Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> vol. 26 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[El gesto de señalar: Una llave para la comunicación entre especies]]> El señalamiento puede ser definido como la acción que realiza un individuo, para dar una indicación directa a otro con respecto a un objetivo específico. Implica coordinar la atención visual del otro hacia una entidad distante. En la presente revisión se discuten los trabajos comparativos sobre la producción y comprensión del señalamiento. En cautiverio se observaron respuestas correctas al señalamiento humano para encontrar un objeto escondido en una amplia variedad de especies. En el trabajo que se informa se da especial énfasis a los estudios sobre comunicación entre perros domésticos y humanos, dado que han mostrado ser altamente exitosos utilizando claves sociales humanas para acceder a un refuerzo. Se discuten los posibles mecanismos involucrados, analizando la controversia acerca de la participación de factores cognitivos complejos del tipo de cognición social y teoría de la mente y las explicaciones más cautas sobre procesos de aprendizaje asociativo.<hr/>Communication between two animals takes place when an external observer can detect changes in the behavior of one of them, in response to certain signs emitted by the other one. The pointing gesture is a key element inside gestural communication. It can be defined as the action that an organism executes, to give a direct indication to other one, regarding a specific objective. This gesture is related to how an organism coordinates the visual attention of another one towards a distant entity. It has two principal functions: as declarative gesture, it implies an action that directs the attention of the receiver to an object or event of interest; as imperative gesture, some type of action is required from the receiver. In this paper, some studies focused on the production and, most of them, on the comprehension of pointing are discussed. Regarding the production of communicative cues, primates rarely point in their natural habitats, but captive chimpanzees usually point food out of their reach. There are few studies of communicative production in domestic dogs, and their focus is on the applied value of this ability as in hunting or rescue. This species use body posture, barks and gaze alternation (showing) as communicative cues. On the other hand, the most common test to evaluate whether animals can understand declarative gestures is the object-choice task, which forces subjects to use an indicatory gesture in order to find hidden food. In this test, the subject is given a choice between two possible food locations, usually opaque containers. The experimenter hides food in one of the containers and gives a cue (e.g. pointing, gazing, tapping, etc.) towards the aim container. The subject can choose one of the potential locations, following the human cue. Using pointing as a cue in situations of captivity, correct responses were observed in a wide variety of species including capuchin monkeys, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, dolphins, domestic goats, cats, horses, seals and fur seals. In this paper we give special emphasis to the studies with domestic dogs, because they have shown to be especially skilful at the communicative version of the object choice task. The dogs are very skilful using a variety of cues, including pointing, looking, and bowing towards the object. Moreover, this successful performance takes place from the first trials and from early stages of development, without needing an explicit training. Regarding the elements of pointing gesture, a study has shown that an elevated arm position was the most relevant element in the composition of this signal, whereas the direction of the movement of the arm played a small relevance in the indication of the direction for the dog. The hand or the index fingers seem to be of special importance, while the arm and elbow were not effective signs. Furthermore, in some cases the dogs favour the social information even if there are physical cues that contradict it, such as visual or olfatory cues. We present comparative studies between domestic dogs and other species, including other canids like wolves and foxes, primates and cats. The superior performance of the dogs is analyzed. Finally, the possible mechanisms involved in this ability are discussed, analyzing the controversy between cognitive complex factors, such as social cognition and theory of mind (high level explanation), and more cautious explanations, such as associative learning processes (low level explanation). The relevance of these studies about communication is revealed in the great quantity of applied areas in which dogs are used, such as assistance to disabled persons, search and rescue of people, hunting, herding, defense, pets and others fields. <![CDATA[Factores protectores de la salud mental: Un estudio comparativo sobre valores, autoestima e inteligencia emocional en población clínica y población general]]> El objetivo del trabajo que se informa fue realizar un estudio comparativo de tres factores protectores de la salud mental: inteligencia emocional, valores y autoestima entre 60 pacientes diagnosticados con trastornos de ansiedad y/o depresión y 60 sujetos de población normal. Así la muestra total quedó conformada por 120 sujetos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: la Escala de Valores de Schwartz (1992), la Escala de Inteligencia Emocional Bar-On (1997), la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (1965), la Escala de Ansiedad STAI-rasgo (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg & Jacobs, 1983) y la Escala de Depresión de Beck-II (Beck, Steer & Brown, 2006). Los resultados indicaron que Autoestima y un aspecto de la inteligencia emocional, Felicidad, fueron las variables que mejor distinguieron al grupo clínico del grupo de población general. Dos componentes de la inteligencia emocional, Manejo de Estrés y Estado de Animo, distinguieron claramente entre sujetos con alta y baja ansiedad. Ambas dimensiones permitieron identificar correctamente a un 91.7% de sujetos con alta ansiedad. Un bajo nivel de valores de Autotrascendencia, una alta Autoestima y una alta dimensión del Estado de Animo de la inteligencia emocional permitieron distinguir un 85.3% de los pacientes con alta y baja depresión. Los resultados están en consonancia con los principios de la Psicología Positiva, en tanto que aspectos positivos también contribuyen a las variables patológicas y por lo tanto pueden fortalecerse a través de intervenciones positivas.<hr/>Clinical Psychology is trying to find new approaches to treat psychopathological problems. For this purpose, it takes the contributions of Positive Psychology for promoting mental health. In Clinical Psychology, the positive aspects are tackled in two main ways: as factors to strength in periods of health, and as factors to enhance in periods of illness. Positive or protective factors from Positive Psychology perspective are not conceived as prevention of illness but as promotion of health. Although many studies have focused on several protective factors such as hope, psychological well-being or effective coping, there are other factors much less studied. That is the case of emotional intelligence in a clinical context, the values that a person sustains and its relation with the level of self-esteem. The aim of this study is to present a com parative research of three protective factors of mental health: emotional intelligence, personal values and selfesteem between general and clinical populations. Specifically, it aims to: compare the three protective factors between the two populations and to assess what aspects of emotional intelligence, what type of values and what level of self-esteem relate to low levels of anxiety and depression. The sample was composed of two groups: one group of general population (n = 60) and one group of clinical population (n = 60) formed by patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression. The general population sample was matched with the clinical sample by age and gender. The mean age in the clinical sample was 34.72 years old (SD = 10.23) and 34.23 years old (SD = 11.96) in the general population sample. The clinical group was composed of 12 men and 48 women whereas in the general population group there were 13 men and 47 women (79.2% of women in the whole sample). Participants signed informed consent and completed the questionnaires in presence of a researcher. The instruments used in this study were the Schwartz´s Portrait Values Questionnaire (1992), the Emotional Intelligence Inventory of Bar-On (1997), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (1965), the STAI-trait Scale (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983), and the Beck-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 2006). Results indicated that Selfesteem, the value Self-direction and the aspects of emotional intelligence (Emotional Self-awareness, Assertiveness, Selfregard, Self-actualization, Interpersonal relationship, Reality Testing, Stress Tolerance, Happiness, and Optimism) were significantly different between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in all the aforementioned variables. In order to examine which of these variables discriminated between the two sample groups, a discriminant analyses was carried out. Self-esteem and, an aspect of emotional intelligence, Happiness, were the only variables to clearly differentiate between the clinical and the general samples. However, both variables could only classify a 71.1% of participants. On the basis of percentile values of STAI and Beck scales (cut-off point 70th percentile), both samples were divided into two groups: high and low anxiety level and high and low depression level. Two components of emotional intelligence, Stress Tolerance and General Mood, clearly distinguished between participants with high or low anxiety level. Both aspects allowed a correct identification of 91.7% of participants. On the other hand, low Self-transcendence personal values, high Selfesteem, and high General Mood component of emotional intelligence discriminated between subjects with high or low depression level, with a correct identification of 85.3% of participants. Results are in consonance with the fundamentals of Positive Psychology in terms that positive aspects also relate to pathological variables and, thus, may be enhanced with positive interventions. Both self-esteem and the different dimensions of emotional intelligence have specific structured programs to promote them. <![CDATA[Capacidad de la memoria de trabajo verbal: Validez y fiabilidad de una tarea de amplitud de lectura]]> La memoria de trabajo se refiere a todos aquellos mecanismos o procesos implicados en el control, regulación y mantenimiento activo de información relevante para la ejecución de tareas cognitivas complejas (Miyake & Shah, 1999); es uno de los principales factores limitantes de las capacidades de alto nivel jerárquico, como el razonamiento o la comprensión lectora. En este trabajo se informa un estudio en el que se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas de una de las tareas más conocidas para la evaluación de la capacidad de la memoria de trabajo, la Tarea de Amplitud de Lectura de Daneman y Carpenter (1980). La tarea consiste en leer un conjunto de oraciones no relacionadas entre sí, mientras se retienen sus palabras finales, y determina el máximo número de palabras finales que un participante puede recordar, que se identifica con su amplitud o span. La prueba se adaptó al español rioplatense partiendo de versiones españolas (Elosúa, Gutiérrez, García Madruga, Luque & Gárate, 1996; Gutiérrez, Jiménez & Castillo, 1996) y se administró en sesión individual a 132 voluntarios, conjuntamente con pruebas estandarizadas de memoria de corto plazo y de trabajo, tales como Amplitud de Dígitos y Amplitud Viso-Espacial de la Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS - R, Wechsler & Stone, 1987) y Ordenamiento Dígito-Letra de la Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III - Wechsler, 1987). La tarea de Amplitud de Lectura mostró una alta fiabilidad. Con respecto a su validez, se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas con tareas de memoria verbal, pero no así con tareas de memoria viso-espacial.<hr/>In the study of human behavior, working memory has been seen as a central construct (Conway, Kane, Bunting, Hambrick, Wilhelm, & Engle, 2005) since the cognitive revolution took place. Working memory refers to those mechanisms or processes that are involved in the control, regulation, and active maintenance of task-relevant information in the service of complex cognition (Miyake & Shah, 1999), and is considered one of the main limiting factors for complex abilities such as reasoning or reading comprehension. Methodologically, the Reading Span Task (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980) has proven to be both a reliable and valid measure of working memory capacity, and is a widely used measure. The purpose of this study was to develop a local adaptation of the Reading Span Task, based on two previous Spanish versions (Gutiérrez, Jiménez, & Castillo, 1996; Elo súa, Gutiérrez, García Madruga, Luque, & Gárate, 1996), whose psychometric properties were not known. In both cases, the Reading Span capacity was significantly correlated with measures of reading comprehension. However, the psychometric properties of the Reading Span Task were not analyzed. The task requires participants to read a set of unrelated sentences, each of which is between 12 and 14 words long, one sentence at a time, at their own pace. Sentences are arranged in 4 sets of 2, 3, 4, and 5 sentences. There are three different trials at each set-size (number of sentences) level. After having read all the sentences in each set, participants try to recall the final word of each sentence. Working memory capacity is both the maximum number of sentences for which the participant can recall the final word (Span) and the total number of sentence-final words recalled (Conway et al., 2005). The task was administered in one session to 132 undergraduates at the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), along with other standardized short-term and working memory tests, Digit Span and Visuo-Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (Wechsler & Stone, 1987), and Letter- Number Sequencing from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (Wechsler, 2003). The Reading Span Task showed high reliability (α = .95). The percentile analysis shows that those participants that obtained a Span of 2 or recalled 6 words fall in the 25th percentile, while those that obtained scores above a Span of 3.5 and recalled more than 24 words fall above the 75th percentile. The correlation analysis shows that the Reading Span Task has positive and significant correlations with verbal memory tasks (measured by Span, Forward Digit Span r = .408; p < .01; Backward Digit Span r = .502; p < .01; Letter-Number Sequencing r = .504; p < .01; measure by Number of sentencefinal words recalled, Forward Digit Span r = .416; p < .01; Backward Digit Span r = .496; p < .01; Letter-Number Sequencing r = .489; p < .01) , but not with visuo-spatial memory tasks (measure by Span, Forward Visuo-Spatial Span r = .169; p = n.s.; Backward Visuo-Spatial Span r = .018; p = n.s.; measure by Number of sentence-final words recalled, Forward Visuo-Spatial Span r = .189; p < .05; Backward Viso- Spatial Span r = .032; p = n.s.). A factor analysis showed the separation of the two factors involved in the tasks: a verbal factor whose capacity is affected by the Reading Span Task, Digit Span and Letter - Number Sequencing tasks, and a visuo-spatial factor whose capacity is affected by the visuo-spatial amplitude tasks. Results indicate that the Reading Span Task can be considered an appropriate, valid and reliable measure of the capacity of verbal working memory, useful for doing research on cognitive processes and for neuropsychological assessment. <![CDATA[Psicofísica comparada: Efectos de la pérdida de incentivos en ratas normales e inyectadas con etanol]]> Un problema de la Psicofísica particularmente relevante para el estudio de procesos de condicionamiento es el de la relación entre las propiedades de refuerzo y físicas de los es tímulos. Papini y Pellegrini (2006) observaron que el nivel de respuestas de consumo en ratas expuestas a una disminución sor presiva en la con centración de soluciones azucaradas resulta similar, si la razón de cambio de las soluciones (concentración post-cambio / pre-cambio) es la misma. Por ejemplo, una disminución de 32 a 4% y una de 16 a 2% produjeron niveles de consumo similares. Estos resultados son acordes a la Ley de Weber y podrían implicar el desarrollo de procesos emocionales; algo que se ha establecido mediante el estudio de drogas ansiolíticas. En situaciones experimentales análogas en las que se estudió el efecto de contraste negativo de incentivo (con una disminución de 32 a 4%) se demostró que la administración de etanol en el segundo ensayo post-cambio produce una recuperación más rápida de las respuestas deprimidas debido a una disminución del refuerzo (Becker & Flaherty, 1982), en comparación con controles que recibieron salina. En el presente trabajo se informa un experimento que involucró ocho grupos de ratas y que buscó replicar ambos fenómenos así como estudiar sus posibles interacciones. Se hallaron resultados compatibles con los datos previos, pero no se pudo concluir si el etanol afecta de manera determinante los niveles de respuesta proporcionales observados durante disminuciones de incentivo. Los resultados se discuten en términos de su implicancia para el estudio de la Psicofísica Comparada.<hr/>A psychophysical problem that might be of particular interest in current research on conditioning phenomena, and that exceeds the area of sensation and perception, concerns the reinforcing properties of stimuli and their relationships to the physical measures of the stimuli. Stimuli acting as reinforcers are operationally defined as those which have the property of changing the probability of response output of an organism if they are presented in an ordered fashion in relation to other stimuli or responses. From a biopsychological point of view the scale in which this property is measured is referred to as the stimulus incentive value. Papini and Pellegrini (2006) observed that the level of consummatory responses in rats exposed to surprising reductions in sucrose concentrations is similar if the shift ratio of the solutions (preshift / postshift concentration) is the same. For example, a 32 to 4% downshift and a 16 to 2% downshift produced similar levels of consummatory responding. Pellegrini and Papini (2007) and Pellegrini, Lopez Seal, and Papini (2008) extended this observations to measures of anticipatory behaviours of rats in studies implementing runway, autoshaping, solid food and within subjects design. These results are in agreement with the Weber´s Law. The incentive downshift situations as observed in spaced-trials conditions are interesting in psychological terms because they might imply the development of emotional processes (Amsel, 1992; Flaherty, 1996; Papini, 2002, 2003). Therefore, the aforementioned proportionality in incentive downshift situations might also imply proportional emotional responses. The evidence favoring an emotional interpretation of behavioral regulation during incentive downshifts arise mostly from studies which used drugs with anxiolitic-like effects (for example, clordiazepoxide and ethanol). For example, in similar experimental conditions it has been shown that the administration of ethanol before the second postshift trial reduces the level of response depression due to incentive downshifts (Becker & Flaherty, 1982). Here we present one experiment with eight groups of rats designed to replicate both of these findings and to study their potential interactions. Groups differed in the concentration of preshift sucrose solutions (either 32 or 16%) and postshift solution (16, 8, 4 or 2%), which implied two different downshift ratios (.125 and .25); and in the drug condition [vehicle (S), or an ip. injection of .75g/kg ethanol (E) administered 10 min. before the second postshift trial]. In short, the eight groups were labeled as follows: 32-8S, 32-8E, 32-4S, 32-4E, 16-4S, 16-4E, 16-2S, and 16-2E. Results are in agreement with previous data, indicating, first, a strong significant effect of downshift ratio F(1, 34) = 19,15, p < .0001; and second, a small but significant effect of ethanol administration on the recovery from incentive downshift F(1, 34) = 5,09, p < .031. However, these results are not conclusive regarding the possibility that ethanol administration can modify the proportionality observed in consummatory responding in incentive downshift situations. Also important is the observation that the 32-4 and 16-4 conditions differed respecting its postshift consummatory performance (32-4 < 16-4); the difference was significant [F(1, 18) = 6,71; p < .018] and is interpreted as a special case of the successive negative incentive contrast effect. In his classic writings on Adaptation Level Theory, Helson (1964, pp. 448-449), argued that "The evidence shows that reinforcing agents behave like psychophysical stimuli being scalable on continua having neutral or indifferent regions and in being subject to both series and anchor effects". Present results are in agreement with this statement and their implications for studies on Comparative Psychophysics are discussed. It is suggested that further research with alternative anxiolitic drugs and experimental designs might be of interest. <![CDATA[Debates sobre la modularidad en Psicología del Desarrollo: ¿Hacia un nuevo constructivismo?]]> El presente trabajo informa acerca del estado de los debates sobre la modularidad y sus implicaciones en Psicología del Desarrollo, en particular aplicada a la comprensión del desarrollo cognitivo. En primer lugar se examina el surgimiento y desarrollo de una hegemonía modularista dentro de la Psicología Cognitiva del Desarrollo, revisando hipótesis acerca de la arquitectura mental que surgen del trabajo teórico de Fodor (1983 / 1986) y de la investigación empírica que indica la existencia de estructuras y contenidos innatos en bebés. Las contribuciones del paradigma modularista llevan al reconocimiento de diferencias entre la consideración del bebé como tabla rasa, propia de las teorías piagetiana y conductista y un nuevo bebé innatista con competencias iniciales mucho más poderosas. Explicar en qué consiste el desarrollo cognitivo implica ahora un difícil equilibrio, ya que cuantas más propiedades de dominio específico se reconozcan en la mente del bebé, es decir, cuanto más modularizada esté la mente al comienzo del desarrollo, menos creativo y flexible será el sistema posterior. La hipótesis de la modularización de Karmiloff-Smith (1992 / 1994) puede servir para considerar la modularidad (redefinida) como el producto natural del proceso mismo de desarrollo. Es necesario continuar el debate para replantear un modelo constructivista, más aquí o más allá de la modularidad a lo Fodor, pero también de Piaget y del paradigma computacional, que responda al mismo tiempo a las actuales posibilidades de investigación de la Neurobiología del Desarrollo. Como consecuencia, probablemente el mismo papel de la Psicología del Desarrollo en el debate lleve a redefinir el alcance de esta disciplina, trascendiendo (aunque sin abandonar) su marco computacional de referencia.<hr/>This work communicates some discussions on modularity and its implications in Developmental Psychology, particularly applied to the understanding of cognitive development. First, we review some reasons for the emergence and expansion of a modular hegemony within the Developmental Cognitive Psychology the last two decades. We examine both assumptions about the mental architecture arising from the theoretical work of Fodor (1983 / 1986), as well as empirical research that indicates the existence of innate structures and contents in babies. While reviewing critically various modular models, we consider such hegemony and open lines of the debate. Progress of the modularity has led in different directions and disciplines within the cognitive sciences. On the one hand, much of the psychological research was conducted to search for modules, going against the general domain paradigm of long tradition. Theorizing was a dramatic turnaround beyond Fodor, assuming the hypothesis of massive modularity, which maintains the mind consists essentially (or may be completely) by innate modules for specific purposes. Modularity also appears as encouragement of investigations in the field of Neurobiology, working steadily on pathological cases such as double dissociations or atypical development (vg. Williams Syndrome). There are also positions of soft modularity, like the assumption of modularization of Karmiloff-Smith -which seems to have marked a turning point in the dynamics of theorizing and experimentation on the subject in question. Contributions from the paradigm of modularity led to estimate the differences between baby's consideration as a blank slate without any previous knowledge- the Piagetian and behaviorist babies, and a new nativist baby, initially much more powerful. For the standard constructivism, mind development occurs by general changes that affect the general structures of representation for all domains, and that operate on all aspects of cognitive system similarly, from a few processes biologically determined and functional processes as invariant. For the nativist / modular thesis, the baby is much better equipped from this starting, and is programmed to understand specific sources of information; their further development will be restricted by the specific innately modules established for each domain. To explain cognitive development would involve a difficult balance: while there are more specific domain properties in the baby's mind, less creative and flexible will be their cognitive system. Neuroscience of development and recent experiments with babies, provide elements to try reconciliation between their explanation of the constructivist legacy and the new findings about the innate background of the babies. The evolutionary specialization of human beings would be characterized precisely by a relative lack of expertise at birth, and a very lengthy development during which our brains learn and configure out. So, it would be possible to stay (or return) to constructivist positions, without abandoning the notion that there is something innate -although not necessarily coincident with the Fodor's view. This approach is borrowing heavily from the idea of modularization of Karmiloff-Smith (1992 / 1994). She proposed that the domain expertise and modularity (re-defined) may well be understood as the natural product of the process of development. According to this author, modularization is the result of a process of representational redescription, a phased-development mechanism, able to give an account of the genesis of flexibility and variety of human cognition. Perhaps the challenge will be continuing with the debate in order to figure out the core features of a renewed constructivism, within or beyond the Fodorian modularity, but also of Piaget and computational paradigm, that considers modularistic contributions, and it is compatible with psychological and neurobiological theories. As a result, probably the same role of Developmental Psychology in this debate will lead to redefine the scope of this discipline, transcending (but not abandon) its computational framework. <![CDATA[Efectividad de la psicoterapia y su relación con la alianza terapéutica]]> En este estudio se evalúa la efectividad de la psicoterapia individual realizada por terapeutas noveles en la Clínica Psicológica de la Universidad de La Frontera (Temuco - Chile) y su relación con la alianza terapéutica. La investigación es de carácter cuantitativo, con diseño de grupo único y evaluaciones al inicio y término de la terapia. En el estudio participaron 23 consultantes, cuyos procesos psicoterapéuticos eran conducidos por 11 estudiantes de los últimos niveles de la Carrera de Psicología, que realizaban su primera experiencia en atención psicoterapéutica supervisada, o se encontraban efectuando su práctica profesional. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron las versiones adaptadas para Chile del Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2) de De la Parra y Von Bergen (2000, 2002) que permite evaluar el nivel de cambio en el curso de la terapia y sus resultados finales y del Working Alliance Inventory (Inventario de Alianza de Trabajo, IAT-P) de Santibáñez (2001) que evalúa la alianza terapéutica desde la perspectiva del paciente. Los resultados informan diferencias significativas entre la primera y última aplicación del OQ-45.2. Los puntajes obtenidos en el IAT-P están ubicados en los dos tercios superiores de la escala, observándose una restricción de rango con sesgo positivo. Se evidencia una asociación significativa entre la alianza terapéutica percibida por el paciente y el resultado de la psicoterapia, tanto en el puntaje total de la escala OQ-45.2, como en la Subescala de Síntomas. Estos resultados son discutidos considerando la investigación actual en el área y el trabajo realizado por terapeutas noveles.<hr/>The present study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of individual psychotherapy undertaken at the Psychological Clinic of the Universidad de La Frontera (Temuco, Chile) and its relationship with the therapeutic alliance. The investigation involved 23 adult patients with neurotic symptoms. Their therapeutic processes were carried out by 11 trainee students from the regular psychology training program. Out of these, 4 therapists were performing their first supervised psychotherapeutic experience, and 7 therapists were undertaking their professional training using either a psychodynamic or a humanistic- experiential approach. The therapeutic processes considered in this study lasted between 5 and 42 sessions, comprising the following closure modalities: agreed closure between the patient and therapist because of the fulfillment of objectives, closure requested by the patient, and withdrawal of the therapeutic process. The instruments used were the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2) adapted for Chilean population by De la Parra and Von Bergen (2000, 2002), an instrument that allows to evaluate the level of change in the final course of the therapy and its outcomes; and the Working Alliance Inventory (Inventario de Alianza Terapéutica, IAT-P) adapted for Chilean population by Santibánez (2001), an instrument that evaluates the level of therapeutic alliance from the perspective of the patient. The study was quantitative in nature, with a unique group design and evaluations at the beginning and at the end of the therapy. For each patient, the OQ-45.2 was administered at the end of the first, and after the last psychotherapy session. In addition, the IAT-P was administered once, at the fourth session. In order to assess the pre-post psychotherapy differences, a samples-related t test was performed. In addition, a Reliable Change Index was calculated using scores of the first and final OQ-45.2 administration; and finally, the percentage of patients with clinically significant change, was estimated. The administration of the IAT-P showed a restriction of range with positive bias both, on overall total scale scores as well on each subscale score. For this reason, using the median, two subgroups for the overall IAT were created. Also, two subgroups were generated for each subscale: a subgroup of subjects with scores higher than the median and a subgroup of subjects with scores below the median. Then, by using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Reliable Change Index from the groups with high or low levels of alliance were compared. Results of this study showed significant differences between the first and last application of the OQ-45.2. In order to estimate whether the change was clinically significant, cut-off scores and Reliable Change Index were used. In the OQ-45.2 scale, 17 patients left the clinical group, 12 people met the Reliable Change Index criterion, and 8 people showed a clinically significant change. In relation to the closure modality, 7 patients with clinically significant change ended the psychotherapy with a discharge given by the therapist, while one requested the closure of the therapy. Scores from the IAT-P were located in the upper two thirds of the scale. The Bond Subscale had the highest mean, while Tasks and Goals got a slightly lower value. With respect to the main issue, it was found a significant association between therapeutic alliance and the outcome of the psychotherapy both, on overall total scale scores of the OQ-45.2 as well Symptoms Scale of the same instrument. Results showed that the alliance between therapist and the patient especially helped to reduce patient's symptoms. In addition, it was evident that students in training were able to establish good alliance with their patients, and thus to promote the achievement of the therapeutic outcome. These results are discussed taking into account current research on this topic. <![CDATA[Percepción de clima social familiar y actitudes ante situaciones de agravio en la adolescencia tardía]]> El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la posible incidencia que ejerce la percepción del clima social familiar sobre las actitudes ante situaciones de agravio en otros ámbitos. Con este fin, fueron estudiados a través de un diseño de investigación ex post facto, 140 sujetos de ambos sexos de 18 a 24 años de edad, residentes en las provincias de Entre Ríos y Mendoza (República Argentina). Los instrumentos empleados fueron la adaptación de la Escala de Clima Social Familiar (FES) de Fernández Ballesteros (1995), el Cuestionario de Actitudes ante Situaciones de Agravio (Moreno & Pereyra, 2000) y un cuestionario demográfico para recabar variables como edad, sexo y estado civil, entre otras. Los da tos fueron analizados con Análisis de Variancia Múltiple (MANOVA). Los resultados del estudio indican que se encontraron diferencias significativas con respecto a las actitudes Venganza y Perdón entre los grupos que presentaron diferente clima familiar. Los que percibieron un clima menos favorable mostraron más predisposición a la Venganza y menos tendencia al Perdón ante la ofensa, en los ámbitos de trabajo, amistad, padres y Dios. Las actitudes ante el agravio más agresivas se vieron afectadas por la percepción negativa del clima familiar. Las actitudes prosociales se relacionaron con un ambiente más favorable. Los resultados obtenidos parecen estar de acuerdo con el modelo complementario, que plantea que las relaciones familiares proporcionan un aprendizaje de valores y habilidades básicas para la interacción con los demás en otros ámbitos.<hr/>The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possible impact that the family social environment perception has on one's attitude when facing offensive situations in other environments. To this end, through an ex post facto investigation, 140 subjects of both sexes between the ages of 18 and 24, homogeneous by gender (70 men and 70 women) were studied. These subjects were residents in provinces of Entre Ríos and Mendoza (República Argentina). Throughout its existence, the individual is heavily influenced by their environment. This assertion has been supported by authors in the fields of Psychology and Educational Psychology (Bowbly, Winnicot, and others). Also, how to perceive the environment influences how the individual behavior in that environment. Then accordingly, the objective of this research was to determine whether a better social environment for families (greater cohesion and expressiveness and less conflict) is associat ed with a more prosocial attitude to the offense, from a psychological point of view, in the late adolescence. The evaluation methods applied were: The Family Social Environment Scale from Moos, R., Moos, B., and Trickett a dapted by Fernández Ballesteros (1995). To evaluate the family environment of the participants used the Dimension Relationship: describes the relationships between family members, aspects of development that are most important in it and its basic structure. The Attitudes on Offensive Circumstances Questionnaire (Moreno & Pereyra, 2000) and a demographic survey. In analyzing the data, Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted. The results of the study showed significant differences in consideration of attitudes towards Revenge and Forgiveness in the groups with different familiar environment. Those who perceived a less favorable atmosphere demonstrated a greater predisposition towards Revenge and less towards Pardon when faced with offensive situations in their work environment, friendships, with their parents and with God. The attitudes facing more aggressive offenses were seen to be affected by the negative perception of the familiar atmosphere. The prosocial attitudes were connected to a more favorable atmosphere. The subjects of the sample that perceived less cohesion and expressiveness were more predisposed to aggressive answers and less to the forgiveness before the damage that those who were perceiving more cohesion at home. As well as those who were perceived less expressiveness showed to have more predisposition to the revenge before the offense that those who perceived more expressiveness in the family. The results showed in the areas of relationships observed, that the late adolescents with better family environment stretch to attitudes on the offense in the relations with the parents, God, the friends and his mate of job. The young of the less positive family environment showed predisposition to answers, such of more aggressive type, as the revenge before the offense in the relations with the parents, God and mate of job and a trend to the rancor in the relationship with friends. Some skills can be learned in other areas of relationships and, in turn, encourage them to a better family atmosphere, that is, more cohesive, more expressiveness and less conflict within the home. However, family relationships have a longer period and learning that makes them often have more impact than that acquired from other areas of relationship (Martínez & Fuertes, 1999). Finally, the results found in the present study seem to be more in accordance with the complementary model of Gold and Yanof (1985, cited in Martínez, 1997), that poses that the familiar relations provide a learning of values and basic skills for the interaction with others and no so much with the compensate model as which the relations with the equal would see intensified when the familiar environment and relations are poor (Fuligni & Eccles, 1993, cited in Martínez, 1997; Martínez, 1997). <![CDATA[Interacciones entre el entendimiento de la falsa-creencia y el desarrollo de la habilidad verbal: Diferencias entre los sexos en edad preescolar]]> En este artículo se analiza el desempeño de niños y niñas en la resolución de tareas de falsa-creencia y se explora la posible influencia del desarrollo de las habilidades verbales sobre las diferencias de rendimiento entre ambos sexos en dichas tareas. El trabajo incluye dos estudios: En el Estudio 1 se comparó el entendimiento de la falsa-creencia y la habilidad verbal de 17 niños y 17 niñas costarricenses de 5 años, con el entendimiento de la falsa-creencia y de la habilidad verbal de 17 niños y 17 niñas costarricenses de 6 años de edad. Para el Estudio 2, los mismos participantes del grupo de 5 años del Estudio 1 fueron reevaluados después de un período de 3 meses. En el Estudio 1, el grupo de niñas de 6 años evidenció un desempeño significativamente mayor que el grupo de niñas de 5 años, tanto en el índice de habilidad verbal como en el entendimiento de la falsa-creencia. En contraste, entre los niños de 5 y 6 años solo se encontró un incremento no significativo en los puntajes de ambas variables. Luego de reevaluar a los participantes de 5 años, el Estudio 2 confirmó estas diferencias entre ambos sexos y verificó que los incrementos entre ambas variables son mutuamente dependientes. Los hallazgos principales de ambos estudios señalan diferencias significativas en el desarrollo cognitivo de los preescolares según su sexo. La relevancia de los resultados se discute en el contexto del debate actual sobre las interacciones entre la habilidad verbal y la teoría de la mente durante la edad preescolar.<hr/>The purpose of this article is to analyze some developmental interactions between cognitive processes during the preschool period. In specific, we are interested in the interactions between verbal ability and false-belief understanding. The research explores the performance of boys and girls in the execution of false-belief tasks, and evaluates the possible influence of verbal ability development on the sex differences in the falsebelief scores. In recent times, the emphasis on the sex differences in this dimension of social cognition has been an important issue stemming from the results of current lines of research. The present work is divided in two studies. The Study 1 compares the false-belief understanding and verbal ability of 17 five-year-olds Costa Rican boys and 17 five-year-olds Costa Rican girls, with the false-belief understanding and verbal ability of 17 six-year-olds Costa Rican boys and 17 six-year-olds Costa Rican girls. The main interest of this first study is focused on the identification of interactions between the cognitive processes of the participants. Sub sequently, in Study 2, the same five-year-olds that participated in Study 1 were reevaluated through the same measures after a period of 3 months. The goal of this second study was to follow up the tendencies evidenced in the previous study, after a brief period of time. As an attempt to capture specific details in the development of these processes and given the recommendations of previous works, an interval of 3 months between measures was used here for the first time in the context of this line of research. All the participants were students from a public preschool in the capital city of Costa Rica and native speakers of the Spanish language. Additional inclusion criteria take into account the absence of developmental disorders and other antecedents of psychiatric / psychological intervention. The assessment of false- belief understanding was through a battery that includes four different false-belief tasks. This battery was conformed by 3 first order false-belief tasks, and one second order false-belief task. For the assessment of verbal ability, the study includes 4 subtests (Information, Arithmetic, Vocabulary, and Comprehension) from the WPPSI-III Verbal Ability Scale. The results of the Study 1 evidenced that the six-year-olds girls had significantly higher scores than the five-year-olds girls, both in verbal ability and in false-belief understanding. Interestingly, the improvements in both abilities were mutually dependent. In contrast, the scores at the same variables showed a small but not significant improvement between five and six-year-olds boys. In Study 2, our results confirm these sex differences through the reassessment of the same five-year-olds, and verify that the improvements in both abilities are mutually dependent. The main results of both studies highlights important sex differences in the cognitive development of preschool children. In both studies the false-belief understanding and verbal ability improve significantly in girls but not in boys. The implications of our data are discussed in the context of the actual debate about the interaction between verbal ability and theory of mind during the preschool years. The possible influences of different socialization processes associated with a particular gender are discussed, as well as other tentative mediating factors like the empathic abilities or the influence produced by the context of different daily play scenarios among boys and girls. Research limitations like the particular period of assessment between measures in the Study 2 or the necessity of more tasks for each construct are also discussed. Finally, tentative mechanisms that could account for our data are considered.