedimientos resultaron igualmente creíbles para el paciente y para el terapeuta. Esto permitió el desarrollo de un diseño de investigación a doble ciego para la investigación de resultados en EMDR. Finalmente, se discuten algunas posibles aplicaciones e implicancias de la introducción del uso de placebos psicológicos y diseño a doble ciego en la investigación en psicoterapia.<hr/>Double blind design and placebos have been of crucial importance in medical clinical research. Their use in outcomes research in the field of psychotherapy has been controversial, though. Their feasibility in such case has been denied by many authors based on the assumption that the psychotherapist would need to know the nature of the applied procedure. In view of this, the author has conducted a pilot feasibility study on three subjects within the context of his doctoral dissertation. Said dissertation aims at establishing the role of alternating bilateral auditory stimulation in the processing of traumatic memories as used in the EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) technique. To such end, the EMDR basic principles and procedures are introduced -with particular attention to alternating bilateral auditory stimulation- and a pilot study using placebos during EMDR administration is presented in detail. The goals of this study are testing the feasibility of: (a) using a psychological placebo in EMDR therapy, and (b) applying a double blind design study in EMDR outcomes research. A single case experimental design was performed on three different patients suffering from PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). A symptomatology baseline was established through out three weekly sessions using the DTS (Davidson Trauma Scale) and the OQ-45.2 (Outcomes Questionnaire 45.2). First, three CDs were recorded -one with no sound at all (CD-1, silence condition); another one with auditory stimulation consisting of a tic-tac sound recorded in monaural condition, and reproduced simultaneously over both earphones at a rate of one beat per second (CD-2, monaural condition) and a third one with alternating bilateral auditory stimulation consisting of the exact same sound recorded in stereophonic condition, and reproduced alternatively over the left and right earphones (CD-3, stereo condition)-. At a second stage, these three experimental conditions were assigned randomly to the three subjects, who were administered: (a) EMDR protocol without any type of stimulation, with no sound coming out of the earphones using CD-1 (placebo 1), (b) EMDR protocol with simultaneous bilateral auditory stimulation using CD-2 (placebo 2), and (c) EMDR protocol with alternating bilateral auditory stimulation using CD-3 (active treatment). In all cases, the experimental conditions were implemented during three full sessions in which the CDs were reproduced for the subjects through earphones, instead of speakers, to ensure that the psychotherapist was unaware of the actual conditions. Subsequently, the standard EMDR protocol (i.e., with alternating bilateral auditory stimulation) was administered to each subject until the end of the treatment, determined either by the symptoms being resolved or the maximum of ten sessions being completed. As a result of this pilot study, the author concludes that the feasibility of using double blind studies and placebos in EMDR psychotherapy has indeed been established. Since no apparent difficulties in the administration of the placebos were detected during the study, the use of psychological placebos seems viable. Such procedure is equally credible for the patient as well as for the psychotherapist, which renders possible the development of a double blind design in EMDR outcomes research. It should be noted, though, that the credibility of the placebo was not formally assessed, but rather was perceived through the author’s informal observation. Developing assessment criteria and formal tools to evaluate the credibility of placebo procedures is advisable if future investigations on the subject are to be carried. Even though this study was conducted under a Single Case Experimental Design, the placebo procedure employed could be easily adapted for its use in between group’s designs. Finally, some of the possible applications and consequences regarding the introduction of placebos and double blind design in psychotherapy research are discussed. <![CDATA[Comprehension of narratives simulation through the Landscape model and the role of emotional inferences]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El propósito de este trabajo consistió en estudiar el rol de la generación de inferencias en la comprensión de textos narrativos; para ello se realizaron dos simulaciones con el Programa Landscape sobre un texto narrativo natural, una simulación con arreglo de inferencias emocionales y otra sin ellas, que se pusieron en relación con datos conductuales de sujetos, obtenidos del reconocimiento de las oraciones del texto y de su valoración o relevancia para la historial. Con este propósito, participaron 30 adultos universitarios. Leyeron la narración y posteriormente respondieron a un protocolo de reconocimiento y valoraciones de proposiciones del texto. A continuación se llevó a cabo un análisis de correlaciones y luego un análisis de regresión lineal empleando los valores de proposiciones predichas a partir de dos simulaciones, una simulación causal-referencial (sin emociones) y otra con implementación de inferencias emocionales, como variables predictoras, y los valores obtenidos de reconocimiento y valoración y/o relevancia para la historia, como variables dependientes. El análisis de correlación mostró que ambas simulaciones se asociaron con los valores de reconocimiento y valoración, aunque en mayor medida, la simulación con implementación de inferencias emocionales; pero el análisis de regresión detectó que únicamente la simulación con implementación de inferencias emocionales explicó los datos obtenidos de reconocimiento y valoración. Estos hallazgos sugieren que las inferencias emocionales juegan un rol de importancia en la comprensión de textos narrativos, ya que permiten que el lector focalice su atención hacia determinados puntos de la historia, que serán los nucleares o más importantes.<hr/>Text comprehension requires the construction of a coherent mental representation, integrating text information with previous knowledge. Several studies have suggested that the emotional states of characters need not be stated explicitly: readers can infer them as a consequence of the narrative situation, characters' goals, actions, and relations to other characters. This study investigated emotional inferences generation during reading using the simulation of a narrative text, carried out with the Landscape Program and assessing text sentence recognition and the relevance of the sentence to the story. This program is a connectionist model that represents comprehension as a changing landscape of activations of propositions along several reading cycles. This model proposes that, as the reader procedes through a text, propositions fluctuate in activation. That is, with each reading cycle, new propositions are activated, and activation values of current propositions change. In addition, the coactivation of propositions leads to the establishment of connections between them. Through these fluctuating activations, a memory representation of the text gradually and dynamically emerges. The peaks and valleys of this landscape represent the relative contribution of each proposition at any given point in the story, and are the base for the construction of a mental representation of the story. The aim of this work is to determine if comprehension of a narrative with emotional inferences is a better predictor of textual proposition recognition and its relevance to the story than comprehension of a narrative without emotional inference, using a program that simulates the comprehension process. In order to simulate the generation of emotional inferences, we used the Landscape Computational Model. For this purpose 30 participants, undergraduates (9 males -30%- and 21 women, with a mean age of 20.67 years, SD = 2.85), read a story and subsequently completed a proposition recognition and proposition relevance for the story protocol. Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were conducted. Two linear regression models were tested, both including propositional values of simulation with emotional inference and without emotional inferences as independent variables, one including proposition recognition as dependent variable, and the other including proposition relevance for the story as dependent variable. The Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the simulation of the story with emotional interference and the simulation of the story without emotional interference are related to proposition recognition and story relevance, although the relation between this values and the simulation based on emotional inference had better coefficients (r = .35, p < .01, and r = .38, p < .01 respectively) than the causal-referential simulation (r = .27, p < .05, and r = .28, p < .05 respectively). The linear regression analysis detected that only the simulation with emotional inference explained the variance of recognition data (<img border=0 width=6 height=16 src="/img/revistas/interd/v31n1/a06n1.gif"> = .45, p < .01) and the variance of the relevance to the story values (<img border=0 width=6 height=16 src="/img/revistas/interd/v31n1/a06n1.gif"> = .53, p < .01). These findings suggest that emotional inferences play an important role in the understanding of narratives texts; because they focus the reader's attention to certain important points of the story. That is, the realization of emotional inferences seems to intensify the attention that the reader devotes to the entire cycle (which includes the proposition that prompts the inference, and also those that are causally connected to it), facilitating its later recognition and relevance to the story. This intensified processing can be related to the role that characters' emotional reactions play in a narrative. <![CDATA[Psychometric assessment of a measure for social desirability for children]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El objetivo del estudio realizado fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de una medida de deseabilidad social (8 ítemes) para niños, elaborado en habla hispana (Lemos, 2005), y que se distingue por su brevedad, respaldo de la literatura científica, novedad y originalmente construido en habla hispana. El instrumento es particularmente relevante para la investigación que usa el auto-reporte como medida de recolección de datos en niños, la cual es muy frecuente en niños y adultos. Sin embargo, hay apenas algunos estudios en niños con este constructo en habla hispana, especialmente con el desarrollo de test para su medición. La validación original muestra propiedades psicométricas que posiblemente no son replicables por cuestiones metodológicas. Debido a la importancia de describir y cuantificar este constructo en población infantil, se evaluó su estructura interna (análisis factorial confirmatorio de grupo múltiple), validez de constructo (diferencias de edad y sexo) y confiabilidad (consistencia interna, KR-20 con modificación Horst) en una muestra peruana de 202 niños de nivel primario de una institución educativa pública, de educación regular. Los análisis mostraron que solo una dimensión retiene mejor la variancia de los ítemes (contrastando con la bidimensionalidad original), algunos ítemes tienen bajas correlaciones inter-ítem y cargas factoriales, la consistencia interna es baja, y que las correlaciones con la edad no siguieron el patrón esperado. Se discuten los resultados estructurales en el marco del sesgo producido por el fraseo de los ítemes y las diferencias metodológicas del estudio que se informa, aspectos que pueden influir en las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento.<hr/>The importance of the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures in children has been analyzed for several decades, with the development of instruments for children (eg, Crandall, V. C.,Crandall, V. J. & Katkovsky, 1965). This type of research is still ongoing and developing basic research (Haghighat, 2007), especially in the creation of short measures (Carifio, 1992; Haghghat, 2007) with good discrimination and masked within test battery for use in group research in children. However, research with this construct is more abundant in adults, and less common in children, especially in Latin America. May be the limitations in reading comprehension, development aspects in the recognition introspective cognitions and emotions, among other things, do not allow a deeper analysis and safety compared with adults. Also, in Spanish language, it is rare to find independent instruments that describe social desirability in children, but rather integrated into a multidimensional test (i.e., Eysenck, S. B. G. & Eysenck, H. J., 1973). One of the most important measures for social desirability speaking is developed in Hispanic context is the Children's Social Desirability Scale (EDESI -Lemos, 2005). This instrument has a particular relevance to psychological research, which calls attention to the impact of social desirability on reports that children make their own psychological attributes using questionnaires. Since EDESI can make an important psychometric contribution to quantify the social desirability in Hispanic children, ongoing evaluation of its psychometric properties have not only local value (i.e., relevant to the geographical region in which it was built) but also in the international context Hispanic. This study assess ed the replicability of results Lemos (2005), with this potential instrument of social desirability. Although some features of the study design Lemos not repeated here (e.g., distribution in different socioeconomic levels), the evidence obtained provides additional evidence in a rather partial replication framework. The sample consisted of 202 students from grade 4 to 6 (55% male and 45% female) primary level from a public educational institution of Lima, Perú, between 8 and 12 years old. For analysis, exploratory factor analysis in ULS method, parallel analysis and Scree Test for number of factors, polychoric correlations and Promax rotation (k = 4) was used. The estimate of reliability was made with the KR-20 coefficient and confidence intervals, and Horst's (1953) correction was used to reduce the impact of the dispersion of item difficulty (Merino & Charter, 2010). A one-dimensional structure as the most suitable was found to represent the construct. Internal consistency was slightly lower compared to that found in the original study, but still be considered equivalent. The results presented in this study suggest that previous findings (Lemos, 2003, 2005) are limited in their replicability, and probably the methodological choices for analyzing the internal relations of its items are the explanations for this. The instrument may require items to be scaled in three or four response choices and a slightly higher number of items if one want to improve efficiency in mass applications. Additionally, a check to verify the factor structure of the scale settings as a first step (Merino & Arndt, 2009) compared to more advanced methods (e.g., structural equations), should be conducted. According to results in this study, should be considered not just a two-dimensional model, but include a one-dimensional model that seems to compete more successfully with the original two-factor model. An important aspect is the phrasing of the items as grouping factor of the items. This problem is recognized in self-report instruments that have phrased items on direct and opposite direction to construct. The prospect of research on this topic, and with this instrument should include structural hypotheses as bifactor model and method factor as plausible explanations of relations between items. Also, assess the measurement model forget the best estimation of reliability. It can also anticipate constructing items with Hispanic multicultural relevance. <![CDATA[Differential item functioning: Math test Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt La Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano aplica el Examen de Clasificación en Matemáticas Básicas, como evaluación diagnóstica, a los aspirantes y estudiantes provenientes de transferencias internas o externas, cuyo plan de estudios precise conocimientos básicos de Aritmética y Algebra Elemental. Dicho examen favorece el análisis de las condiciones académicas de los admitidos y permite a la Universidad, ofrecer opciones apropiadas para cada caso particular, al mismo tiempo que al evaluado le proporciona la posibilidad de reconocer su nivel de apropiación del conocimiento de los dominios conceptuales requeridos. Consecuentemente con el carácter decisorio del Examen de Clasificación de Matemáticas Básicas, se examinó si los ítemes utilizados presentan funcionamiento diferencial, esto es, se analizó si la diferencia de habilidades entre los evaluados podría deberse a las variables de contexto seleccionadas: sexo, edad, naturaleza jurídica del colegio de procedencia y facultad en la que el aspirante tramita su ingreso. Para ello, se procesaron 1.623 cadenas de respuestas para 61 ítemes, obtenidas en las pruebas comprendidas entre el tercer período lectivo de 2011 y el primero de 2012. La metodología incluyó la implementación de tres técnicas: Contraste del DIF (diferencia entre los centros de dificultades), Contraste del DIF (diferencia entre los extremos más próximos para los intervalos de dificultad) y prueba estadística Mantel-Haenszel. La conjunción de estas técnicas permitió determinar un ítem con funcionamiento diferencial en categoría moderada a grande, para la variable edad. Finalmente, para este ítem se exhiben sus parámetros estadísticos y su curva característica, estimados en la calibración.<hr/>The following article presents an application of differential item functioning (DIF), using results obtained from the qualifying test developed by the Jorge Tadeo Lozano University and taken by students to classify them at a level of mathematical knowledge and to define an academic route for them based on their cognitive status shown on the test. The analysis is part of a perspective to estimate the difficulty and others characteristics of items, and the skills and level of students through the use of the Rasch model of the one parameter item response theory (IRT) and the parameters of a sample of 1623 students taking a test composed of 61 items. The article analyzes both the statistical performance of the items in terms of the parameters of item-test correlation, misfits (infit and outfit), and discrimination, as well as the behavior of the set of items depending on the construct validity or dimensionality, reliability, internal consistency, and separation parameters. A method is then shown to examine which items display DIF, associated with the conditions of the students' origin and not of their academic ability, which could lead to bias in the results of the test. The employed methods estimate the relative difficulty of each item, for students of similar ability but who belong to different groups, according to four variables studied: sex, age, intended major, and whether the high school of origin is public or private. The value of the difference in relative difficulty between the groups mentioned is associated with a level of DIF and recognizes whether the item in question has bias and which groups this bias is favoring. The difference in relative difficulty is graded in terms of severity according to three categories proposed by the Educational Testing Service: (1) moderate to large, if the difference in relative difficulty between groups (for students of similar ability) is greater than or equal to .64 logits, (2) small to moderate, if the difference is greater than or equal to .43 and less than .64 logits, and (3) not significant, if this difference is less than .43 logits. In order to validate the detection of DIF, the calculations are performed using three techniques. Two are chosen from those available in the literature and the third one is a proposal by the authors of this article to consider the size of the error in the estimations of difficulty difference. The three techniques used are: (1) the measurement of the difference between the core values of the difficulty intervals, ignoring the value of the estimation error, (2) the difference between the nearest extremes of the difficulty intervals, taking into account the estimation error, and (3) the Mantel-Haenszel statistical test. Regarding databases formed for the analysis, two aspects were considered: (1) chains of responses corresponding to missing data or especially small groups, which would not have allowed an effective and reliable comparison, were omitted, and (2) random samples with uniform distribution were selected to create groups of the same size for each study variable. The analysis with the technique of difference between core values showed that two items (34 and 59) displayed DIF with moderate to large severity, regarding the age variable for item 34 and the intended major and high school of origin variables for item 59. The technique about difference between the nearest extremes confirmed DIF with moderate to large severity for item 34, with respect to the age variable. The Mantel-Haenszel test detected DIF with moderate to large severity for items 13, 20, 34, and 61 for the age variable, and for items 4, 30, 36, 43, and 59 for the major variable. <![CDATA[Psychometric analysis of child language pragmatic aspect evaluation: ICRA-A Battery]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El estudio que se informa describe el análisis psicométrico de la validación y confiabilidad de los instrumentos que conforman la Batería ICRA-A (Investigación de la Competencia Comunicativa para la Realización de Actos de Habla - Abraham & Brenca, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009a, 2013), la cual fue diseñada para evaluar sistemáticamente el aspecto pragmático del lenguaje infantil en el marco de la evaluación neurolingüística. La batería está conformada por cuatro instrumentos: (1) Análisis y Registro de Actos de Habla, (2) Observación Pragmática del Juego, (3) Cuestionario para Padres y (4) Guía para Padres. Fueron evaluados 155 niños, 100 de ellos tenían compromisos del lenguaje no verbal y/o verbal, y 55, con desarrollo típico del lenguaje. Se realizó el análisis de la validez de constructo utilizando Análisis Factorial con Componentes Principales y Rotación Varimax, la confiabilidad entre jueces, aplicando Coeficiente de Correlación Intraclase con acuerdo absoluto y la consistencia interna, mediante el coeficiente de Alpha de Cronbach. Se determinaron percentiles y valores de corte empleando la Curva ROC, como así también valores de especificidad, sensibilidad, predictibilidad y razón de probabilidad. La validez de constructo para el instrumento 1 fue igual a 65.5% y para el instrumento 2, igual a 73.7 % y la correlación intraclase fue igual a .90 y .89 respectivamente. Los resultados de la Curva ROC fueron: .92 para el instrumento 1 y .89 para el 2. Para el instrumento 1, el valor de sensibilidad fue igual a 81%, el de especificidad 90.9%, de seguridad (VP + 94.2%; VP - 72.5%) y de predictibilidad (CP + 8.47; CP - .21). Los instrumentos 3 y 4 brindan información preponderantemente cualitativa, ya que registran la percepción que tiene cada uno de los padres sobre la competencia comunicativa del niño. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la fortaleza de la Batería ICRA-A para evaluar el aspecto pragmático del lenguaje infantil en la clínica fonoaudiológica.<hr/>In this paper we describe the psychometric analysis of the validation and reliability of the instruments which constitute ICRA-A Battery (Communicative Competence for Speech Acts Production Research - Abraham & Brenca, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009a, 2013). It was designed for systematic assessment of child language pragmatic aspect, with a progression criterion, within the framework of neurolinguistic evaluation, in River Plate Spanish speeking children. In this way, it allows to register and analyze pragmatic development rigorously, with variables control, what is added to the analysis made in the other dimensions (phonological, lexical-semantic and morphosyntactic), so permitting to get a whole profile of the child linguistic competence. ICRA-A Battery is applied to little children who show pragmatic impairment. It is also useful with older children with a lower communicative or intellectual range. It is composed of four instruments. (1) Speech Acts Analysis and Register: it allows to evaluate in a quantitative and a qualitative mood pre and paralinguistic manifestations of the seven speech acts basic in children language development. (2) Playing Pragmatic Observation: information can be obtained about communicative competence, fundamentally non verbal, taking into consideration shared referenciality, protodeclaring and protoimperative conducts, prelinguistic functions, basic speech acts precursors, ludic interaction type and mode, analyzed into six communicative dimensions. (3) Parents Questionnaire: useful to get information on the perception each parent has about his / her child communicative competence. (4) Parents Guide: to give parents guidance on their child communicative behavior in three daily routines within the familiar context. ICRA-A Battery includes created ad hoc concrete and figurative material, as well as Register and Results forms. It is incorporated into the ICRA Method, which, from a systematic and progressive fashion, allows to formulate the pragmatic objectives of treatment plan and intervention strategies. One hundred and fifty five children were assessed: 100 with verbal and/or non verbal language impairment, and 55 with normal language development. Construct validity analysis was made through Factorial Analysis with Principal Components and Varimax Rotation. For reliability between judges we applied Intraclass Correlation Coefficient with absolute agreement; and internal consistency through Cronbach Alpha - Coefficient. Percentiles and cut values were determined through ROC Curve, and so specificity, sensibility, predictability values and probability ratio. Construct validity for instrument 1 was of 65.5%; for 2, of 73.7%; intraclass correlation was of .90 and .89, respectively. ROC Curve results were of .92 for instrument 1 and .89 for 2. For instrument 1, sensitivity value was of 81%, specificity of 90.9%,security (VP + 94.2%; VP - 72.5%); predictability (CP + 8.47; CP - .21). Instruments 3 and 4 give a preponderantly qualitative information, as they register the perception that each parent has on their child communicative competence. These results show the Battery ICRA-A fortitude to evaluate the child language pragmatic aspect in phono-audiological work. Speech acts systematic study is a relevant tool in phonoaudiological treatment to obtain greater precision in language analysis of children with communicative competence development difficulties, in differential diagnosis and consequent treatment. The psychometric results that have been achieved show ICRA-A Battery fortitude for its use in the phonological work with neurolinguistic orientation. <![CDATA[Towards a consensus management of water resources in ecocities]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272014000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt La administración de los recursos hídricos es un tema de suma discusión ya que de ella depende la construcción de una ciudad sustentable en su agenda, gestión y participación. Empero, las políticas públicas relativas al abastecimiento de agua parecen estar centradas en una oferta desmedida ya no por la disponibilidad ni el consumo, sino por la información que los medios difunden acerca de una fuente de abastecimientoo conflicto entre autoridades y usuarios. En este sentido, es menester revisar los conceptos de oportunidades, capacidades, responsabilidades, habitus y espacialidades para discutir su vinculación con otros tales como encuadre, agenda o sustentabilidad. En el marco de la ciudad sustentable, tal ejercicio, permitirá anticipar la relación existente entre autoridades y usuarios en referencia a los medios de comunicación. Precisamente, la administración sería sustentable si el sistema de tarifas incluyera los conceptos que explican las relaciones entre los actores políticos, mediáticos y civiles implicados.<hr/>The management of water resources is subject to a payment system from which the state regulates public service water supply. These are rates that promote or restrict water consumption as water availability, the cost of extraction, treatment and distribution, or the degree of local human development. In either case the authorities determine the supply and demand assuming that civil society will adjust their life styles to public policy. In this sense, the media spread information that may be consistent or not the tariff policy and supply, however as the information is disseminated to the social sectors, a phenomenon known as emerging public agenda. It is the construction of public opinion on the evaluation of public policies and the inclusion of issues management for the sustainability of water resources. This is how the public agenda on water supply is limited to two axes: saving or waste of water resources. In the first case, the increase of tariffs favors an austere life in the vulnerable, marginalized and excluded. In the second case, the rates encourage wasteful life style in those social groups with higher incomes. Indeed, public policies for billing system generate a gap between the social sectors. It is therefore required to discuss other psychological factors as setting an agenda for the management of water resources is shaped not only by authorities but by users of public services. Given that the right to the city means access to resources, citizenship as a user of urban services, is a co-participant and co-responsible for water conservation for future generations. In the context of sustainable cities, government decisions are carried out considering not only the freedoms, opportunities, capabilities and responsibilities of users, it is also necessary to analyze their influence processes concerning compliance, obedience and innovation that derived from a schedule and fare system of water service. In a situation of scarcity, the majority influence has been studied from hoarding water while in the minority influence has been investigated from reuse. Both phenomena impact people's opinions because those who inhabit the periphery of cities are forced to kidnap pipes, boycott installations confront its authorities, or have developed styles of trust and cooperation that allow them to survive droughts or floods. Consequently, the assessment of water supply and pricing policy is determined by lifestyle and those put forth by these psychological processes. This means that the establishment of a public agenda includes issues such as influence, identity, reliability, entrepreneurship, social capital, sense of community, social representations, habitus, and fields of power, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, skills, motives, decisions and behaviors. The elucidation of the relationship of each of these elements will anticipate the impact of public policies on current and future civil spheres, as well as public participation in the conservation of water resources, the public poured in social networks and their impact on the dissemination of media. Indeed, the objective of this work lies in the presentation, analysis and discussion of the relationship between users and public administrators in situations of irregular water supply and tariff increases. The media disseminated information about a source of supply or conflict between authorities and users. In this sense, it is necessary to review the concepts of opportunity, skills, responsibilities, habitus and spatialities to discuss their relationship with others such as framing, book or sustainability. As part of the sustainable city, this year, will anticipate the relationship between authorities and users in reference to the media. Indeed, the administration would be sustainable if the fare system to include concepts that explain the relationships between political, media and civil actors.