Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Memoria americana]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1851-375120080001&lang=es vol. num. 16-1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[Dossier "Etnias y Nación en América Latina: historia y comparación]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Indians and mestiços in Rio de Janeiro: plural and changing meanings (18th - 19th centuries)]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es As novas proposições teóricas e conceituais da História e da Antropologia sobre os processos de mestiçagem da América têm conduzido à idéia de identidades plurais e à percepção de que as categorias étnicas são historicamente construídas e adquirem significados distintos conforme os tempos, os espaços e os agentes sociais em contato. Este trabalho apresenta uma reflexão sobre esses significados enfocando especialmente os interesses dos índios aldeados do Rio de Janeiro em suas relações com os demais grupos étnicos e sociais com os quais interagiam. Prioriza-se o período das reformas pombalinas ao século XIX, quando as disputas em torno dessas classificações tornaram-se mais visíveis na documentação: enquanto autoridades políticas e intelectuais afirmavam a condição de mistura e dispersão dos índios aldeados, estes últimos reivindicavam direitos com base na identidade indígena. Essas disputas por classificações étnicas são vistas como disputas políticas e sociais, que não se dissociavam dos conflitos em torno das terras das aldeias e das políticas indigenistas do período pombalino e do Império brasileiro.<hr/>Historians and anthropologists have been developing new concepts and theories about the mixing process of Indians in America which allow us to think that identities are plural and that ethnic classifications are historical constructions that have specific meanings according to regions, spaces and social agents in contact. This paper presents a discussion about these meanings, emphasizing the aims of Rio de Janeiro village's indians, taking into account their relations with other ethnic and social groups with whom they used to interact. The period focused extends specially from Pombal's reforms to the 19 th Century, when the disputes about ethnic classifications comes up more clearly in the sources: while political authorities and intellectuals state mixed condition and dispersion of indian's villages, these ones argued for collective rights based on their indigenous identities. These disputes about indigenous peoples'classification on different categories can be seen as political and social disputes, which must be associated with land conflicts and indigenous policy of Pombal's period and brazilian Imperium. <![CDATA[Etnogénesis de un grupo indígena del Brasil central]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El texto analiza el proceso de emergencia étnica de un grupo de indígenas llamados tapuios , que habitan el Área Indígena Carretão, situada entre los municipios de Nova América y Rubiataba, en el estado de Goiás, Brasil. Este grupo es fruto de una política de aldeamentos indígenas surgida en Brasil desde el comienzo de la colonización en el siglo XVI hasta mediados del siglo XIX. En el estado de Goiás fueron construidos cerca de 20 aldeamentos indígenas entre los años de 1741 y 1872. Los tapuios son descendientes de cuatro grupos indígenas que fueron reubicados en el aldeamento Carretão, construido en 1788 por la Corona portuguesa y desactivado al final del siglo XIX. Ocultos en el escenario nacional, con la extinción de ese aldeamento , los tapuios van adquirir visibilidad en la década de 1980 al nacer un nuevo grupo orgánico de individuos, respaldados por la lucha de recuperación de su territorio y de su identidad étnica, dos pilares de afirmación del grupo.<hr/>This text analyses the process of ethnic emergence of an indigenous group called tapuios that inhabits the Indigenous Area Carretão, located between the districts of Nova América and Rubiataba, in the state of Goiás, Brazil. This group is the outcome of a settlement policy promoted in Brazil since the beginning of the colonization in the 16th century, until early 19th century. Approximately 20 indigenous settlements were built in the state of Goiás between the years 1741 and 1872. The tapuios are descendents of four indigenous groups who were moved to the Carretão indian settlement, constructed by the royal Portuguese authorities in 1788 and deactivated at the end of the nineteenth century. Hidden in the Brazilian national scene, since the settlement was extinct, the tapuios , since the 1980s, have regained visibility by the birth of a new native group of individuals, sustained by their fight to regain their territory and to recuperate their ethnic identity, two pillars that consolidate the group. <![CDATA[History, Ethny and nation: indians and the national construction according to caio prado Júnior's perspective]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Neste artigo pretendemos analisar o argumento segundo o qual a mestiçagem foi o meio fundamental de integração do índio à sociedade dominante em expansão. Elegemos como foco principal de nosso estudo o livro Formação do Brasil Contemporâneo, deCaio Prado Jr., por se tratar da principal obra histórica do autor e aquela que o alçou como um dos maiores expoentes da historiografia nacional. Enfocaremos o papel desempenhado pela idéia de mestiçagem no mito de fundação da nação brasileira, a mestiçagem como principal meio de integração social do índio e, finalmente, algumas armadilhas que a idéia de miscigenação produz, impedindo uma apreensão crítica da presença indígena no processo de desenvolvimento histórico do Brasil e do povo brasileiro.<hr/>In this article we discuss the argument that the race mixing was the fundamental factor for integrating the indian population in the Brazilian dominant society. We focus our attention on the myth created about the race mixing and the foundation of the Brazilian nation and on the race mixing as the main process of social integration of the indian population in the Brazilian society. Finally, we discuss some misleading conclusions that the race mixing has produced about this subject, which hinders a complete understanding about the indian contribution to the development of Brazil and of the Brazilian People. We consider the book from Caio Prado Jr., Formation of Contemporary Brazil as our main bibliographical source because its importance in the Brazilian historiography. <![CDATA[Misiones religiosas y políticas identitarias: Las misiones de los consolatinos en Kenia y Roraima]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La intención de este artículo es discutir la elaboración de nuevas formas de alteridad a partir de la interconexión entre la organización de grupos que se representan y/o son representados como étnicos, la formulación de conceptos de etnia y las políticas públicas instituidas por presiones de movimientos sociales y/o internacionales. Esto se hará teniendo como base una parte de la bibliografía producida sobre el tema, considerándose también los datos empíricos surgidos de la investigación realizada sobre las relaciones entre una congregación misionera católica y los indios macuxi, en Brasil, y entre esta misma congregación y los kikuyu, en Kenia.<hr/>This article aims to discuss the development of new forms of alterity from the interconnection between the organization of groups which represent and / or are represented as ethnic, the formulation of the concepts of ethnicity and public policies imposed by pressures from social movements and/or international. This will be done on the basis of the literature produced on the subject, as well as empirical data arising from research on the relations between a catholic missionary congregation and the macuxi Indians in Brazil , and from the same congregation and the kikuyu in Kenya. <![CDATA[El capital de la esperanza: La experiencia de los trabajadores en la construcción de Brasilia]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La intención de este artículo es discutir la elaboración de nuevas formas de alteridad a partir de la interconexión entre la organización de grupos que se representan y/o son representados como étnicos, la formulación de conceptos de etnia y las políticas públicas instituidas por presiones de movimientos sociales y/o internacionales. Esto se hará teniendo como base una parte de la bibliografía producida sobre el tema, considerándose también los datos empíricos surgidos de la investigación realizada sobre las relaciones entre una congregación misionera católica y los indios macuxi, en Brasil, y entre esta misma congregación y los kikuyu, en Kenia.<hr/>This article aims to discuss the development of new forms of alterity from the interconnection between the organization of groups which represent and / or are represented as ethnic, the formulation of the concepts of ethnicity and public policies imposed by pressures from social movements and/or international. This will be done on the basis of the literature produced on the subject, as well as empirical data arising from research on the relations between a catholic missionary congregation and the macuxi Indians in Brazil , and from the same congregation and the kikuyu in Kenya. <![CDATA[Etnicidad, territorialidad y colonialismo en los Andes: Tradición y cambio entre los soras de los siglos XVI y XVII]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La intención de este artículo es discutir la elaboración de nuevas formas de alteridad a partir de la interconexión entre la organización de grupos que se representan y/o son representados como étnicos, la formulación de conceptos de etnia y las políticas públicas instituidas por presiones de movimientos sociales y/o internacionales. Esto se hará teniendo como base una parte de la bibliografía producida sobre el tema, considerándose también los datos empíricos surgidos de la investigación realizada sobre las relaciones entre una congregación misionera católica y los indios macuxi, en Brasil, y entre esta misma congregación y los kikuyu, en Kenia.<hr/>This article aims to discuss the development of new forms of alterity from the interconnection between the organization of groups which represent and / or are represented as ethnic, the formulation of the concepts of ethnicity and public policies imposed by pressures from social movements and/or international. This will be done on the basis of the literature produced on the subject, as well as empirical data arising from research on the relations between a catholic missionary congregation and the macuxi Indians in Brazil , and from the same congregation and the kikuyu in Kenya. <![CDATA[La política de una rebelión: Los indígenas frente al tumulto de 1692 en la ciudad de México]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-37512008000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La intención de este artículo es discutir la elaboración de nuevas formas de alteridad a partir de la interconexión entre la organización de grupos que se representan y/o son representados como étnicos, la formulación de conceptos de etnia y las políticas públicas instituidas por presiones de movimientos sociales y/o internacionales. Esto se hará teniendo como base una parte de la bibliografía producida sobre el tema, considerándose también los datos empíricos surgidos de la investigación realizada sobre las relaciones entre una congregación misionera católica y los indios macuxi, en Brasil, y entre esta misma congregación y los kikuyu, en Kenia.<hr/>This article aims to discuss the development of new forms of alterity from the interconnection between the organization of groups which represent and / or are represented as ethnic, the formulation of the concepts of ethnicity and public policies imposed by pressures from social movements and/or international. This will be done on the basis of the literature produced on the subject, as well as empirical data arising from research on the relations between a catholic missionary congregation and the macuxi Indians in Brazil , and from the same congregation and the kikuyu in Kenya.