Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1668-702720080002&lang=es vol. 25 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[Características no cognitivas, habitus y progreso del aprendizaje de Matemática en la Educación General Básica (EGB) de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina)]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272008000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En el estudio que se informa se investigaron las relaciones entre progreso de aprendizaje (valor agregado), motivación y autoconcepto académico del alumno en Matemática, en el marco de los efectos de las características socioeconómicas y académicas del alumno y de su escuela. Para la medición del valor agregado se utilizaron los resultados de dos pruebas estandarizadas de Matemática aplicadas a una cohorte de alumnos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina) en dos momentos diferentes (séptimo y noveno años de Educación General Básica - EGB). Las mediciones de motivación y de autoconcepto se basaron en respuestas a ítemes binarios de actitudes con respecto a Matemática y fueron definidas utilizando el análisis de la componente principal, a partir de la matriz de correlación tetracórica (método heurístico). Para el análisis de las correlaciones se utilizó la técnica estadística de modelos multinivel. El presente estudio relaciona los resultados empíricos con la teoría del habitus de Bourdieu. Inicialmente, el autoconcepto resulta significativa y positivamente asociado con el puntaje en la prueba y con el progreso de aprendizaje posterior. Este efecto continúa siendo significativo aun cuando se controlan los efectos del nivel socioeconómico y del género del alumno. Sin embargo, su capacidad explicativa es muy tenue desde el punto de vista práctico. Si bien este resultado confirmaría la hipótesis central de la teoría de la reproducción, indica un sendero a través del cual podrían producirse transformaciones. Uno de los desafíos del sistema educativo es promover el habitus escolar cultivado (autoconcepto) más allá de las determinaciones sociales, culturales y económicas.<hr/>The project examines the relationship between achievement, motivation and academic self-concept connected to Mathematic, related to the effect of academic and socioeconomic characteristics of both student and school. The study analyzes the results of two standardized Mathematic tests applied to students in General Basic Education of the Province of Buenos Aires (República Argentina) at two different stages (7th and 9th years), adopting the added value approach to learning progress. The structure of the data and the purpose of measuring the contextual effect of each school or group of students require adopting a multi-level strategy for statistical analysis. From a theoretical point of view, this study is an empirical proof of the hypothesis on habitus-determination (Bourdieu, 1977, 1988, 1989) in relation to both achievement and learning progress in Mathematic. The main components of the student's habitus, which are analyzed here, are self-concept and academic motivation. One relevant result of this study is that students' academic self-concept is significantly and positively associated to differences in learning achievement among students and schools. The higher the self-concept, the higher the achievement in Mathematic. Inter-school variations reflect the grade of institutional segmentation or school habitus. As to attitudes towards Mathematics at the initial stage (7th year) it was possible to explain 65.4% and 24.3% of the variation intra-school and inter-school, respectively, in the final academic achievement or learning progress at the final stage (9th year). Although the effect of self-concept overlaps with that of socioeconomic level and gender, its incidence is important. The stronger that attitude is, the stronger the progress of the student's later learning. The rate of students' progress increases with a more favourable social origin or male gender. The contextual analysis also allowed contrasting some hypothesis of this field of study. The initial achievement average (7th year) of students impacts positively on their subsequent progress average: the higher their initial level of achievement, the faster their later progress. This inference, however, did not obtain when the socioeconomic context of the school was included in the analysis. These results confirm the central hypotheses of reproduction theory. Although statistically significant, the characteristic effect of individual self-concept upon academic achievement and learning progress is very weak when students' social origin is taken into account. The school doesn't seem to promote the increase of individual deviations from a certain state of probabilities that are objectively granted by society to the student. The school aggregation of individual habitus merely overlaps and accompanies the explanation provided by the socioeconomic composition of the school. Differences in internal institutional processes of schools influenced by various dimensions, such as curricular goals, an organizational style of management, the culture and capabilities of educators and administrators, if they exist, cannot account for the differences and inequalities in the learning progress of students. Results illustrate the rationality of the educational system in secondary basic education. At the same time, they suggest paths whereby transformations could take place. Aspects of the cultivated habitus, affective or non-cognitive dimensions as academic self-concept, are relevant to understand the level of achievement and learning progress. The challenge for the system of education is to promote them beyond social, cultural and economic factors. <![CDATA[Promoviendo la serenidad infantil en el contexto escolar: Experiencias preliminares en una zona de riesgo ambiental]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272008000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El notable aumento de la agresiv idad en el contexto escolar preocupa a padres y educadores. Las conductas infantiles disruptivas, que pueden variar desde insultos y burlas hasta verdaderas acciones delictivas, dificultan considerablemente la labor escolar (Marín Sanchez, 2002). Pareciera que cada vez es más difícil para los niños dominar sus propios impulsos y recuperar la calma luego de una frustración o agravio. Este trabajo propone un modelo de intervención, que incluye procedimientos tanto cognitivos como conductuales, para prevenir conductas agresivas y promover la serenidad en un grupo de escolares de 6 a 7 años de edad. Con el objetivo de evaluar la eficacia de dicho modelo, se realizó una prueba piloto en la que participó la totalidad (N = 40) de los alumnos asistentes al turno mañana de primero y segundo grado de la Educación General Básica (EGB), de una escuela incluida en el Plan Nacional de 1.000 escuelas bajo el nivel de pobreza, ubicada en la Provincia de Entre Ríos (República Argentina). Se realizaron entrevistas personales pre y post intervención con el objeto de evaluar con qué tipo de conductas los niños intentaban disipar la ansiedad, el enojo o la frustración. Se realizó un análisis de contenido para analizar el material discursivo recogido mediante las entrevistas y se emplearon pruebas cuantitativas para analizar si se habían producido cambios en las reacciones de los niños como consecuencia de la intervención. Los resultados indican una reducción significativa de las conductas disruptivas luego de la aplicación del modelo de relajación y una adquisición progresiva de respuestas más adaptativas frente a situaciones de estrés interpersonal.<hr/>Parents and educators alike are concerned as a result of a significant increase in aggressive behaviors in school. Disruptive behaviors in children, which can go from making fun and bullying a classmate to real criminal behavior, make academic learning processes more difficult (Marín Sanchez, 2002). Apparently, it seems more difficult for children to control their impulses and regain calmness after an event of frustration or offense. This paper suggests an intervention model that includes both cognitive and behavioral procedures, so as to prevent aggressive behavior and foster calmness in a group of 6 to 7-year old school children. In order to assess the effectiveness of the model proposed, a pilot study was applied to the totality (N = 40) of children attending grades first and second of a elementary school included in the Federal Plan for 1,000 Schools in poverty level, in the Province of Entre Ríos (República Argentina). Personal interviews were carried out before and after the intervention so as to assess whether before a stressful event children had developed the ability of relaxing through their use of an adaptive strategy or, on the contrary, showed hasty reactions, as evidence of lack of control in their impulses and emotions. The intervention strategies were implemented within the classroom. Their teachers acted as overseers and qualified professionals acted as observers, writing down the students' difficulties and achievements, so as to make adjustments in the program according to the needs of every group. Both professionals had been previously trained in both the theoretical and practical aspects of intervention. The program included six 45-minute sessions. Both cognitive and behavioral procedures were used. Strategies of intervention included, among others, modelling, positive reinforcing, mental and physical relaxation techniques, breathing training, behavioral practice, cost-benefits analysis, search for alternatives, self-referential techniques, narrations, and planned games. Every session was closed with a generalization assignment, in order to transfer what had been learnt to other significant contexts (home, neighborhood, etc.). A content analysis was made to analyze the discourse findings collected at the time of the interviews and quantitative tests were applied in order to find out whether changes in behavior had been produced after the intervention. Results show a significant reduction in disruptive behaviors after applying the relaxation model and a progressive acquisition of more adapted answers in interpersonal stress events (V = .37; p = .002). The first assessment showed near 20 percent of clearly violent reactions as a means of solving problems or relieving tensions ("I punch him", "I hit the wall", "I kick him back", etc.); in the second assessment, however, it went down to 11 percent. On the other hand, in the first assessment not a single child mentioned specific attempts of relaxing or calming down before answering to an insult or an aggression episode, but in the second one, 43 percent of answers included this category ("I breathe deeply", "I count up to three first", etc.). Moreover, it was encouraging to find that some children not only made good use of the techniques suggested by the team, but also developed the ability of thinking in new ways of relaxing, which were applied according to their own needs and preferences. <![CDATA[Adaptación y validación argentina de la Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272008000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La deseabilidad social es la necesidad de los sujetos de obtener aprobación respondiendo de un modo culturalmente aceptable y apropiado. Uno de los instrumentos más utilizado para medirla es la Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), desarrollada por los autores en 1960. Es de frecuente aplicación en diversos tipos de estudios de diferentes áreas de la Psicología y la Medicina. Resulta adecuada tanto para estimar sesgos de respuestas en un sentido socialmente deseable como para operacionalizar constructos psicológicos, tales como de necesidad de aprobación o de defensividad. Es la medida estándar para discriminar entre los estilos de respuesta al estrés del modelo de Weinberger, Schwartz y Davidson (1979). A lo largo del tiempo, diversos autores le han realizado modificaciones tales como: cambios de formato de administración, abreviaciones, traducciones y adaptaciones a diversas culturas. En este estudio se describe el desarrollo de la Escala de Deseabilidad Social de Crowne y Marlowe (EDSCM) que es una adaptación argentina de la escala completa MCSDS en su formato original de papel y lápiz. Los datos obtenidos a través de diferentes muestras (estudiantes universitarios, adultos y solicitantes de empleos) respaldan que la EDSCM posee adecuadas confiabilidad y validez de constructo, como lo demuestra el estudio de su validez convergente, validez divergente, validez por técnica de instrucciones diferenciales y validez de grupos conocidos. Se sugiere el uso de la EDSCM para investigaciones en diferentes áreas de Psicología y Medicina en poblaciones argentinas.<hr/>Crowne and Marlowe (1960) developed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) that is a widely used scale to measure social desirability defined as "the need of subjects to obtain approval by responding in a culturally appropriate and acceptable manner" (p. 353). Several studies from psychology and medicine areas have included the MCSDS. The MCSDS is used both to asses and to control for response bias in a socially desirable manner as well as to measure psychological concepts, such as defensiveness or need for approval. Moreover, the MCSDS is the standard measurement to categorize the four coping styles from Weinberger, Schwartz, and Davidson model (1979). Since the MCSDS first appeared, investigators have proposed several changes such as, short forms, computerized administrations, translations and adaptations to diverse cultures. In this study of development of the Escala de Deseabilidad Social de Crowne y Marlowe (EDSCM) is described. The EDSCM Scale is an adaptation to the Argentinian culture of the original MCSDS full scale with a paper-and-pencil administration form. A pilot study with a sample of Psychology student volunteers was conducted to adapt the MCSDS to Argentinian culture. One hundred nineteen psychology college students (93 women and 26 men (M = 28 years; SD = 9.6) from two universities of the Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (República Argentina) volunteered to participate in reliability and validity studies of the EDSCM Scale. The student sample participants completed the EDSCM, the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). For this student sample, the EDSCM scores ranged from 0 to 27, with a mean of 14.13 (SD = 4.99). EDSCM scores were normally distributed with no outlier values. The internal scale reliability of the EDS­CM measured with Cronbach's alpha was .76. No statistically significant mean difference between sexes was found for the EDSCM Scale. A statistically significant association between the L Scale of EPQ and the EDSCM, with a large correlation effect size, provided convergent validity evidence for the EDSCM Scale. With regard to the divergent validity of the EDSCM Scale, a small to medium correlation effect size between the BDI-II and the EDSCM provided evidence that the EDSCM is a social desirability scale independent from psychopathology. A sub-sample of students (n = 52) who previously completed the EDSCM Scale, completed the EDSCM again with instructions to imagine being in a hiring process. Comparing the normal (M = 15.94; SD = 4.81) and the differential instruction condition (M = 28.67; SD = 4.67) a statistically significant increase in the EDSCM scores was detected. To provide known-groups validity, the EDSCM scores derived from an adult sample were compared with the EDSCM scores derived from an applicant sample. The adult sample included 120 participants (73 women and 47 men; M = 35.6 years; SD = 15.9) and the applicant sample included 134 people (61 women and 73 men; M = 28.9 years, SD = 3.4). Both for the adult sample and the applicant sample, there was not statistically significant sex difference for the EDSCM Scale. The applicant condition (M = 23.66; SD = 5.37; a = .75) showed statistically significant higher EDSCM scores than the normal condition (M = 16.09; SD = 5.18; a = .84). In this article, the validity and reliability of the EDSCM Scale have been analyzed, as indicated by the study of convergent and divergent validities, differential instructions technique, and known-groups technique, as well as internal consistency analyses. All consdired, the findings presented appropriate psychometric properties of the Argentinian culture adaptation of the MCSDS. The use of EDSCM Scale is suggested for researches related to psychology and medicine areas in Argentinian samples. <![CDATA[El rol de la instrucción en la comprensión simbólica temprana de mapas]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272008000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Se informan los resultados del estudio del desarrollo de la comprensión simbólica de mapas por parte de niños pequeños. El propósito fundamental consistió en investigar el rol de la instrucción del adulto en el desarrollo temprano de dicha competencia. Se presentan dos estudios en los cuales se realizó una tarea de búsqueda en la que los niños debían utilizar un mapa para encontrar un juguete en una habitación pequeña. En el primer estudio se comparó la ejecución de dos grupos de niños de 30 y 36 meses, brindándoles instrucciones explícitas acerca de la relación mapa-habitación. Se pretendía conocer si dicha relación era susceptible de ser enseñada a los pequeños. Los resultados indicaron que a los 30 meses los niños no lograron el insight representacional, o sea comprender que el mapa y la habitación se hallan relacionados simbólicamente. A los 36 meses, los niños en su mayoría no resolvieron correctamente la primera subprueba, pero luego de recibir instrucción explícita, alcanzaron el insight representacional. En el segundo estudio se examinó a partir de qué edad los niños son capaces de comprender y utilizar la función simbólica de un mapa sin la instrucción del adulto. Se encontró que mientras a los 42 meses algunos niños fueron capaces de resolver la prueba, a los 46 meses la mayoría alcanzó el insight representacional. Esta investigación muestra claramente que la comprensión temprana de mapas no sólo depende de la edad; el andamiaje que proporciona el adulto, bajo la forma de instrucción, es también crucial en algunos puntos del desarrollo.<hr/>Very early in life children must learn to master a wide variety of symbolic systems and objects for a full participation in the culture, like letters, numbers, and pictures. The symbolic systems, like numbers or letters are elements that do not have significance on their own, but provide information when combined in systematic ways. Symbolic objects, on their own, are objects that represent, with different degrees of iconicism or similarity, real entities and provide and transmit specific information. Symbolic objetcs, then, have a dual reality, they are physical objects and, at the same time, they are symbols of the entity they represent. This double nature of symbolic objects is very hard to comprehend by very young children. Symbolic objects can be tridimensional, like scale-models, or bidimensional, as photographs or graphs. This research is focused in the study of the development of early symbolic comprehension of a particular bidimensional symbolic object: a map; specifically we study the role of instruction in this process. Maps can be found among the symbolic objects of a given culture. Like other symbolic objects, they amplify aspects of our perception, attention and cognition; their specific role consists in representing and making comprehensible spatial information. The purpose of this research is to explore if, when and how instruction could affect young children's understanding and use of maps. Specifically, we wanted to know if it is possible to teach very young children the symbolic function of a map, and, if so, when is this possible. An important factor in children's symbolic functioning is the nature and extent of adult informational support. Although we know a great deal about the relation between adult scaffolding and the understanding and production of language and symbolic play, we still know relatively little about the influence of this factor in other symbolic domains such as external representations. So far, no study has investigated the impact of direct instruction or teaching on the detection and use of objects as symbols. In this research a novel manipulation of instruction is proposed: explicit instruction. Explicit instruction implies that the experimenter not only provides complete and detailed information about the symbol-referent relation before the task begins, but also, if necessary, during the task the experimenter corrects and directly teaches the child how to employ the map in order to find the hidden object. The two studies presented in this paper employ a search task in which children have to use a map in order to find a hidden toy in a small room. The first study compares the performance of two age group children (30 months and 36-month-olds) with explicit instructions about the map-room relation. The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to teach little children the symbolic function of a map. The results show that while 30-month-old children are not able to recognize the map-room relation at all, the majority of 36-month-olds children achieved representational insight after failing the first search and being explicitly taught how to use the map. The second study examines at what age children are capable of recognizing and using the symbolic function of a map without adult's instruction. It was found that while at 42 months old some children are able to solve the task with no instructions at all, at 46 months the majority of children achieve representational insight. This research clearly shows that the early comprehension of maps is not solely dependent of age and maturation, the scaffolding that adult instruction provides is also crucial at some points of development.