Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1668-702720040002&lang=es vol. 21 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[Las competencias profesionales del psicólogo y las necesidades de perfiles profesionales en los diferentes ámbitos laborales]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272004000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La disminución del empleo tanto a nivel nacional como internacional deriva en una sobreoferta de jóvenes con dificultades para encontrar trabajo. Esto trae como consecuencia un aumento en los estándares para contratar nuevos profesionales a quienes se les exigen competencias altamente especializadas. El objetivo general de esta investigación fue analizar el ajuste entre las competencias del psicólogo y las necesidades de sus perfiles en cuatro grandes áreas: salud, educación, justicia y trabajo, desde el punto de vista de los usuarios del sistema. En el presente trabajo se informa acerca de los datos aportados por 109 empleadores de psicólogos en distintas áreas, a quienes se les solicitó que especificaran las competencias requeridas a los psicólogos para un desempeño idóneo, en cada ámbito particular. Se recolectaron asimismo datos de 499 psicólogos a quienes se les administró una encuesta similar para relevar la propia autopercepción de competencia en 57 habilidades básicas identificadas por los empleadores. Se analizaron las diferencias individuales según sexo, edad e institución de graduación. Los resultados señalan la falta de ajuste entre necesidades sociales y la capacitación de los graduados, ya que ellos autopercibieron carencias en varias áreas de la psicología. Las competencias referidas al área clínica son las únicas que permiten diferenciar a los grupos de profesionales más jóvenes con respecto a los más antiguos.<hr/>Decrease of employment at national and international level results in an oversupply of young professionals with difficulties to find new jobs. This results in an increase of standards to hire new professionals who are demanded highly specialized competencies to enter the job market. This tendency is particularly important in psychology. High market pressure causes an increase of new and highly specific interventions in the field of psychology; thus newer education and training of psychologists are required in an array of areas. Knowledge of community needs in order to channel thorough health and other psychology related services are rare in Argentina. In other countries, this topic is quite essential to the effective design of job or position offers to professionals entering the job market. In Argentina, psychologists' image as a professional with generic competencies prevails, predominantly academic training in the field of clinical psychology with a lack of interest and knowledge in other psychology areas. University curricula in general terms lack integration between theory and real professional practice. The main goal of this investigation is to analyze the adjustment between psychologist's competencies and the need for professional profiles in four different psychology fields (health, education, forensic and industrial/ organizational) from the psychologist's employer point of view. Another goal of this research is to examine strengths and weaknesses of sophomore students and young graduate psychologists. Our approach consisted in considering self-perception of competence of the actors involved (subjective competencies). We present data of 109 employers of psychologists in different professional areas. Effective psychologists task were required to those employers. Data also were gathered on 499 psychologists to whom a similar survey was administered to identify self-perceived competence in 57 basic psychological skills surveyed in the employer's sample. Strengths and weaknesses were analyzed in each of the groups considered (young graduates, sophomore students and experienced professionals). Experienced professionals perceive themselves as highly competent in the clinical field and perceive themselves with low competence in psychology areas of more modern content. The fields that concentrate younger professionals are educational psychology, psychological assessment and psychodiagnostics. In a smaller proportion, young professionals perceive competence in tasks related to research. These findings are highly consistent with observed data of young psychologist graduates. Also, results obtained matched previous evaluations of national agencies (AUAPSI) regarding psychologist's professional training. Such reports point out the emphasis of universities' curricula only exclusive in clinical psychology with a lack of consideration for other important aspects of psychology. Studied fields in this research (health, education, forensic and industrial/organizational) denote poor adjustment between required competencies and psychological skills, and the practice of psychology, considering community needs. From the point of view of those professionals who hire psychologists, weaknesses are observed in tasks related to writing of psychological reports, the work with populations of low economic resources or minorities, the advice to professional non psychologists, the administration of psychological batteries and the knowledge of new areas of psychology. <![CDATA[Pobreza y desempeño ejecutivo en alumnos preescolares de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (República Argentina)]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272004000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El estudio de los efectos de la pobreza sobre el desempeño cognitivo durante las primeras fases del desarrollo, ha sido efectuado predominantemente en base a la definición de pobreza según el ingreso y el uso de paradigmas de inteligencia basados en la hipótesis de un factor general de funcionamiento cognitivo. En el presente trabajo se utilizó el concepto de Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas (NBI) como criterio de pobreza y se aplicó un paradigma cognitivo de funcionamiento ejecutivo proveniente de la Neurociencia. El mismo plantea el análisis de componentes de comportamientos inteligentes orientados hacia objetivos y asociados a la activación de circuitos cerebrales que involucran centralmente a la región prefrontal. Se comparó el desempeño ejecutivo de 247 niños escolarizados de 3 a 5 años de edad, provenientes de hogares pobres (NBI) y no pobres o con Necesidades Básicas Satisfechas (NBS), y de jardines de infantes del Distrito Escolar 4 de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Boca-Barracas) y de distritos escolares de Vicente López y San Isidro del Gran Buenos Aires (Argentina). Se administró una batería de pruebas que evalúan componentes de flexibilidad cognitiva, logro de objetivos y control atencional. Los resultados obtenidos muestran perfiles de desempeño diferentes entre ambos grupos. El perfil de desempeño menos eficiente en términos de las variables estudiadas se observó en el grupo de niños proveniente de hogares pobres. Estos resultados constituyen un aporte significativo de un paradigma neurocientífico para la implementación de estrategias de intervención orientadas a estimular el funcionamiento cognitivo de tipo ejecutivo de niños de edad preescolar.<hr/>In general, the effects of poverty on early cognitive performance have been studied using a definition of poverty based on terms of income, and within the context of paradigms of cognitive evaluation based on the hypothesis of a general intelligence factor. Conversely, in the present report the concept of Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN) was used as poverty criterion, and a cognitive paradigm of executive functions based on neurobiological concepts was applied. This paradigm outlines the existence of discrete and interactive components of cognitive functioning guided toward objectives, and associated to the activation of cerebral circuits that involves the prefrontal cortex. The performance of 247 preschoolers (3 to 5 year-olds) from schools in District 4 of the City of Buenos Aires (Boca-Barracas), and in the districts of Vicente López and San Isidro of Gran Buenos Aires, was compared. Sample groups included children from poor (UBN) and non-poor homes or with Satisfied Basic Needs (SBN). They were studied with a battery of executive tests [A-not-B, Spatial Reversal, and Color Reversal (Espy, Kaufmann, McDiarmid, & Glisky, 1999); Three and Four Colors (Balamore & Wozniak, 1984); Strooplike Day-Night (Gerstadt, Hong, & Diamond (1994); and Tower of London (Shallice, 1982)] to evaluate the components of cognitive flexibility (working memory, attentional shifting, self-monitoring, and conceptual transfer), goal-setting (initiating, planning, problem solving, and strategic behavior), and attentional control. A selection procedure was applied to all cases, taking into account: prematurity, weight at the time of birth, medical record of neurological and developmental disorders, actual weight, height and their relationship at the time of testing, intellectual quotient of execution (WPPSI), and official certification of child abuse in their homes. Poor homes were identified by applying a scale of socio-economic level (NES) based on conceptual and operational definitions used by the Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos (INDEC) of Argentina. Bivariate and multivariate tests were applied to analyze the effects of the independent variables (socio-economic group, age, sex and difficulty level) on the dependents and their interactions. Correlations and simple regressions were applied to analyze the associations between cognitive performance and socio-economic level. In A-not-B, Spatial Reversal and Color Reversal tests the UBN group made less previous correct trials before reaching the efficiency criteria (difficulty to find the hidden rule) and consecutive correct trials (difficulty to maintain outstanding information). They also made more reiterative errors (failure in the control of interferences). In the Three and Four Colors Test, the UBN group had lower scores in all the analyzed variables. Children within this group also needed more demonstrations and verbalizations from the experimenters. In the Tower of London Test, UBN children showed an increased delay to begin and to organize the task, and were less efficient in achieving the objectives. Planning time decreased when cognitive demands were increased. The SBN group showed an inverse profile. Both groups had similar performance in the Stroop-like Day-Night Test. When performance variations were analyzed in terms of age and difficulty level, the tendencies were similar to those reported in previous studies. Gender differences were registered in A-not-B and Tower of London tests, with girls showing a better perform-ance. Finally, there were positive associations between performance success and socio-economic total score, and negative associations between errors and socio-economic total score. Present results confirm that poverty has a negative impact on cognitive performance in terms of the executive function paradigm used. The advantages of a cognitive paradigm based on a neurobiological theoretical framework in the context of social and school intervention programs for children from a socially risky population, are also discussed. <![CDATA[La relación entre la capacidad de atención dividida y la estimación prospectiva del tiempo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272004000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Se realizó una investigación cuyo objetivo fue determinar si la capacidad de atención dividida resultaba explicativa de la variabilidad de las estimaciones prospectivas del tiempo. Los modelos teóricos sobre dicha estimación postulan que los recursos atencionales de procesamiento están divididos entre un procesador temporal, que cuenta y almacena unidades temporales subjetivas (Subjective Temporal Units - STUs) y otras actividades de procesamiento no temporal (Zakay, 1993). Se seleccionó una muestra de 36 estudiantes universitarios que fueron asignados al azar a cada una de las seis condiciones experimentales, determinadas por un diseño factorial 3 x 2, y sus factores básicos fueron: cantidad de tareas y niveles de complejidad del material. Se confeccionaron materiales para las diferentes tareas y otros con el fin de evaluar las aptitudes mnémicas y la capacidad de atención dividida. Se solicitó a los sujetos que mientras realizaban las tareas, detuvieran un cronómetro cuando consideraran que había pasado un período de tiempo predeterminado. La estimación del tiempo se calculó por la diferencia en segundos entre el tiempo real y el tiempo estimado. Los datos se procesaron con análisis de correlación, discriminante y factorial de variancia. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la capacidad de atención dividida se correlaciona con la estimación temporal prospectiva y además, la capacidad de atención dividida resulta un buen predictor de la capacidad estimativa de los sujetos, especialmente de los sobre-estimadores. Las diferencias en las aptitudes mnémicas no explicaron la variabilidad de las estimaciones prospectivas.<hr/>In this paper we present the results of an experimental research, whose objective was to determine if split attention was explanatory for the variability of prospective time estimation. Theoretical models about prospective time estimation postulate that attentional resources of processing are divided between a temporary processor (timer), that counts and stores Subjective Temporal Units (STUs), and other activities of non temporary processing (Zakay, 1993). A sample of 36 university students was selected and were assigned randomly to each one of six experimental conditions determined by a 3 x 2 factorial design, whose basic factors were: amount of tasks (1, 2, 3) and complexity levels of material (low and high). We designed materials for the different tasks, as well as for the evaluation of memory (STM and LTM) and split attention aptitudes. The materials used for the simple tasks were: drawings that the individuals had to copy with nine cubes (similar to those in Weschler's Test) with previously demarcated limits; plastic circular cards that the individuals had to select according color; and a remote control toy car, whose route had to be observed by the individuals. The materials used for the complex tasks were: drawings to be copied with nine cubes, but without limits; a short story by Jorge Luis Borges that the individuals had to read; and a crossword puzzle that they had to complete. The instruments for the evaluation of memory aptitudes were two lists of 20 familiar words (one for short term memory and the other one for long term memory); and for the evaluation of split attention capacity the Subtest of Keys in Weschler's Test was used as follows: the individuals had to complete the subtest during one minute and during the following minute they continued filling it in while someone read a list of words (interference), and at the same time they had to make a mark whenever they heard a word from the feelings category. As regards to the procedure, for short term memory the individuals were asked to immediately recall a word of the list that was read. For split attention, the individuals were asked to complete the keys (without and with interference), and to measure long term memory, they were asked to recall the second list at the end of the experiment. The memory aptitudes were represented by the number of correct words recalled and the split attention was measured by the percentage of attention maintenance between the task without interference and the task with it. The experiment itself consisted in the accomplishment of one, two or three tasks, which could be simple or complex, according to experimental group assigned. In the instructions regarding the task, the individuals were told to stop the timer (it had begun to register time at the beginning of the task) once they thought that a period of 2 minutes 53 seconds was up. The measures of time were the differences between real time and estimated time. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis, discriminant analysis and bifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings were that the capacity of split attention is correlated to prospective time estimation. Also, the capacity of split attention is a good way to predict the estimation time capacity of individuals, especially for over-estimators. The differences in memory aptitudes do not explain prospective estimations variability. We did not find statistically significant differences between different amount of tasks and between high or low complexity of tasks. These results are discussed. <![CDATA[Neuroticismo, extraversión y estilo atribucional en veteranos de guerra: una aproximación desde el estrés postraumático]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272004000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Las personas que experimentan un evento traumático (guerra, desastres naturales, abuso sexual, entre otros), a menudo suelen desarrollar un tipo específico de patología clínica conocida como Síndrome de Estrés Postraumático que frecuentemente está asociada a una serie de trastornos con una fuerte incidencia negativa en la mayoría de los casos, en todos los aspectos de la vida cotidiana de quienes lo padecen. En particular en el caso de los veteranos de la guerra de las Islas Malvinas, que no tuvieron la posibilidad de contar con asistencia psicológica y contención emocional post-guerra, la presencia de este síndrome se encuentra asociada a un estilo atribucional desadaptativo o pesimista, como así también a mayores niveles de neuroticismo y menores de extraversión en comparación con la población general, lo que se traduce en mayores niveles de ansiedad flotante, escasa capacidad de control de los impulsos, inestabilidad emocional e incapacidad para generar y mantener relaciones sociales estables, con respecto a los excombatientes que no desarrollaron estrés postraumático.<hr/>The people who go through a traumatic experience such as: war, natural disastrers, and sexual abuse, among others, are prone to develop a specific kind of clinical pathology known as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This pathology, with its particular characteristics, frequently appears in tandem with a series of associated disorders, as well as a strong incidence (negative in most cases) in every aspect of the daily lives of the people who suffer from it. In the particular case of the Falckland Islands war veterans, the presence of the syndrome in the people who did not have the possibility of psychological assistence and post war emotional contention, is associated to a pessimistic or disadaptative attributional style, as well as to higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion when compared to the normal population. As a result, they suffer from higher levels of floating anxiety, poor impulse control, emotional instability and incapability of generating and maintaining steady social relationships. On the other hand, those veterans who showed the symptoms presented meaningful differences, in same variables, as opposed to the war veterans that did not develop PTSD. War veterans who suffered PTSD showed higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion when compared to the war veterans that did not develop PTSD; the first group of veterans also showed an more disadaptative attributional style when compared to the veterans without PTSD. The presence of PTSD in the veteran group is associated with a series of high risk health behaviors, such as adictive-dependient behavior and others relationed to evasive and disadaptative coping. Veterans with PTSD developed higher levels of neuroticism and showed more susceptibility to negative stimulation and stress vulnerability. Thus, they also show a higher tendency to experience anger and problems to control their desires and impulses. On the other hand, lower levels of extraversion make it more difficult for a person to experience interpersonal intimacy, to enjoy the company of other people and experience feelings like happiness, joy and excitement. There too is a relationship between PTSD and a unadaptative attributional style with an internal, global and stable causality to explain failure; this is the same attribu-tional style of depressive patients. This attributional style like a beliefe system is associated with the tendency to develop psychological problems.