Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Interdisciplinaria]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1668-702720100001&lang=es vol. 27 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <link>http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es</link> <description/> </item> <item> <title><![CDATA[Desarrollo de una escala de medición de la resiliencia con mexicanos (RESI-M)]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Las personas que viven situaciones muy adversas, pueden sufrir consecuencias muy serias en su desarrollo psicológico. Sin embargo, se ha podido constatar que algunos individuos logran no solo superar la adversidad, sino incluso salir fortalecidos de ella. A estas personas se las llama resilientes. La resiliencia no es unidimensional o un atributo dicotómico que las personas tienen o no tienen; implica la posesión de múltiples habilidades en varios grados que ayudan a los individuos a afrontar (Reivich & Shatté, 2002). El objetivo del trabajo que se informa fue desarrollar un instrumento con población mexicana (Escala de Resiliencia Mexicana, RESI-M), tomando como base dos escalas que miden la resiliencia en adultos: The Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) de Connor y Davidson (1999) y The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) de Friborg, Hjemdal, Rosenvinge y Martinussen (2001) para lo cual participaron 217 sujetos de 18 a 25 años, de ambos sexos. Los resultados muestran que 43 ítemes cargaron en cinco factores: (1) Fortaleza y confianza en sí mismo, (2) Competencia social, (3) Apoyo familiar, (4) Apoyo social y (5) Estructura. Asimismo, se observó que existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los factores de la resiliencia, de acuerdo con el sexo, la edad y el estado civil, observándose que las mujeres obtienen puntajes más altos en apoyo social, el grupo de más edad tiene un mayor promedio en competencia social y apoyo familiar y final-mente las personas casadas se sienten más fuertes y con más confianza en sí mismas y los solteros perciben un mayor apoyo social en comparación con los casados.<hr/>People who live through adverse situations may experience serious consequences in their psychological development. However there is evidence that show that many individuals have not only been able to overcome such difficulties but have emerged stronger from them. These people we may call resilient. Resilience is not a dimensional or a dichotomous attribute that individuals have or have not; it implies the possession of multiple habilities in some level that help individual to cope (Reivich & Shatté, 2002). The object of the current study has been to develop a scale with Mexican population (Mexican Resilience Scale RESI-M) the use of two scales which may be used to measure resilience in adults. The Connor- Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, 1999) and the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA - Friborg, Hjemdal, Rosenvinge, & Martinussen, (001)). The research included 217 adults between the ages 17 to 25 of both sexes. The results showed that of the 43 recognized items, five factors have been formed. (1) Strength and confidence in theirselves: Personal competition, high standards and determination. It is the conviction that one is sufficiently prepared to be able to face any situation that appears even if unforeseen. It is the conviction that, although not all the answers might be known, one can look for them and find them. It refers to the set of positive expectations on oneself or more specific oneself actions, as well as to the aptitude to accept or to cope with events in spite of the stress that they may inflict with it. (2) Social competence: Capacity or ability of the subject to interact in a successful way with his environment and to achieve the legitimate satisfaction of his needs, upon exercising determined influence on his similar (in the sense of to be taken into account), is a quality very related to the health, the emotional adjustment and the welfare of the individuals. (3) Family support: It refers to the time that the members of the family share, the loyalty that exists among them and the fortress of the family ties. (4) Social support: It refers tothe existing links among the subject and a definite assembly of people, with which is feasible the exchange of communication, solidarity and confidence. (5) Structure: It is understood like the rules and the activities that carry out the people and that facilitate them to have organization and order in their life. At the same time they observed the existence of statistical differences in the factors of the resilience according to gender, age and marital status, observing that women obtained higher scores in social support, the older group has higher scores in social competence and familiar support and finally, married people feel emotionally stronger and higher self-confidence and single group senses higher supported (social support) than married. To conclude we can affirm that according to the results of this study, it can be observed that this construct is multidimensional since includes abilities of diverse type that help the individuals to cope in life. The RESI-M contains five dimensions, in which they are grouped some of the characteristics that emphasize the resilient answers in different levels: individual, family and social. The individual level is very important since this related to behaviors such as to set goals, to be motivated, to be engaged, to have self-control, to be responsible, to make decisions, to confront pacific and objectively the problems, to have an internal locus of control and a sense of life, as well as to be optimist, they are very powerful tools to confront difficult situations. It is considered besides that the family support is the most important social backup, since is in the family breast where is educated the children, security offers them and so much material as emotional support. Nevertheless other sources of support exist such as the school, the friends, the tutors, among others, that also they respond to the needs of the individuals. <![CDATA[Relativismo cultural del Modelo de Personalidad de Millon en América Latina: Un estudio con adolescentes]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Este estudio profundiza el análisis estadístico e interpretativo de cuatro patrones de personalidad del Inventario Clínico para Adolescentes de Millon (MACI-Millon, 1993). Estos patrones (Sumiso, Dramatizador, Egoísta y Conformista) han presentado un comportamiento no acorde con la teoría, en estudios realizados con adolescentes latinoamericanos. Se informa una revisión de los datos del estudio de baremación chilena del MACI, desarrollado con una muestra de 807 adolescentes, de 13 a 19 años, diferenciada por sexo y dicotomizada en dos grupos: no-consultantes (200 hombres y 206 mujeres) y consultantes (212 hombres y 189 mujeres) que contestó el MACI y el Inventario Multifásico de la Personalidad de Minnesota para Adolescentes (MMPI-A). Un conjunto de análisis de validez diagnóstica determinó que las escalas MACI diferenciaban de modo inverso a lo esperado teóricamente y estableció puntajes de corte óptimos entre los dos grupos. La comparación, mediante las escalas clínicas del MMPI-A, entre los grupos de funcionamiento sano y funcionamiento alterado creados por la segmentación de la muestra según el puntaje de corte de cada escala, indicó que estas escalas presentaban el comportamiento contra-teórico observado previamente. Estos resultados son discutidos considerando el síndrome cultural individualismo - colectivismo y los rasgos personales colectivistas que se presentan preferentemente en los grupos de adolescentes latinoamericanos. También se ofrecen criterios de interpretación clínica para estas escalas que integran características específicas relacionadas con la interacción social afectiva (escalas Dramatizador y Egoísta) y el respeto a las normas grupales (escalas Sumiso y Conformista) que se presentan preferentemente en la cultura latinoamericana.<hr/>This article deepens on the statistical and interpretative analysis done with four personality patterns from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI - Millon, 1993). These patterns (Submissive, Dramatizing, Egotistic, and Conforming) have presented, in different studies done with Latin-American adolescent samples,a psychometric behaviour different from the one we shall expect in agreement with Millon's theory. To do this, the data from the MACI's Chilean normative study was revised deeply. A sample of 807 adolescents, aged 13 through 19, divided by sex and also divided into a non consulting group (200 males and 206 females), and a clinical group (212 males and 189 females), was selected. All participants responded the MACI and the Minnesota Multiphasic Person ality Inventory for Adolescents (MMPI-A, Butcheret al., 1992). With the MACI scales data, a serie of statistical analysis for diagnostic validity (Hsu, 2002) that included Cohen's effect size (d),a percentage of non-overlap of the two distributions (U1), areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and sensibility and specificity analysis, were run through successive stages. First, results confirmed that the scales Submissive, Dramatizing, Egotistic and Conforming scored significantly higher in the non-consulting groups than they did in the consulting groups, this finding confirmed that Submissive, Dramatizing, Egotistic and Conforming scales presented a counter-theory behaviour. Second, the same set of analysis allowed to determine cutting point scores that had the capability for discriminating among participants coming from the non-consulting and the consulting groups. Later, the MMPI-A clinical scales data were analysed through a set of MANOVAS and ANOVAS drawing significant differentiation between the healthy functioning and disorderly functioning groups that were created by dividing the sample on the basis of cutting point scores from each scale. These analyses also confirmed the counter-theory behavior for the scales Submissive, Dramatizing, Egotistic and Conforming found in previous studies in Latin-America. Results showed that healthy functioning groups had higher MACI scores and MMPI-A scores around T 50, which indicated a healthy functioning; vice versa disordered functioning groups presented lower MACI scores and MMPI-A scores around or higher than T 60, which is an indicator of pathological functioning. The interpretation of these results was done considering the cultural syndrome of individualism and collectivism which reflects shared attitudes, beliefs, norms, roles and values among people belonging to a specific cultural group. According to Triandis (2001), the central theme shared by collectivist individuals is the conception of themselves as aspects of groups or collectivities, on the other hand, the individualism central theme is the conception of the individuals as autonomous from groups. Collectivist adolescents are likely to define themselves by giving priority to in-group goals, they pay less attention to internal than external processes as determinant of social behavior, and they define the relationship with the in-group members as communal. Collectivist personal traits, affect the personality functioning of adolescents coming from Latin-American countries in two aspects: They are reflected in elevations of the Dramatizing and Egotistic scales by integrating specific characteristics related to externalized, affective and warm social interactions; also they are reflected in elevations of the Submissive and Conforming scales by emphasizing specific characteristics related to the respect for the group norms and rules and keeping group harmony. At the end of the study, a bipolar clinical interpretation criteria, that includes the possibility of pathological functioning in very low and very high scores, is offered for each scale to be used as a guide for interpreting these MACI scores in the context of adolescence within the Latino-American culture. <![CDATA[Two fundamental ecological relationships that deepen the sense of social, economical and ethical values of mental representations]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Over the definition of any possible ecological relationships concerning life-quality competition, survival and transformation standards (concerning animal, human and social life forms) still two basic ecological relationships providing new insights to old problems of Biology, Sociology, Ethics, and Economy can be enhanced. They are ferocity /depredation versus angelically / protection as opposite basic ecological relationships. One main key rests on the correspondence that these relationships keep with the emergence of opposed crucial values like tangible values versus intangible values. These two categories also concern with the ecological, social and cultural further meanings of ethical moods implied by the two ecological relationships above. So, the sense of tangible (material) values over intangible (immaterial) values coheres with the sense of the ferocity /depredation relationship and their adversarial attitudes, while the evolutionary emergence of the angelically / protection relationship and its corresponding harboring attitudes are especially explained in such way that this relationship generates the effective prevalence of intangible / immaterial values over tangible / material ones when both kind of values get into conflict because of opposed life purposes. From these concepts (both on values and ecological relationships) all further social relationship, attitude, mental attribution or representation can be explained as a significant values mix, intercalation or partial balance between the two basic ecological relationships. These appreciations can render new values meanings and ethical categorizations to social and economical relationships. However, they must be interchangeable in terms of attitude mix and unbalance: A same living-agent may act predomi- nantly one ecological-relationship and then change to the other. The eagle acts ecologically harshly by the ferocity / depredation relationship when chasing the rabbit, while immediately shifts ecologically to the angelically / protection relationship when kindly disgorging flesh into its chicks'bills. Any living organism may in any moment adopt one ecological relationship instead the other conveying the implications of the two kinds of values tangible and intangible that they make prevail showing the ethical sense of its meaning. Therefore, these two ecological relationships must not be taken as excluding concept-categories, but as highlighting relationships from an infinite number of ecological relationships. So, according to life changing circumstances one or another ecological relationship takes one corresponding prevalent value. These two ecological relationships are compared apart because each represents a highly different biological meaning and man ethical status implying a great qualitative jump in life evolution and living conditions. What matters is the progressively tendency of angelically /protection and prevalent intangible values to restrain and attenuate the natural original harshness of ferocity / depredation relationship. According to this progression, a hierarchical approach is adopted in connection to higher and lower values as suggested by philosopher Max Scheler. According to him, the fulfillment of the vertical hierarchy implied by values is a sufficient issue to determine the values ethical sense. Whether the values-verticality is or is not transgressed by social life decisions and applications goes related to ferocity / depredation and angelically / protection sequential options; each representing the extreme values in the hierarchical scale: ferocity / depredation more affine to the lowest values (material - tangible values), while angelically / protection more to the prevalence of the highest ones (immaterial - intangible values). Material values are the natural values usually demanded to satisfy biological, physiological, physical and special pleasure needs. On the contrary, immaterial values are intangible spiritual values, such freedom, confidence, friendship, care, love, responsibility, promised-word, word-accomplishment, person-respect, health, Human Rights and the proper people-lives. These are values flying up the highest human, cultural, social panorama over the lower and commonplace appetites of most vulgar individuals. All this treatment is based on firmly keeping the spiritual values such as ethics, culture ,love, care, freedom, respect, education, human life and Human Rights ever at the top of all value hierarchy. Values are not seen as closed systems but as open and unlimitedly creative whether tangible or intangible ones. The more the intangible values the higher the social and cultural advancement.<hr/>A partir de dos relaciones ecológicas básicas, ferocidad / depredación y angelicalidad / protección, se ensayan diferentes progresiones biológico-sociales y culturales. La primera relación está directamente referida a las figuras presa y depredador en cadenas tróficas y ecosistemas de competitividad y convivencia. La segunda magnifica el valor y significado del cuidado y supervivencia del recién nacido. Se revisa el origen evolutivo, ecológico y etológico de ambas relaciones como balance conductual entre situaciones extremas de cada individuo y especie, abriendo un nuevo insight sobre viejos problemas de la Biología, la Sociología, la Etica y la Economía. La clave es lo que relaciona a estas dos relaciones con valores materiales tangibles y valores in materiales intangibles, respectivamente. Resulta directo asociar la primera relación con la satisfacción inmediata de necesidades básicas, juzgadas como materiales y tangibles. En contraste, la segunda relación viene como un complemento que genera nuevos significados y riqueza de sentidos ecológico-etológicos de toda forma de vida. Los valores se estiman como un sistema abierto y creciente. A más valores intangibles, mayor es el avance en representaciones significantes. <![CDATA[El proceso de individuación de las representaciones sociales: Historia y reformulación de un problema]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El objetivo de este trabajo es elucidar el proceso por el cual los sujetos transforman las representaciones sociales al apropiarse de ellas, así como también el modo en el que éstas inciden en la formación de conceptos y en las acciones individuales. Por una parte, Duveen (2001) plantea el problema desde la perspectiva de la Psicología Social, recurriendo como instrumento a la Psicología del Desarrollo y piensa la individuación en el interior de las relaciones interpersonales. Por otra parte, Valsiner (2003) aborda esta problemática desde la Psicología Cultural, centrándose en la regulación del flujo de la experiencia intrapersonal, con el objetivo de superar la versión estática de las representaciones sociales que ha primado en la investigación empírica. El análisis de los argumentos esgrimidos por ambos autores permite concluir que el esfuerzo de pensar este proceso desde cualquiera de las disciplinas mencionadas de manera independiente, lleva a dificultades que sugieren la necesidad de una actividad interdisciplinaria.<hr/>The aim of this paper is to clarify the process by which individuals transform social representations while appropriating them and the way in which social representations influence on individual actions. Specifically, we will try to answer the following questions: Which are the characteristics of this process? Is it about active or passive internalization? Is it possible to study the concept of individuación (individuation) of social representations from a psychological point of view, regarding the concept itself and its formulation by social psychologies or is it necessary to reformulate it? Does the study of this process involve some kind of interdisciplinary activity? For this purpose, we shall raise the theoretical developments of two contemporary exponents of Psychology. On one hand, Duveen (2001) deals with the problem from the view of Social Psychology, appealing to Developmental Psychology as an instrument and he thinks of individuation amid interpersonal relationships. In this way he remarks that social representations do not act with regard to isolated individuals, but they rather act in pare interaction situations, resulting in the intervention of social and individual restrictions. However he is not able to specify the individuation process of social representations because he cannot adopt the child's point of view, in the way in which developmental psychology does. On the other hand, Valsiner (2003) deals with this problem from the perspective of developmental Cultural Psychology, focusing on the regulation of the flow of intrapersonal experience. His aim is to overcome the static version of social representations that have prevailed in empirical research. From his disciplinary perspective he considers social representations as social semiotic mediation artifacts, that enable individuals to pre-adapt to future events, making the experience of stability possible and integrating future anticipations of future and memories of the past. So, social representation constrains possibilities of action, enabling individual social representation to emerge. The author's main merit is the modification of Social Psychology standard version about the intra-subjective, because he analyzes the process by which an individual uses social representation to organize their experience. However, it is doubtful the use of certain typical concepts of the social representation theory that he uses and reformulates in terms of Developmental Psychology. The analysis of the arguments puts forward by both authors enable us to conclude that the problem of individuation leads to inevitable difficulties for those who deal with any of the mentioned disciplines. Despite researchers move in different problematic spaces, they share a common epistemic frame: the ontological assumption about a dialectic articulation between individual and society or between inter and intra subjective process. Therefore, we advocate for interdisciplinary activity, which is not only a rhetoric resource, but a base in a theoretical and methodological interchange at the moment of delimiting the object of study and to think of the research design. This resource will only be valid if it is focused from the perspective of conceptual discussion and empiric research based on a common epistemic framework. The problem of individuation refers to an object of study constituted by a system of interactions which components should be defined during the investigation itself. Now we face the challenge of studying complex systems. We consider that a dialogue between social and developmental psychologies has started and this should lead to the undertaking of joint investigations, which in time will become the right path for building a plausible explanation for this problem. <![CDATA[Adaptación para Buenos Aires de la Escala de Autoeficacia General]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El presente artículo tiene como objetivo principal informar acerca de las características psicométricas y los datos normativos de la Adaptación Argentina de la Escala de Autoeficacia General (EAG) de Jerusalem y Schwarzer (1992) a fin de poder contar con evidencias de validez y fiabilidad que permitan su uso idóneo en tareas de investigación. Incluye 10 ítemes con escalamiento tipo Likert de 4 puntos. La autoeficacia refiere a la percepción de los individuos para manejar adecuadamente una amplia gama de estresores de la vida cotidiana. Se analizaron los datos obtenidos de 292 sujetos, residentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores (República Argentina). Se llevó a cabo un Análisis de Componentes Principales y se observó que, si bien emergen dos factores que explican el 44% de la variancia, el mayor porcentaje lo explica el primer factor con un 33%. En cuanto a la fiabilidad, los resultados indican una apropiada consistencia interna de los ítemes (&alpha; = .76) y, en relación a otras evidencias de validez, se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas con estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés de planeamiento (r= .459; p< .001) y actividad (r= .393; p< .001) y con medidas de locus de control externo (r= -.293; p< .001). Asimismo, se registraron diferencias en cuanto al sexo y la edad. En resumen, los resultados obtenidos indican evidencias de fiabilidad en términos de consistencia interna y de la validez de las puntuaciones obtenidas mediante la administración de la versión local de la EAG a residentes de Buenos Aires.<hr/>Self-efficacy is grounded in a larger theoretical framework known as social cognitive theory, which postulates that human achievement depends on interactions between one's behaviors, personal factors and environmental conditions (Bandura, 1986, 1997). Self-efficacy is understood as a construct that includes a stable feature or believing that a person has about his own ability to deal with a wide range of stressor of daily life. Moreover, self-efficacy beliefs work as an important set of proximal determinants of human motivation, affect, and action (Bandura,1989). The perception of self-efficacy has big impact on human adaptation and development. The General Self-Efficacy Scale was originally developed in Germany by Jerusalem and Schwarzer. At first they constructed a 20-item version and later as a reduced 10-item version (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1992; Schwarzer,1993). The GSES is a 10-item, 4-point Likert type scale. It was developed to assess a general sense of perceived self-efficacy in order to predict how people manage coping with daily difficulties and stressful events. The GSES, developed to measure this construct at the broadest level, has been adapted to many languages. The psychometric properties of this instrument areexamined among participants from 25 countries. Cronbach's alphas ranged from .73 to .91 and the findings suggest the global of the underlying construct. The goal of this article is to report psychometric properties (reliability, validity and normative data) of the Argentinean adaptation of the Jerusalem and Schwarzer General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). In the present study, the scale was applied to a sample of 292 participants of Buenos Aires (Ar gentina). We carried out a Principal Components Analysis. The first Eigen value was clearly higher than the others but the second Eigen value was a slight higher than unity (3.25; 1.16; .98; .86 y .75). One third (33%) of the variance is accounted for by first component, where as a second component would only account for 11% of the variance. The results show an appropriate internal consistency (.76) and significant correlations with planning (r= .417; p< .001) and activity strategies (r= .357; p< .001) of coping stress and a negative correlation with external locus of control (r = -.274; p< .001). In order to determine whether there were differences in scores by sex, age and educational level, we used the t Student and ANOVA tests. It was found a significant difference by sex (males: M = 33.6, SD = 3.24, and females: M = 32.6, SD = 3.43; t (287) = 2.814, p< .05), with similar average scores. Also, it was found a significant difference by age range (18 to 25: M = 32.4, SD = 2.9; 26 to 44: M = 32.9, DE = 3.2, and 45 to 65: M = 33.9, SD = 3.6; F (2, 286) = 5.142, p< .05) and education (Elementary school: M = 32.2, SD = 4.5; High School: M = 32.6, SD = 3.4; College Graduates: M = 33.9, SD = 3.0; F (2, 286) = 3.392, p < .035). But post hoc comparisons showed not significant differences between groups. According to this, differences found are not relevant and the perception of self-efficacy is similar for both sexes, age range or education level. Finally, all the results indicate evidences of reliability and validity of the Argentinean adaptation of the scale and guarantee it's usefulness in future studies. <![CDATA[Funciones ejecutivas: Un estudio de los efectos de la pobreza sobre el desempeño ejecutivo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La bibliografía acerca del impacto negativo de la pobreza sobre el desarrollo neurocognitivo se ha ampliado y profundizado en los últimos años. Sin embargo, la explicación acerca de las formas y mecanismos a través de los cuales actúa la pobreza, requiere un mayor estudio. En el presente artículo se describen y analizan los efectos de algunos mecanismos de la pobreza sobre el desarrollo de funciones ejecutivas tales como: el control de interferencia y planificación al inicio de la edad escolar. En el año 2005 se trabajó con una muestra de 80 niños de ambos sexos, de 6 a 10 años de edad que eran alumnos de primer año de la Educación General Básica (EGB), en una escuela incluida en el Plan Nacional de Mil Escuelas Bajo el Nivel de Pobreza. También se trabajó con un grupo control de 40 niños sin riesgo que asistían a una escuela de nivel socioeconómico medio. Se administraron pruebas para medir el control de interferencia y escalas de observación comportamental y de percepción del vínculo con respecto a cada padre. Se hallaron diferencias significativas en cuanto al desempeño ejecutivo entre ambos grupos. La percepción de control hostil de parte de la madre, del padre y la edad del niño, resultaron variables predictivas de la capacidad de planificación. Las diferencias significativas halladas entre los niños expuestos y no expuestos a la pobreza, son consistentes con una larga serie de estudios e investigaciones acerca de los efectos de esta y especialmente de su duración, sobre el desarrollo físico, neurológico, cognitivo y social del niño.<hr/>Recent published research on the negative impact of poverty on neurocognitive development has been broader in scope and has analyzed more in depth the issue. Infant malnutrition, inadequate medical care, exposure to stress and violence (Shore, 1997), weak speech stimulation and scarce organization of the environment are risk factors conditioning self regulation, as assessed in previous research (Musso, 2005; Ninio, 1980; Peralta de Mendoza, 1997; Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976). Nevertheless, there is a need for further study of the mechanisms and various ways in which poverty exercises such negative impact. This work describes and analyzes the effects of some of the mechanisms present in poverty which impact on the development of executive functions such as: interference control and planning, at the beginning of schooling. The sample was conformed by 80 children, between 6 and 10 years of age, boys and girls, attending the first grade of General Basic Education (2005 cohort, in República Argentina), at a school included in the National Plan of a Thousand Schools below Poverty Level. The group deemed at risk by poverty displayed the following indicators: children with high levels of malnutrition, high percentage of students who repeat courses which accounts for the number of older children, high percentage of unemployed parents, and with low levels of schooling. A control group was used that was formed by children attending a city school, not part of the Plan of One Thousand Schools under the Poverty Line; their parents had finished obligatory or high level education, they were merchants, employees or professionals. The instruments applied were: Simon Says Game (La Voie, Anderson, Fraze & Johnson, 1981, see Zelazo, 1996) to assess the executive or response control through the use of a rule, The Hanoi Tower (two rings version) to assess planing, a Self report to assess the childrens´ perception of parental styles (mother / father version) (Richaud de Minzi, 2006), and the Behavioural Observation Guide for Children (Ison & Fachinelli, 1993) that provides a quick overview of type and frequency of behavior problem in the children, were administered. Significant differences in interference control and problem solving were found between children exposed to poverty conditions and children not exposed. The perception of a hostile parental control and the child's age, were predictive variables of the capacity to plan. A statistically significant influence was found for Control by Withdrawal of relationships by mothers for hyperactive behaviour [F (1, 23) = 5,422; p = .029], when considering extreme groups with respect to perception of attachment. In other words, children who perceive that their mothers attempt to control them by denying care, affect or attention, tend to show more hyperactive behaviour than children who do not perceive that kind of attempted control. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between the groups with very low and very high hostile control by the father, as regards planning [F (3, 41) = 4,429; p = .041]. That is, those children who perceive more hostile control from the father, show lower performance in their capacity to plan. The significant differences found between children exposed to poverty conditions when compared with those that were not, are consistent with the findings from a long list of studies and research results on the effects of poverty, particularly the duration of the exposure to poverty, on the physical, neurological, cognitive, and social development of children. The poverty factors can influence neurocognitive development through multiple mechanisms and specific associations. This study discusses the main mechanisms which could be responsible for the results reported in this study, concluding with the findings regarding the complexity of the multiple relationships between mediating mechanisms for poverty and neurocognitive development. <![CDATA[Validación de una nueva Escala de Expectativas de Resultados y Metas de Rendimiento para Matemática]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Con el objetivo de poder evaluar los postulados de un modelo de rendimiento académico en Matemática basado en la Teoría Social Cognitiva del Desarrollo de Carrera (SCCT - Lent, Brown & Hackett, 1994), se adaptaron las subescalas de Expectativas de resultados en Matemática y Metas en Matemática de la Escala de Autoeficacia para Enseñanza Media (Fouad, Smith & Enochs, 1997). En esta adaptación (Cupani & Gnavi, 2007)se observó que la Subescala Metas en Matemática presentó una estructura factorial simple y una adecuada confiabilidad, aunque no evidenció poder predictivo del rendimiento académico. Por otro lado, la Subescala Expectativas de Resultados presentó valores bajos de consistencia interna y se observó que el contenido de algunos de sus ítemes parece no ser aceptable para nuestro medio cultural. Por lo tanto, para mejorar ambas escalas se realizaron nuevos estudios. En una primera fase, se efectuaron dos grupos de enfoque con el propósito de generar nuevos ítemes sobre las Expectativas de resultados y Metas de rendimiento de los estudiantes de nuestro medio cultural. De este estudio se obtuvo una nueva versión de las escalas Expectativas de Resultados y Metas de Rendimiento compuestas por 13 y 11 ítemes, respectivamente. En una segunda fase se administraron estos nuevos ítemes a una muestra de 420 adolescentes con un rango de edad de 13 a 16 años (M = 13.84, DT = .76). Se realizaron estudios de análisis factorial (exploratorio y confirmatorio) y de confiabilidad mediante y de validez test-criterio. Los resultados demostraron que ambas escalas poseen adecuadas propiedades psicométricas.<hr/>Lent and Brown (2006) suggest guidelines for creating and adapting assessment tools based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT -Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). In the last years, this theory has been the subject of substantial research, both basic and theoretical. The authors indicate that any assessment of SCCT should: (a) contextualize measures to make sure they are grounded in a particular, domain-specific context, (b) be reasonably comprehensive in sampling the domain, designing multifaceted measures when the criterion is correspondingly complex, and (c) ensure compatibility between predictors and criteria along key dimensions, including content, context, temporal orientation, and level of specificity. Additionally, it is important to use reliable and valid tests. Without sound measures, it is difficult, if not impossible, to establish whether theory-discrepant findings are attributable to problems with the theory, flaws in operationalizing it, or both. In Argentina, Cupani and Gnavi (2007) assessed a model of academic performance in Mathematic, based on the SCCT. Cupani and Gnavi adapted the subscales for Mathematic Outcome Expectancies and Performance Goals of the Middle School Self-Efficacy Scale (Fouad, Smith, & Enochs, 1997). Results indicated that the goals subscale has a simple factor structure with adequate internal consistence, although it did not predict academic performance in Mathematic. Moreover, the Subscale for Mathematics Outcome Expectancies showed low internal consistence and some of its items did not transfer well to our cultural setting. Therefore, two follow-up studies were carried out to improve the psychometric properties of both scales. The first study employed two focus groups (n per group = 8) and aimed at generating ideas on the student's expectations of results and goals on academic achievement in our cultural setting. The information gathered was used to write 7 new items for the goals subscale and 12 items for the outcome expectancies. These items were then tested for clarity and understanding in a sample of adolescents. Language corrections were also carried out, yielding two new goals and outcome expectancies scales (11 and 13 items, respectively). On the second study, these scales were administered to a sample of 420 adolescents (M = 13.84; SD = .76). The internal structure of the scales was examined through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and their internal consistency was analyzed by Cronbach's alpha. The predictive validity for Academic Achievement in Mathematic was also analyzed. The scale of logical-mathematical self- efficacy from the (revised) Self-efficacy Inventory of Multiple Intelligences (Pérez & Cupani, 2008) was also administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a single-factor structure for the scale of performance goals (GFI: .92; CFI: .95, RMSEA: .08) and for the Scale for Mathematic Outcome Expectancies (GFI: .95; CFI: .96, RMSEA: .06) is the most appropriate model for the data gathered. Both scales had optimal Cronbach's alpha values (.86 and. 85, for performance goals and outcome expectancies, respectively). The study on predictive validity also showed that logic-mathematic self- efficacy beliefs and achievement goals in Mathematic explain 32% of variance of math school performance. The results show that Academic Achievement in Mathematic is partially explained by the model. In summary, both scales allow a contextualized measurement of outcome expectancies and performance goals on Mathematic in teenagers from our cultural area. These scales have satisfactory psychometric properties, presenting a clear internal structure, and adequate internal consistence. Future application of path analysis will allow a more precise identification of the interrelations between outcome expectancies and performance goals on Mathematic and their direct and indirect effects upon academic achievement in it. <![CDATA[La evaluación de la percepción de la comunicación emocional de los padres en niños desde la neuropsicología]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La calidad de las relaciones interpersonales, incluyendo la interpretación de intenciones y emociones de los otros, cumple un rol fundamental en el desarrollo del niño. Por ello, resulta importante comprender cómo se desarrolla el proceso de adquisición de las competencias emocionales que se refieren a las habilidades que permiten cumplir eficazmente objetivos adaptativos en situaciones de excitación emocional y se reflejan en la capacidad para manejar las emociones propias, resultando en una autoestima mejorada y una resiliencia adaptativa al enfrentarse a circunstancias estresantes. Dada la importancia de las relaciones familiares para el desarrollo de las emociones, la capacidad para reconocerlas y expresarlas, el objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar los estudios psicométricos realizados de un nuevo instrumento, el Cuestionario para evaluar la Percepción que los niños de 5 años tienen de la Comunicación Emocional de sus Padres (CPCEP), en sus versiones madre y padre. Para su estudio se comparó un grupo de niños en riesgo por pobreza con un grupo de niños sin riesgo ambiental, haciendo una lectura neuropsicológica de los resultados. Se trabajó con 220 niños de 5 años y de ambos sexos: 110 en situación de extrema pobreza que eran alumnos de una escuela ubicada en una villa de emergencia (San Isidro - Provincia de Buenos Aires) y un grupo control integrado por 110 niños de clase media urbana, que concurrían a colegios de la Ciudad Autónom a de Buenos Aires (República Argentina), apareados por edad con los anteriores. Se espera que los resultados obtenidos aporten datos empíricos que ayuden a predecir y prevenir trastornos emocionales y conductuales, así como problemas de aprendizaje.<hr/>The quality of interpersonal relationships, including the interpretation of others' intentions and emotions, plays a fundamental roll in the child's development. Therefore, it is important to understand how the process of acquisition of the emotional competences takes place. This is, the capacity of accomplishing a desired outcome in emotion-eliciting encounters, that are shown in the ability to handle ones owns emotions, which results in improved self-esteem and in adaptative resilience when dealing with stressful circumstances. Given the importance of family relationships in the development of emotions, this is, in the ability to recognize, control and express them, the aim of this work is to present the psychometric studies of the questionnaire (CPCEP) built to assess the perception that 5 years old children have about the emotional communication of their parents, analyzing separately the results for mothers and fathers. A group of children at risk for poverty was compared with a group of children without risk for poverty, making a neuropsychological analysis of the results. The data was collected from a sample of 220 5-years old children: 110 living in poor conditions from the one scholl (La Cava, Buenos Aires), and 110 middle class children, attending to schools from Buenos Aires City, which acted as control group. The questionnaire takes into account the emotions of joy, interest, concern, patience and anger that the child perceives in his / her parents. The child is also asked to answer how is it that he / she realizes that his / her mother and father feels that particular emotion. In the analysis of the results, it was considered through which of the communicational channels the children perceived the emotions; this is, verbal, facial, behavioral or vocal. It was taken into account if the child could not explain how he perceived the emotional state of his / her parent. Analysis of the data from the two forms of the questionnaire included response statistics, checks of internal consistency using Cronbach´s coefficient alpha and an exploratory factor analysis to identify the components within each scale. The study of internal consistency using Cronbach's coefficient alpha shows acceptable levels for both samples. In the study of the validity of the scale, the factorial structure was clear in both versions, allowing to establish theoretical and psychological dimensions, giving the questionnaire construct validity. The results of the factor analysis performed to determine the factor structure of the scale for both forms of the instrument show the existence of two factors, with different configuration for children with and without risk for poverty. This is why they were analyzed separately. The factors found indicate that the questionnaire assesses the perception of a mother and a father with expressive and comprehensive characteristics for children without risk for poverty. For children at risk it assesses the perception of a mother with positive or negative characteristics. For children without risk, the expressive style consists on the items that correspond to the perception of an expressive mother or father. The comprehensive style includes the items that cor- respond to a sympathetic mother or father. For children at risk, the positive style includes the items corresponding to the perception of the positive emotions of the mother or father and the negative style consists on the items related to the perception of the negative emotions of the mother or father. When analyzing the channels through which the children perceive the emotional aspects of their parent's communication, the children without risk for poverty could differentiate them, while the children at risk could not explain how they perceive the emotions of their parents in a higher proportion. This can be related to the attentional processes that intervene in emotional-eliciting encounters that are altered for different reasons in children at risk. In conclusion, the work presented shows thatthe questionnaire generates data with acceptable levels of internal consistency reliability and evidence for its construct validity, allowing to make neuropshychological inferences, which make it useful for the assessment of the way that 5-year old children perceive the emotional communication of their parents. <![CDATA[Aplicación de un método para el análisis de las redes semánticas en pacientes que sufrieron un accidente cerebro vascular]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Se presenta la aplicación de un método de estimación de distancias semánticas, denominado DISTSEM, en pacientes que sufrieron un Accidente Cerebro Vascular (ACV). Este método se basa en la Teoría de Propagación de la Activación (Collins & Loftus, 1975) y permite obtener la configuración de una red de conceptos en función de la estimación de distancias semánticas realizada entre pares de palabras. Se informan los resultados de la administración a 30 pacientes con ACV y a un grupo control de 30 sujetos. Se analizaron cuali y cuantitativamente los patrones hallados en los pacientes y se compararon con los del otro grupo. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que algunos pacientes luego de sufrir un ACV realizan estimaciones de proximidad entre conceptos, distintas a las esperables de acuerdo al desempeño del grupo control. Las respuestas no fueron homogéneas. Se hallaron sujetos que establecieron escasas asociaciones entre los pares de palabras. También se hallaron sujetos que encontraron más vinculaciones que el grupo control, incluso encontrando similitudes en aquellos pares que no tenían vinculación semántica y que utilizaron justificaciones para realizar sus estimaciones, que no se corresponden con categorías semánticas sino que se basan principalmente en la funcionalidad. La lectura de estos resultados a la luz de la Teoría de Propagación de la Activación indica que dichos pacientes tienden a fallar en el proceso de búsqueda dentro de la red, particularmente en la regulación de la propagación de la activación que es necesaria para realizar la tarea.<hr/>There are many ways in which semantic organization can be assessed. The methods usually used are useful in many ways but fail to provide the possibility to visualise the configuration of a semantic network corresponding to a certain group of concepts and to make qualitative and quantitative comparisons between different networks. The aim of the current research is to show the application of a semantic distance judgment method to stroke patients. This method is called DISTSEM and it was build on the basis of Spreading Activation Theory (Collins & Loftus, 1975). It allows obtaining the configuration of a semantic network according to the semantic distance judgment realized by the individuals between pairs of concepts of different and equal semantic category given by the examiner. The method has been administered to 30 stroke patients and 30 healthy controls. In the current paper, the response patterns of the patients are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and comparisons are made with the production of healthy controls. In the first place, all the matrixes were correlated with an interjudges matrix and the results show that strokepatients obtained significantly lower correlations than controls. In the second place, the matrixes of the stroke patients were correlated with a matrix that represented the mode of the estimations made by the group of healthy subjects. There were found two atypical groups. On the one hand, there was a group of patients that found scarce relations between concepts. On the other hand, there was another group that found a great number of relations between concepts, including relations between concepts that were not from the same semantic category. This data can be interpreted in light of Collins and Loftus theory as a failure of the spreading of the activation. Some patients seem to fail in the searching process within the network, particularly in the control of the spread of the activation necessary to look for the similarities requested in the task. In the first case, there was an inhibition in the activation spreading, which did not allow reaching the intersection node between the presented pair of concepts. In the second case, there was an activation spreading superior than expected for that task, that is to say that it failed the inhibition of the competitors that allow establishing the estimation accurate for the task (Howard, Nickel, Coltheart, & Cole-Virtue, 2006). Furthermore, a Multiple Correspondence Analysis was performed with the justifications used in each election. This analysis showed that there was a group of patients that tended to use atypical justifications in some pairs of concepts. Some of these patients justify their elections using functional justifications (e.g., "They are alike because they are useful for men"), another group used perceptual justifications (e.g., "They are alike because they have legs") and there was a small group that found scarce similarities. This indicates that the justifications used by this group of stroke patients tend to be less precise and less adequate for the context of the task. This inappropriate selection of responses leads to an explanation related to executive functions, which would be responsible for selecting the most accurate response according to the context. To sum up, this paper shows some ways in which data can be visualized and some means to analyse and interpret data resulting from the application of the DISTSEM method. <![CDATA[El debate acerca del efecto facilitador en problemas de probabilidad condicional: ¿ Un caso de experimentación crucial ?]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-70272010000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Se ha mostrado en la literatura de Psicología Cognitiva que las personas generalmente tienen dificultades para resolver problemas de probabilidad condicional. Sin embargo, también se ha mostrado que, bajo ciertas condiciones, las respuestas mejoran de manera significativa. Desde mitad de la década de 1990 hubo un gran debate acerca de cómo dar cuenta de dicho efecto facilitador. Se han propuesto dos hipótesis rivales, la hipótesis de frecuencias naturales que dice que el efecto facilitador se debe a presentar la información de manera frecuentista, y la hipótesis de conjuntos anidados que dice que dicho efecto se debe a la clarificación de las relaciones de conjunto del problema. En este artículo intentaremos clarificar el debate y analizar la evidencia empírica relevante. La pregunta a responder es la siguiente: ¿Se ha producido alguna experimentación crucial en favor de alguna de las dos hipótesis? Nuestra respuesta será negativa, aunque reconociendo que la hipótesis de conjuntos anidados parece hasta ahora, mejor respaldada que su rival.<hr/>In the early '70s, Tversky and Kahneman founded a research program in Cognitive Psychology called Heuristics and Biases. This program found extensive evidence that shows that people tend to commit reasoning errors when making judgments under uncertainty. A particular case is that people tend to fail when reasoning about conditional probability problems, that is, problems that ask for the probability of some event given the fact that another event has occurred (e.g. the probability of raining given that it is cloudy). But in the mid '90s, Gigerenzer and other evolutionary psychologists came along and gave an important turn to the state of the art. They showed that if the conditional probability problems used in the literature are framed in a different way, people's performance greatly improves. More specifically, if the problems present the information under a specific format called natural frequency format, around 50% of participants get the correct answer. Since the mid ´90s researchers engage in an important debate on how to account for such a facilitation effect. There are two main proposals, one by the Evolutionary Psychology Program and the other by Heuristic and Biases Program. The natural frequency hypothesis supported by the Evolutionary Program basically says that the natural frequency format is the responsible factor for the improvement in people's performance. The Heuristic and Biases Program, in turn, has proposed the nested-set hypothesis to explain the facilitation effect. The basic idea is that natural frequency versions tend to make transparent the relevant subset relations of the problem. When people see clearly the set relations involved in this kind of problems (the argument goes) they tend to use correctly base rates and thus, their performance improves. They point out that, according to this view, the success of the frequency effect does not have to do with natural frequency formats per se. They predict that any format whatsoever that make the relevant set relations clear will show the same effect. The key question is, then, as follows. Is this a case of crucial experimentation in favor of one of our rival hypotheses? In other words, is there an experiment or a series of experiments such that our rival hypotheses predict opposite results, so that we can claim one of them as victorious over the other? The empirical evidence on the matter is mixed. Some studies seem to support the natural frequency hypothesis while others seem to support the nested-set hypothesis. We will then try to clarify this debate by focusing on the diverse strategies and techniques used in the literature to settle the dispute. We will argue that the right strategy to discriminate between both hypotheses is to use genuine probability problems with a clarified set structure and see whether these conditions elicit or not a performance comparable to the natural frequency effect. Within this general strategy, we review the literature and found that there are three techniques, namely, the improved wording technique, the natural chance technique and the graphical representation technique that seem to provoke a performance as good as the one elicited by natural formats, giving, thus, a stronger support for the nested set hypothesis. However, a careful analysis shows that neither the improved wording technique nor the chance technique has provided both consistent and clear results in favor of the nested-set hypothesis. As for the graphical representation technique, the evidence still seems very slim. The improvement in performance was shown in two studies that worked with only one problem each. Furthermore, neither of these problems seems completely adequate. Thus, we do not think the last word about the matter has been said and more empirical work is needed to settle the issue.