Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta toxicológica argentina]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1851-374320150001&lang=en vol. 23 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[Assessment of caffeine daily intake in children and adolescents from Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37432015000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en . La cafeína (1,3,7 trimetilxantina) es un alcaloide de la familia de las xantinas. Está presente en una gran cantidad de bebidas como café, té, cacao, mate, guaraná, bebidas gaseosas y bebidas energizantes, y alimentos que son consumidos por adultos, adolescentes y niños. A fin de obtener información acerca de la ingesta de cafeína en población infantil y adolescente de Argentina, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos de trabajo: a) estimar la ingesta diaria de cafeína en niños y adolescentes que residen en conglomerados urbanos de Argentina; b) estudiar la asociación de dicha ingesta con distintas variables tales como el género, la edad, el nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y el lugar de residencia; c) estudiar la relación de la ingesta de cafeína con la duración del sueño y d) valorar la contribución de las distintas bebidas a la ingesta diaria de cafeína. Se obtuvieron los datos de consumo de bebidas de 425 participantes de hasta 20 años de edad, residentes de distintas ciudades del país y de diferente NSE. Los resultados mostraron que la ingesta diaria promedio de cafeína (11, 43, 76, 132 y 233 mg/día) aumentó con la franja etaria (menores de 2, de 3 a 5, de 6 a 12, de 13 a 17 y de 18 a 20 años, respectivamente), aunque al relacionarla con el peso corporal (mg/kg/día) el aumento no fue tan marcado. El 50 % de los niños de hasta 2 años evaluados, nunca había consumido bebidas con cafeína. Por el contrario, a partir de 3 años en adelante más del 90 % sí consumieron regularmente por lo menos una bebida con cafeína. Las ingestas promedio calculadas para los niños y adolescentes evaluados resultaron ser superiores a las reportadas por otros autores para otros países. No se encontraron diferencias en la ingesta según el género, el lugar de residencia o el NSE. No se encontró relación entre la ingesta de cafeína y la duración del sueño para ningún grupo etario, a excepción de la franja etaria de 18 a 20 años en la que se observó una disminución significativa en la duración promedio del sueño para el grupo de individuos con ingesta extrema. Las bebidas gaseosas cola se mostraron como principales contribuyentes a la ingesta promedio de cafeína, aunque el mate también se destacó en ese aspecto. Como conclusiones generales de este trabajo se destaca que se logró caracterizar la ingesta de cafeína en niños y adolescentes y establecer la composición de dicha ingesta en cuanto a sus contribuyentes mayoritarios y minoritarios. Por último, si bien se podría clasificar a las ingestas promedio obtenidas en este estudio como elevadas con respecto a las reportadas para otros países, se debe considerar que no se ha definido un valor de ingesta diaria recomendada para niños y adolescentes.<hr/>Caffeine (1,3,7 trimethylxanthine) is an naturally occurring alkaloid. It is present in many beverages such as coffee, tea, cocoa, mate, guarana, soft drinks and energy drinks, and foods, widely consumed by adults, adolescents and children. Since information about caffeine intake in children and adolescents in our country is scarce, the aims of the study were set as follows: a) estimate the caffeine daily intake of children and adolescents from Argentina, b) associate the intake to different variables such as gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence; c) study the relationship between caffeine intake and sleep duration, and d) assess the contribution of different beverages to the caffeine daily intake. Information on non alcoholic beverages consumption was obtained from 425 participants up to 20 years old. Participants were from different cities and of different SES all over the country. Results showed that the caffeine mean daily intake increased (11 , 43 , 76 , 132 and 233 mg/day ) with age range (up to 2 , 3 to 5, 6 to 12 , 13 to 17 and 18 20 years old, respectively), but when the intake was related to body weight (mg/ kg/day) the increase was not so marked. Fifty percent of children up to 2 years old had never consumed any caffeinated beverage. However, from ages 3 and up, more than 90% of children regularly consumed at least one caffeinated beverage. The mean daily intakes for the evaluated children and adolescents were higher to those reported by other authors for other countries. When data were analyzed by gender, place of residence or SES, no differences in caffeine intake were observed. No relationship between caffeine intake and sleep duration for any age group was found, except for the age group of 18-20 years, where a significant decrease in average sleep duration for the group of individuals with extreme intake was observed. Soft drinks showed to be main contributors to the mean caffeine daily intake, although mate also highlighted in that aspect. Characterization of the caffeine daily intake and identification of the major and minor contributors to that intake are remarked as achievements of this study. And finally, although caffeine mean daily intake obtained in this study could be considered as elevated when compared with those reported for other countries, it should be noted that a recommended daily intake value for children and adolescents has not already been set. <![CDATA[Metallothionein and lipid peroxidation as markers to assess health status of chronically oiled Magellanic penguins in Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37432015000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chronic oiling affects seabirds, with short (individual survival) and long-term (dynamics of population) effects. Magellanic penguin is the most affected species in Argentina. The aim was to evaluate the use of blood biochemical-molecular biomarkers (MT and TBARs) to assess health status of Magellanic penguin exposed to chronic environmental oiling, in addition with routine hematological analyses (differential WBC count and PCV). Oiled specimens presented significant higher RBC metallothionein and TBARs concentrations than those from shelter; while routine hematological parameters were within normal levels for penguins and did not show any difference between both groups. These results demonstrated the higher sensibility of both biomarkers, evidencing effects on health status by chronic oiling; furthermore, they are the first report in blood metallothionein and oxidative stress in S. magellanicus. These studies will be useful for a better assessment of the health condition in rehabilitation centers (short term); and, as early warning signals in natural colonies (long term).<hr/>El empetrolamiento crónico afecta a las aves marinas, con efectos a corto (supervivencia del individuo) y largo plazo (dinámica de la población). El pingüino de Magallanes es la especie más afectada en Argentina. El objetivo fue evaluar el uso de biomarcadores bioquímicos-moleculares (MT y TBARS) en sangre para evaluar el estado de salud del pingüino de Magallanes expuesto a empetrolamiento crónico ambiental, además de los análisis hematológicos de rutina (recuento diferencial de leucocitos y hematocrito). Los ejemplares empetrolados presentaron concentraciones significativamente mayores de metalotioneínas en fracción celular y peroxidación lipídica que aquellos de albergue; por el contrario, los parámetros hematológicos de rutina estuvieron dentro de los niveles normales para los pingüinos y no mostraron ninguna diferencia entre los grupos. Estos resultados demuestran la mayor sensibilidad de los dos biomarcadores, evidenciando efectos del empetrolamiento crónico sobre el estado de salud; además, este es el primer reporte de concentraciones de metalotioneínas en sangre y el estrés oxidativo en S. magellanicus. Estos estudios son de utilidad para una mejor evaluación del estado de salud en los centros de rehabilitación (corto plazo); y, como señales de alerta temprana en las colonias naturales (largo plazo). <![CDATA[Hematologic biomarkers of the common toad Bufo arenarum in altered ecosystem of Córdoba province]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37432015000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El uso de biomarcadores hematológicos es importante para poder evaluar riesgos ambientales y la exposición a sustancias químicas potencialmente tóxicas y así poder desarrollar medidas que sirvan como señales de alarma temprana en ambientes contaminados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar biomarcadores hematológicos en el sapo común Bufo (Rhinella) arenarum que proporcionen información para el diagnóstico de la salud de distintos ecosistemas de la provincia de Córdoba. Un total de 93 individuos adultos de Bufo (Rhinella) arenarum fueron capturados en cuatro sitios de la provincia de Córdoba y distintas variables ambientales del agua fueron medidas en cada sitio. Las muestras de sangre se obtuvieron mediante la punción de la vena angularis. Luego fueron teñidas con la tinción diferencial May Grünwald-Giemsa y fueron observadas mediante microscopio Zeiss Primo Star iLED para realizar el conteo de glóbulos blancos. Las variables ambientales del agua mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las poblaciones, se registraron valores menores en “Alpa Corral”, mientras que “Villa Dálcar” presentó los mayores valores para dichas variables. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre localidades en el recuento de glóbulos blancos (cada 1000 eritrocitos); sin embargo, en “Villa Dálcar” se registraron los ejemplares con mayor cantidad de leucocitos en el conteo de glóbulos blancos (425,48 ± 481,34). Mientras que para la fórmula leucocitaria, los linfocitos fueron las células más abundantes para los ejemplares de todos los sitios; encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre cada localidad y “Alpa Corral”. Los ejemplares de “Villa Dálcar” presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en relación a los monocitos y basófilos, registrándose altos valores para ambas células en los ejemplares de este sitio; mientras que en los ejemplares de “Cultivo” las diferencias se encontraron en eosinófilos y la relación neutrófilos/linfocitos. Estos resultados revelaron que de las cuatro localidades analizadas, “Villa Dálcar” representa la más afectada por las actividades antrópicas. Estas variaciones registradas en los parámetros hematológicos podrían considerarse evidencia de la posible presencia de agentes contaminantes en el lago “Villa Dálcar”.<hr/>Hematologic biomarkers are important to assess the environmental and health risks of exposure to potentially toxic chemicals, and for developing measures that serve as early warning signals in polluted areas. The aim of this study was to determine hematologic biomarkers of common toad Bufo (Rhinella) arenarum that provide information for the diagnosis of the health of ecosystems of Córdoba province. A total of 93 adult individuals of Bufo (Rhinella) arenarum were collected from four sites of Córdoba Province and hydric environmental variables were measured on each site. Blood samples were obtained by angularis vein puncture, smears of fresh blood were stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa and observed by using a microscope Carl Zeiss Primo Star (Pack 5), for white blood cell count. Water environmental variables showed statistically significant differences among localities, with the lowest values in “Alpa Corral” and highest values in “Villa Dálcar”. There were no statistically significant differences among individuals of different sites for white blood cells count. However, individuals from "Villa Dálcar" showed the highest number of white cells (425.48 ± 481.34). In the leukocyte formula, lymphocytes were most abundant white blood cells in individuals from all study sites. The blood parameters of toads from all sites showed statistically significant differences with individuals from “Alpa Corral”. "Villa Dálcar" Individuals exhibited significant differences in relation to monocytes and basophils with the highest values for both cell types. “Cultivo” locality showed significant differences for eosinophils and for the relationship neutrophils/ lymphocytes. These results revealed that “Villa Dálcar” represent the site most affected by human activities. In particular, changes recorded in hematological parameters could be giving evidence of the possible presence of contaminants in Lake “Villa Dálcar”. <![CDATA[Flavonoids: Chemical composition, medical actions and toxicity]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37432015000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Os flavonóides são um grupo de substâncias naturais com estrutura fenólica variável, e portanto, de considerável interesse científico e terapêutico. Assim, teve-se por objetivo realizar uma revisão bibliográfica, de forma extensa porém objetiva, sobre as principais ações terapêuticas e a toxicidade das principais classes de flavonóides. A partir desta revisão da literatura, verificou-se, em ensaios pré-clínicos, que estes compostos tem o potencial de modificar a biossíntese de eicosanoides (resposta anti-prostanoide e antiinflamatoria); de proteger o colesterol-LDL da oxidacão (inibindo formação de placa aterosclerotica); de prevenir a agregacão plaquetária tendo efeitos anti-trombóticos; de promover o efeito anti-hipertensivo e anti-isquêmico; de regenerar antioxidantes primários, como a vitamina C, no organismo; de ter efeito antipromocionais na carcinogênese de alguns tipos de câncer; de amenizar os sintomas da menopausa; de aumentar a lipólise; de desacelerar o processo degenerativo em bainhas de mielina; de aumentar a secreção de insulina; de aumentar a expressão de genes responsáveis pela produção de proteínas sinápticas; de estimular os linfócitos B a produzirem anticorpos e de possuir atividade leishmanicida. Quanto a toxicidade dos flavonóides, estudos demostram que em altas doses e em utilização crônica, estes compostos desencadeiam reações alérgicas em humanos; modificam as membranas de hepatócitos causando necrose e morte celular em ratos; causam mutagenicidade e clastogenicidade em medula óssea de camundongos; interferem de forma significativa no funcionamento da tireóide e inibe a ação de citocromos P450 causando alterações drásticas no funcionamento do fígado de roedores. Dessa forma, pode-se verificar que os flavonóides tem uma grande capacidade terapêutica quando bem utilizado, devendo-se sempre levar em consideração doses e tempo de exposição aos organismos aos quais são administrados. Essas considerações são importantes por servirão de base para o estabelecimento de doses seguras e eficazes de utilização dos flavonóides para a população.<hr/>Flavonoids are a group of natural substances with variable phenolic structure and therefore, considerable scientific interest and therapeutic. Thus, the objective was to conduct a literature review of but objective extensively on major therapeutic actions and on the toxicity of flavonoids class. In this literature review, it was found that, in preclinical studies, these compounds have the potential to modify the biosynthesis of eicosanoids; protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation; prevent platelet aggregation with antithrombotic effects; promote the antihypertensive and anti-ischemic effect; regenerate primary antioxidants like vitamin C in the body; not to promote some carcinogenic effects on certain types of cancer; alleviate menopausal symptoms; increase lipolysis; slow down degenerative process in myelin sheaths; increase insulin secretion; increase the expression of genes responsible for the production of synaptic proteins; stimulate lymphocytes B to produces antibodies and have leishmanicydal activity. About the toxicity of flavonoids, studies show that, at high doses and in chronic use, these compounds trigger allergic reactions in humans; modify the membranes of hepatocytes, causing necrosis and cell death, in rats; cause mutagenicity and clastogenicity in mouse bone marrow, interfere significantly on thyroid function and inhibit the action of cytochrome P450, causing drastic changes in the function of the liver in rodents. Thus, it can be seen that the flavonoids have a wide therapeutic capacity when properly used, taking into account doses and exposure times to whom they are administered. These considerations are important because they set the bases for the establishment of safe and effective doses of flavonoids on the population. <![CDATA[Superwarfarin rodenticide poisoning]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37432015000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introducción: en la actualidad existe utilización masiva de rodenticidas y su venta no está restringida al público. Las etiologías de intoxicación por estos agentes son variadas pudiendo ser de tipo intencional o accidental. Objetivo: analizar estudios realizados en torno a intoxicaciones con rodenticidas superwarfarínicos en humanos con el propósito de reunir información que oriente a un adecuado tratamiento. Metodología: se realizó una revisión integradora en las bases de datos electrónicas PubMed, TripDataBase, Cochrane, además de Google Scholar y SciELO, libros de divulgación científica, documentos de convenciones, páginas web de instituciones públicas, privadas y artículos vinculados a efectos, cuadro clínico y tratamiento de exposiciones a rodenticidas en seres humanos. Se analizaron los documentos y la información se organizó en tres temáticas: toxicidad de los rodenticidas superwarfarínicos, cuadro clínico y tratamiento médico, y rodenticidas no anticoagulantes disponibles en Chile. Resultados: la dosis tóxica mínima reportada en adultos es de 1 mg de principio activo; en pacientes pediátricos ingestas accidentales rara vez producen síntomas. Los síntomas se observan de forma tardía y su toxicidad es variable. El examen de elección es el International Normalized Ratio (INR) y se realiza en todo paciente con factores de riesgo presentes. El antídoto no se administra de forma profiláctica y la dosis se ajusta individualmente. Conclusión: en niños las ingestas accidentales no son riesgosas por lo que pueden ser observados en el hogar. Pacientes con ingestas masivas requieren controles de INR por meses por lo que es importante que posterior al alta médica exista una óptima coordinación con nivel primario de atención.<hr/>Introduction: Currently there is a widespread use of rodenticides, unrestricted to the public. The exposure to these agents may varied being intentional or accidental. Objective: To analyze studies about superwarfarin poisoning in humans, with the purpose of gathering information to guide proper treatment. Methodology: It was conducted an integrative review in the electronic databases PubMed, TripDataBase, Cochrane, Google Scholar and SciELO, science books (reference textbooks), convention documents, websites from public and private institutions and articles about the effects, clinical manifestations and treatment of human exposures to rodenticides. Documents were analyzed and the information organized into three themes: superwarfarin toxicity, clinical features and medical treatment, and non-anticoagulant rodenticides available in Chile. Results: In adults, the minimum dose reported to cause toxicity is 1 mg of active ingredient. In pediatric patients, accidental intakes rarely produce symptoms. The symptoms of poisoning are usually delayed and its toxicity is variable. The test of choice is International Normalized Ratio (INR) and it is performed in all patients with risk factors. The antidote must not be administered prophylactically and the dose is adjusted individually. Conclusions: Accidental intakes in children are not risky and they can be observed at home. Patients with massive intakes require INR monitoring for months so, it is important that an optimal coordination with primary care facilities still exists after medical discharge. <![CDATA[Ayahuasca, quality of life and the hope in recovering of addicts: case reports]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37432015000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O uso contínuo da Ayahuasca é objeto de estudo devido aos poucos dados pré-clínicos e clínicos referentes à seguridade em relação ao seu uso prolongado. Evidências científicas demostram os benefícios no âmbito psicoterapêutico, à eficácia junto ao tratamento do etilismo crônico e outras drogas de abuso. Esta pesquisa trata-se de um estudo observacional do tipo relato de casos, com o intuito de descrever e relacionar a experiência do uso ritualístico da Ayahuasca à descontinuidade do uso abusivo de substâncias químicas. Os participantes (n=6) constituíram-se de pessoas institucionalizadas em uma comunidade religiosa que faz uso ritualístico do preparado dos vegetais Banisteriopsis caapi e Pyschotria viridis. Por meio de entrevistas individuais registrou-se o histórico de cada indivíduo com base no período de uso e a substância química utilizada. Em seguida aplicou-se questionários específicos para determinar a qualidade de vida e o nível de esperança. Determinou-se os parâmetros hematológicos afim de avaliar eventuais disfunções hematopoiéticas e por fim avaliou-se a satisfação destes em participar da pesquisa. Observou-se baixos valores (p>0,05) para os domínios de capacidade funcional e limitações por aspectos emocionais, o nível de esperança médio foi significativo (p=0,02) e sustentou as perspectivas positivas registradas nas entrevistas, os valores hematológicos estiveram dentro da normalidade e foi alto o nível de satisfação dos participantes com a pesquisa. Concluiu-se que a utilização da Ayahuasca, por meio de um segmento religioso, contribuiu de maneira fundamental para o abandono ou descontinuidade do uso de substâncias química, sendo considerada pelos mesmos uma forma de tratamento.<hr/>The continuous use of Ayahuasca is the aim of various studies due to few preclinical and clinical data related to security in relation to its prolonged use. Scientific evidences demonstrate the benefits of psychotherapeutic efficacy in the treatment of chronic alcoholism and other drugs abuse. This research is an observational study of reported cases aiming to describe and relate the experience of the religious ritual that uses Ayahuasca to the discontinuity of the overuse of chemicals. Participants (n = 6) consisted of members of a religious community that makes use of ritualistic infusion of the plants Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria Viridis. Through individual interviews, the history of each based on the period of use and the chemical substance used was recorded. Then specific questionnaires to determine the quality of life and level of hope were applied. Haematological examinations were performed to determine the possible hematopoietic disorders and finally, their satisfaction in participating in the research was evaluated. Low values (p>0.05) for the domains of functional capacity and limitations due to emotional problems were observed. The average level of hope was significant (p=0.02) and sustained positive outlook recorded in the interviews, the hematological values were within normal limits and the degree of participant satisfaction was high with the search. It was concluded that the use of Ayahuasca through a religious segment contributed mainly to the abandonment or discontinuation of the use of chemical substances, being considered a form of treatment.