Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1668-702720060002&lang=es vol. 23 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[Intervalos de confianza para las estimaciones de proporciones y las diferencias entre ellas]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272006000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En la actualidad se acepta por indicaciones de diferentes revistas científicas de ciencias sociales y salud, que los intervalos de confianza aportan información más descriptiva y son interpretativamente mejores que las pruebas de hipótesis, como una expresión de la incertidumbre que resulta del estudio de una muestra de limitado tamaño. En la investigación comparativo-descriptiva de las ciencias sociales, los métodos de análisis para variables categóricas parecen ser menos frecuentes, e incluso menos conocidos, que las variables independientes de intervalo. Hasta ahora, no hubo buenos métodos para calcular los intervalos de confianza para proporciones y diferencias entre proporciones. En este artículo se presentan métodos basados en trabajos de Newcombe (1998a, 1998b, 1998c) que superan los procedimientos tradicionales para estos cálculos y su cómputo es acompañado por una hoja de cálculo en MS Excel, en español, inglés y galés. Los métodos aquí presentados se basan en el método score, proveniente del trabajo de Wilson (1927). También se presentan ejemplos de los intervalos de confianza para proporciones simples y la diferencia entre ellas en muestras independientes y dependientes. Finalmente, se discute su uso juicioso en el contexto del diseño de la investigación.<hr/>It's nowadays accepted by many journals in diverse areas of health and social sciences, that confidence intervals give more descriptive information and they are better than hypothesis tests to express uncertainty resulting from limited sample size. The tool confidence intervals is a very useful descriptive frame to the researcher and to the consumer of statistical results, and their value as statistical summary is very important in descriptive and comparative studies. During decades, hypothesis tests have been the main support of statistical inference in comparative studies, whereas in comparative-descriptive research in social sciences, the method of analysis for categorical variables has been unusual. In fact, good methods to calculate confidence intervals for proportions and their differences, have not been generally available to researchers. Moreover, these methods have not been popular because they remain in statistical articles and away from non specialized users in mathematical knowledge. In this article methods based in works of Newcombe (1998a, 1998b, 1998c) and Wilson (1927) are reported. They overcome traditional methods for the proportion confidence intervals calculation. Although this calculation is moderately simple, we took advantage of the computational technology to facilitate the process of calculus and to diminish errors. An Excel spreadsheet is now available, in Spanish, English and Welsh versions. Also equivalent versions were developed in the language of macros for SPSS and Minitab, which are all available in the internet address mentioned within the text of the article. These devices enable researchers to calculate the intervals using proven good methods; these methods come from the score method, which is derived from Wilson's work (1927). The typical situation for calculating intervals of confidence for proportions comes from a single sample of participants, and/or from a comparison between dependent and independent samples.The score method takes advantage of the calculation of a simple proportion, to extend it to the comparison between dependent and independent proportions. The rationality of this extension is intuitive and is applied easily by means of the computer programs mentioned previously. Examples of confidence intervals calculus for a simple proportion and differences of proportions are presented and a discussion about their careful use in the context of research design is developed. Particularly, confidence intervals appear to be one of the most useful forms to express the uncertainty in research findings, since the necessity to design studies using a limited sample from the population, makes that the appropriate interpretation of the intervals becomes a point of learning and agreement that the authors put in relevance. Finally, the reader must have in mind that the estimation of the intervals does not give information in absolute terms, because it likewise offers a probability of containing the population value of interest (proportion). On the other hand, trying to reach the exact results is only one part of the problem. There are other important aspects as the choice of the statistical analysis and the study design, and within this last one, the sampling process, that continues being a prevalent source of weakness in research literature. If the specific sample is biased towards the population that we are trying to study (for example, certain population segment can be more motivated to fill in questionnaires or to participate in studies, in which case we are in front of a self-selected sample) or towards our expectations, every calculus that will be done will be biased. We hope that the readers of this article are aware and benefit of the usefulness of this old wine in new bottle method. <![CDATA[La evaluación de los valores humanos con el Portrait Values Questionnaire de Schwartz]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272006000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El estudio de los valores puede ser abordado desde múltiples perspectivas (filosófica, psicológica, sociológica, etc.). En Psicología, el análisis de las orientaciones valóricas de los individuos ha cobrado especial importancia a partir de las conceptualizaciones de Schwartz (1992, 2001) quien verificó una estructura de diez valores (Poder, Logro, Hedonismo, Estimulación, Autodirección, Universalismo, Benevolencia, Tradición, Conformidad y Seguridad), los cuales se organizan en cuatro bipolaridades (Autotrascendencia, Autopromoción, Conservación y Apertura al cambio) en más de 60 países, dando soporte empírico a la clasificación de los valores humanos. Este estudio tiene como objetivos: (a) adaptar y validar el Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) de Schwartz (1992, 2001) y (b) verificar si existen diferencias individuales según dos contextos objeto de estudio (civil y militar) y según sexo y edad. Se recogieron datos de una población argentina (N = 692) en tres contextos diferentes: (a) población civil (n = 471), (b) oficiales militares (n = 97) y (c) cadetes (n = 124). El estudio permitió verificar parcialmente la estructura de los valores propuestos por el autor. La fiabilidad del PVQ resulta muy adecuada en los tres contextos estudiados. Asimismo se pudo verificar que los civiles están más orientados hacia el logro de objetivos personales (Autopromoción) y la independencia para decir y hacer lo que uno quiere (Apertura al cambio), mientras que los militares están más orientados hacia los valores relacionados con el mantenimiento del orden social, la seguridad, la conservación de las tradiciones (Tradición y Conformidad). Por otra parte, los resultados mostraron que no existen diferencias en las orientaciones valóricas según sexo y edad.<hr/>The study of human values can be approached from multiple perspectives (philosophical, psychological, sociological, etc.). In Psychology, the analysis of individual differences on value orientation has grown exponentially since Schwartz's works (1992, 2001) who verified a structure of ten universal values (Power, Achievement, Hedonism, Stimulation, Self-direction, Universalism, Benevolence, Tradition, Conformity and Security) which are organized in four bipolarities (Self-transcendence, Self-enhancement, Conservatism and Openness to change). Influenced heavily by Rokeach (1973), Schwartz's theory defines values as desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that serve as guiding principles in people's lives. The crucial aspect that distinguishes one value from another is the type of motivational goal it expresses. Schwartz derived a typology of different value contents by reasoning that values represent in the form of conscious goals three universal requirements of human existence: biological needs, coordinated social interaction requisites and group survival and functioning demands. There is substantial, cross-cultural support for the distinctiveness of this ten-type research from more than 60 countries. A specific value represents a type of action that when attained, promotes the central goal of the type. In addition to propositions regarding the content of values, the theory specifies dynamic relationships among the types of values. Actions taken in pursuit of each type of value have psychological, practical and social consequences that may clash or be compatible with the pursuit of other value types. The complete pattern of relationships of value conflict and compatibility among value priorities give rise to a circular structure of value systems. Competing value types emanate in opposing directions from the center; complementary types are in close proximity going around the circle. There are three methods for value assessment (Vera Martínez, 2001), namely: (1) by inferring on the observed behavior of people to determine the values to which they adhere, (2) by asking people to share their values explicitly with us, and (3) by giving people a set of stimuli such as questionnaires which they must answer. Hechter (1993) and Rokeach (1973) state that the objective evaluation of values by observation is inappropriate, because it is information difficult to categorize and to quantify, and is influenced by the observer's values. The second form of evaluation is in a way difficult for the individuals, since they are asked to respond to issues that perhaps have never been a matter of reflection for them. The difficulty for people in this case resides in the expression of their values in words they transmit to the interviewer. An intermediate position sustains that people have a series of stable values of moderate complexity that they put into practice when facing different daily life situations. In this way, both the questionnaires and the surveys turn out to be useful and easy to apply, especially among large populations. Nevertheless, these instruments are not exempt of problems. One of the main problems lies in that the predetermined formulation of elements might not necessarily be any of the person's values or that the different participants interpret differently each stimuli. The main goals for this study are: (a) to adapt and validate the PVQ (Portrait Values Questionnaire) for the assessment of human values and (b) to verify individual differences in two contexts (civil and military), as well as in gender and age. Data were taken from an Argentinian population (N = 692) in three different contexts: (a) a civil setting (n = 471), (b) among military officers (n = 97), and (c) military cadets (n = 124). The study allowed us to verify partially the value structure proposed by the author. PVQ reliability is adequate in all three contexts applied. We were also able to verify that the civil population is more oriented by Self-enhancement and Openness to change (Achievement and Hedonism) compared to military population. The latter were more oriented by values related to Conservatism (Tradition and Conformity). We found no differences related to gender and age. <![CDATA[Tipo de vínculo madre / hijo y desarrollo intelectual sensoriomotriz en niños de 6 a 15 meses de edad]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272006000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Se estudió la incidencia del tipo de vínculo madre / hijo en el desarrollo de la inteligencia sensoriomotriz. La muestra estuvo integrada por 54 díadas de madre / bebé, argentinas con bebés de ambos sexos. Eran pacientes del Centro de Salud Eva Perón (Strobel, Prov. de Entre Ríos), del Sanatorio Adventista del Plata (Libertador San Martín, Prov. de Entre Ríos) y miembros de la Iglesia Adventista (San Justo, Prov. de Buenos Aires). Se aplicaron los siguientes instrumentos: (a) Escala Argentina de Inteligencia Sensorio-Motriz (de 6 meses a 2 años) (Oiberman, Mansilla & Orellana, 2002), (b) Perfil de la Observación del Vínculo Madre-Bebé (de 0 a 6 meses) de Oiberman (2001) y (c) Perfil de la Observación del Vínculo Madre-Bebé (de 7 a 15 meses) de Oiberman (2001). Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: tiempo de lactancia, tiempo de gestación, orden de nacimiento, género, ocupación y nivel de instrucción de las madres. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el percentil de inteligencia del bebé, en función del vínculo madre / hijo. Se observó una influencia altamente significativa del tiempo de gestación en el tipo de vínculo y una influencia significativa del nivel de instrucción de la mamá en el vínculo madre / bebé. El orden de nacimiento, la lactancia, el género y la ocupación de la mamá no influirían significativamente en el vínculo madre / hijo. Se encontró una influencia altamente significativa del tiempo de gestación en la inteligencia de los bebés y una influencia significativa del tiempo de lactancia en la inteligencia sensoriomotriz. El género, orden de nacimiento, nivel de instrucción y ocupación de la mamá no influirían significativamente en la inteligencia del bebé.<hr/>The main purpose of this study was to observe the influence of mother / child bonds on the sensorymotor intelligence in 6 to 15 month old babies. The sample was made up of 54 babies Argentinian, ranging from 6 to 15 months of both sexes, with their respective mothers (between 16 and 40 years old). Some of them were patients from the Centro de Salud Eva Perón (Strobel, Prov. de Entre Ríos), from the Sanatorio Adventista del Plata (Libertador San Martín, Prov. de Entre Ríos), and others were members of the Iglesia Adventista (San Justo, Prov. de Buenos Aires). The criteria used to include the babies in our study was that they be healthy. Furthermore, other aspects under evaluation were: (a) months of breastfeeding, (b) months of gestation, (c) birth order, (d) mother's age, (e) mother's work outside the home and (f) mother's education level. To analyze the relationship between the mother / child bond and the baby's intelligence the following instruments were applied: (a) Escala Argentina de Inteligencia Sensorio- Motriz (EAIS) for 6 to 24 month old babies (Oiberman, Mansilla & Orellana, 2002), (b) Perfil de la Observación del Vínculo Madre-Bebé for 0 to 6 month old babies (Oiberman, 2001) and (c) Perfil de la Observación del Vínculo Madre-Bebé for 7 to 15 month old babies (Oiberman, 2001). The objectives of this study were the following: (1) To evaluate sensorymotor intelligence in babies ranging from 6 to 15 months using the EAIS. (2) To observe the mother / child bond when the baby is 0 to 6 months old (Oiberman, 2001). (3) To observe the mother / child bond when the baby is 7 to 15 months (Oiberman, 2001). (4) To evaluate how other variables related to the mother / child bond such as months of breastfeeding, months of gestation, birth order, gender, work and the mothers' education level, influence the babies' intelligence. (5) To promote a better bond between the mother and her baby. The results show no significant differences in the mother / child bond over the baby's intelligence percentile, even though we found a slight tendency. All babies with absent bonds (3 babies) had an intelligence level scoring less than 50 (min., 10 and 50). On the other hand, out of 14 babies with good bonds with their mothers, 10 had normal intelligence, and out of 37 babies with very good bonds with their mothers, 32 were considered to have normal intelligence. There were high significant differences in months of gestation over the kind of bond, and a significant difference was also found in the mother's education level over the mother / child bond. Birth order, months of breastfeeding, gender and whether or not the mother worked outside the home did not show significant differences over the mother / child bond. We also found a high significant influence in months of gestation over the baby's intelligence and a significant influence in months of breastfeeding over sensorymotor intelligence. Gender, birth order, the mother's education level and whether or not the mother worked outside the home did not have a significant influence over the baby's intelligence. <![CDATA[Estudio normativo del Test de Percepción de Diferencias (CARAS) en niños mendocinos]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272006000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El propósito de este trabajo es presentar las normas del Test de Percepción de Diferencias (CARAS), el cual explora la focalización atencional y la aptitud perceptiva para discriminar semejanzas y diferencias en patrones estimulares parcialmente ordenados, en una muestra de niños de 7 a 12 años de la Provincia de Mendoza (Argentina) de escuelas urbanas y urbanomarginales. La tarea del niño consiste en localizar los estímulos significativos entre un conjunto más amplio de estímulos que actuarían como distractores, por ello esta técnica es de gran utilidad para detectar disfunciones en el mecanismo de atención selectiva visual. El Test de Percepción de Diferencias (CARAS) se aplicó a una muestra aleatoria de 2.124 niños, conformada por 1.090 varones y 1.034 niñas. Los niños de la muestra concurrían a escuelas primarias urbanas y urbano-marginales del Gran Mendoza y cursaban desde segundo hasta séptimo año de la Enseñanza General Básica (EGB). Se obtuvieron las puntuaciones directas [aciertos - (errores + omisiones)] para cada sexo, edad y ámbito escolar (urbano y urbano-marginal) y luego se determinaron las frecuencias acumulativas, que posteriormente fueron transformadas a rangos percentilares. La evaluación de las habilidades atencionales en niños, mediante la utilización de instrumentos válidos, confiables y adaptados a nuestra población escolar, resulta relevante a los fines de precisar y enriquecer el psicodiagnóstico en tareas de orientación escolar y adecuar programas de intervención psicoeducativos que contribuyan a incrementar el desempeño académico y social del niño.<hr/>It is a necessary condition for the person to count with proper attention tools during the learning process. Taken to a school context, this means that the student must develop certain skills to focus and keep attention efficiently while doing a task. Attention is defined as a modular-natured multiple mechanisms divided into various sub-mechanisms, coordinated among them and controlled by various areas of the brain (Posner & Petersen, 1990). These sub-mechanisms could be involved in the selection of the attention focus (focused attention), its retaining for a certain time (sustained attention), as well as the movement of the attention focus from one stimulus to a new fixation point (attention switch). The difficult nature and organization of attention mechanisms could pave the way to controlling subject cognition and action mainly when facing new carefully planned situations (Rosselló i Mir, 1998). A switch in any of the submechanisms mentioned above could lead to attention-dysfunction. Precise diagnosis of attention-dysfunctions in children is definitely not an easy task. Within a school context, attention problems are a risk factor leading to academic failure, thus affecting the academic and social performance of the child. Herewith, assessing attention skills in children by means of valid trustworthy tools and adapted to our school population, becomes relevant. Carrying out a precise diagnosis and adapting psychoeducational intervention programs would stop failure and frustration cycles, tending to increase the feeling of self confidence in the school child. CARAS - Test on Perception of Differences made by Thurstone in 1941 and later adapted to the Spanish population by Yela (Thurstone & Yela, 1985) is used to evaluate attention and perceptive skills. It is the task of the subject, being children in this case, to point out significant stimuli among a larger group of stimuli acting as distractors. What makes this technique so useful is its capacity to locate malfunctions in the visual selective attention mechanism. The purpose of this work is to present the Test on Perception of Differences (CARAS) which aim is to explore attention focus and perceptive attitude to discriminate similarities and differences in partially ordered stimuli patterns. The experience was carried out in the Province of Mendoza (Argentina) with children between 7 and 12 years old, attending city schools at risk for poverty. Test on Perception of Differences was administered to a random simple, composed by 2,124 children, 1,090 boys and 1,034 girls with ages between 7 and 12 years old. These school children attended primary schools at risk for poverty, in the suburbs of Mendoza and were between second and seventh grade in Basic General Learning. Direct scores [success - (failures + omissions)] were obtained within each sex and age range, to later determine accumulative frequencies further transformed into percentile ranges. Results show that the school context plays a significant influence (city or urban) on the performance of focused attention only in 8-years-old girls [F Hotelling (1, 473) = 7.56; p < .006], 12-years-old girls [F Hotelling (1, 122) = 10.57; p < .002] and 12-years-old boys [F Hotelling (1, 122) = 10.57; p < .000003] in city schools. These groups of children scored higher in the attention test as compared to girls and boys of the same age in urban (poorest) schools. At evaluating medium scores in focused attention, obtained in boys and girls attending city schools, as age increases, so does the score. Except for 12-years-old boys and girls whose direct medium scores decrease, a similar situation was observed in groups of urban (poorest) schools. One of the hypotheses on attention evolving development explains that attention development is linked to general cognitive development. Only one side of attention development, that is, attention control, is developed more independently than the rest of the cognitive processes (Hagen & Wilson, 1982). On this theoretical basis, it is 12-years-old children of poorest schools who present less developed attention self-control in relation to similarly aged children of city schools. However, this result deserves further research work. The application of CARAS Test within a school context aims to obtain a closer deficit diagnosis in focused attention, as well as in problematic stimuli discrimination. Hence, this test evaluates whether the intentional behaviour a child can present in class, is closely connected to correct stimuli discrimination in visual search tasks, which expect an attention selective mechanism. This technique enriches psychodiagnosis in school oriented tasks. <![CDATA[Méndez Carrillo, F.X., Espada Sánchez, J.P. & Orgilés Amorós, M. (Coords.) (2006). Terapia psicológica con niños y adolescentes. Estudio de casos clínicos. Madrid, España: Ediciones Pirámide, 502 páginas]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272006000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El propósito de este trabajo es presentar las normas del Test de Percepción de Diferencias (CARAS), el cual explora la focalización atencional y la aptitud perceptiva para discriminar semejanzas y diferencias en patrones estimulares parcialmente ordenados, en una muestra de niños de 7 a 12 años de la Provincia de Mendoza (Argentina) de escuelas urbanas y urbanomarginales. La tarea del niño consiste en localizar los estímulos significativos entre un conjunto más amplio de estímulos que actuarían como distractores, por ello esta técnica es de gran utilidad para detectar disfunciones en el mecanismo de atención selectiva visual. El Test de Percepción de Diferencias (CARAS) se aplicó a una muestra aleatoria de 2.124 niños, conformada por 1.090 varones y 1.034 niñas. Los niños de la muestra concurrían a escuelas primarias urbanas y urbano-marginales del Gran Mendoza y cursaban desde segundo hasta séptimo año de la Enseñanza General Básica (EGB). Se obtuvieron las puntuaciones directas [aciertos - (errores + omisiones)] para cada sexo, edad y ámbito escolar (urbano y urbano-marginal) y luego se determinaron las frecuencias acumulativas, que posteriormente fueron transformadas a rangos percentilares. La evaluación de las habilidades atencionales en niños, mediante la utilización de instrumentos válidos, confiables y adaptados a nuestra población escolar, resulta relevante a los fines de precisar y enriquecer el psicodiagnóstico en tareas de orientación escolar y adecuar programas de intervención psicoeducativos que contribuyan a incrementar el desempeño académico y social del niño.<hr/>It is a necessary condition for the person to count with proper attention tools during the learning process. Taken to a school context, this means that the student must develop certain skills to focus and keep attention efficiently while doing a task. Attention is defined as a modular-natured multiple mechanisms divided into various sub-mechanisms, coordinated among them and controlled by various areas of the brain (Posner & Petersen, 1990). These sub-mechanisms could be involved in the selection of the attention focus (focused attention), its retaining for a certain time (sustained attention), as well as the movement of the attention focus from one stimulus to a new fixation point (attention switch). The difficult nature and organization of attention mechanisms could pave the way to controlling subject cognition and action mainly when facing new carefully planned situations (Rosselló i Mir, 1998). A switch in any of the submechanisms mentioned above could lead to attention-dysfunction. Precise diagnosis of attention-dysfunctions in children is definitely not an easy task. Within a school context, attention problems are a risk factor leading to academic failure, thus affecting the academic and social performance of the child. Herewith, assessing attention skills in children by means of valid trustworthy tools and adapted to our school population, becomes relevant. Carrying out a precise diagnosis and adapting psychoeducational intervention programs would stop failure and frustration cycles, tending to increase the feeling of self confidence in the school child. CARAS - Test on Perception of Differences made by Thurstone in 1941 and later adapted to the Spanish population by Yela (Thurstone & Yela, 1985) is used to evaluate attention and perceptive skills. It is the task of the subject, being children in this case, to point out significant stimuli among a larger group of stimuli acting as distractors. What makes this technique so useful is its capacity to locate malfunctions in the visual selective attention mechanism. The purpose of this work is to present the Test on Perception of Differences (CARAS) which aim is to explore attention focus and perceptive attitude to discriminate similarities and differences in partially ordered stimuli patterns. The experience was carried out in the Province of Mendoza (Argentina) with children between 7 and 12 years old, attending city schools at risk for poverty. Test on Perception of Differences was administered to a random simple, composed by 2,124 children, 1,090 boys and 1,034 girls with ages between 7 and 12 years old. These school children attended primary schools at risk for poverty, in the suburbs of Mendoza and were between second and seventh grade in Basic General Learning. Direct scores [success - (failures + omissions)] were obtained within each sex and age range, to later determine accumulative frequencies further transformed into percentile ranges. Results show that the school context plays a significant influence (city or urban) on the performance of focused attention only in 8-years-old girls [F Hotelling (1, 473) = 7.56; p < .006], 12-years-old girls [F Hotelling (1, 122) = 10.57; p < .002] and 12-years-old boys [F Hotelling (1, 122) = 10.57; p < .000003] in city schools. These groups of children scored higher in the attention test as compared to girls and boys of the same age in urban (poorest) schools. At evaluating medium scores in focused attention, obtained in boys and girls attending city schools, as age increases, so does the score. Except for 12-years-old boys and girls whose direct medium scores decrease, a similar situation was observed in groups of urban (poorest) schools. One of the hypotheses on attention evolving development explains that attention development is linked to general cognitive development. Only one side of attention development, that is, attention control, is developed more independently than the rest of the cognitive processes (Hagen & Wilson, 1982). On this theoretical basis, it is 12-years-old children of poorest schools who present less developed attention self-control in relation to similarly aged children of city schools. However, this result deserves further research work. The application of CARAS Test within a school context aims to obtain a closer deficit diagnosis in focused attention, as well as in problematic stimuli discrimination. Hence, this test evaluates whether the intentional behaviour a child can present in class, is closely connected to correct stimuli discrimination in visual search tasks, which expect an attention selective mechanism. This technique enriches psychodiagnosis in school oriented tasks.