Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin American journal of sedimentology and basin analysis]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/rss.php?pid=1851-497920080002&lang=es vol. 15 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.ar <![CDATA[Basaltic Explosive Volcanism in a tuff-dominated Intraplate Setting, Sarmiento Formation (Middle Eocene- lower Miocene), Patagonia Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-49792008000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Sarmiento Formation (middle Eocene to early Miocene) represents the distal record of the activity of the Andean volcanic arc in central Patagonia, mainly dominated by accumulation and reworking of fine ash in a low-gradient continental setting. Intraplate volcanism takes place in the Golfo San Jorge Basin during the deposition of the Sarmiento Formation, and shallow intrusives and basaltic lava flows occurs. An exposure of basaltic volcaniclastic deposits was analyzed in the proximity of the Cerro Dragón intrusive rocks. These deposits consist of eight volcaniclastic lithofacies, organized in three distinct lithofacies association: volcaniclastic debris flow (lahar), base surge, and scoriaceous breccias of a strombolian-style eruption. Explosive volcanism is evidenced by the fallout of ballistic bombs over base surge and scoriaceous deposits, which produced bedding sags in the plastic lapilli. These deposits constitute the first published record of explosive volcanism (Strombolian) associated to the emplacement of the Oligocene alkaline volcanic rocks in the Golfo San Jorge Basin, generally considered as subintrusive or hypabissal intrusions.<hr/>La Formación Sarmiento (Eoceno medio a Mioceno inferior) corresponde al registro distal de la actividad del arco volcánico Andino en la Patagonia central, y está caracterizada por la acumulación y retrabajo de ceniza volcánica fina en ambientes continentales de bajo gradiente. Durante la depositación de la Formación Sarmiento tiene lugar un evento volcánico de intraplaca, con intrusivos alcalinos someros y flujos de lavas basálticas. En este estudio se analiza una exposición de depósitos volcaniclásticos basálticos ubicados en adyacencias de las rocas intrusivas del Cerro Dragón. Estos depósitos consisten de ocho litofacies volcaniclásticas, que pueden ser incluidas en tres asociaciones de litofacies: flujos piroclásticos densos (lahar), oleadas piroclásticas y depósitos de brechas de escoria asociados a una erupción estromboliana. La actividad volcánica explosiva se reconoce por la presencia de bombas volcánicas en depósitos de oleadas piroclásticas y de brechas de escoria, que deforman plasticamente los estratos inconsolidados de lapilli. Estos depósitos constituyen el primer registro publicado de volcanismo basáltico explosivo (Estromboliano) asociado al emplazamiento de las rocas volcánicas alcalinas de edad Oligoceno en la cuenca del Golfo San Jorge, consideradas generalmente intrusiones sub-volcánicas o hipabisales. <![CDATA[Rasgos Geoquímicos de las Calizas de la Formación Arroyo Verde (Eoceno), en Punta Colorada. Provincia de Río Negro. Argentina: Reconstrucción Paleoambiental]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-49792008000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El creciente desarrollo de la industria cementera ha reactivado la exploración de los yacimientos de calizas en el sur de Argentina. En la zona de Punta Colorada, a 36 km de Sierra Grande, Prov. de Río Negro, se encuentra un depósito de estas rocas pertenecientes a la Formación Arroyo Verde, del Eoceno inferior, originada por una ingresión marina ocurrida el Cretácico superior-Terciario inferior. A través de un estudio técnico se cubicaron 14.806.106 tn de reservas medidas y 1.799.174 tn de reservas indicadas en carbonato de calidad menor al 4 % MgO. Se estudió un área de 800 Ha, dividida en 2 zonas ubicadas al norte y al sur de Punta Colorada, separadas por el Arroyo Las Palmas, en el litoral marítimo atlántico. Se determinó una potencia media de 10 m de calizas por medio de perforaciones y perfiles. El análisis de los perfiles permitió establecer 4 niveles compuestos por calizas masivas a granulares, con estratificación entrecruzada, fosilíferas. Microscópicamente se observan bivalvos, equinodermos, corales, foraminíferos y algas. La fracción clástica terrígena, tamaño arena-limo, está compuesta principalmente por cuarzo, feldespato y concreciones arcillosas verdosas. Se analizaron los tenores de CaO, MgO y se calcularon las relaciones Mg/Ca observándose variaciones verticales con aumento del MgO hacia los niveles superiores del yacimiento. Sobre la base de los porcentajes de estos óxidos se clasifica a las rocas en caliza, caliza dolomítica y dolomita calcítica. Se analizaron además Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S y Ti, observándose variaciones geoquímicas laterales y verticales que se relacionarían con cambios morfológicos, paleoambientales y de evolución de la cuenca. Se concluye que las calizas están constituidas principalmente por calcita con cantidades variables de MgO. Estas rocas se habrían formado en lagunas costeras de aguas cálidas, con alto contenido en fósforo. En otros sectores de la cuenca se habrían formado áreas pandas, con alimentación intermitente de aguas marinas, que quedaron aisladas temporalmente del ambiente marino dominante idea apoyada por el aumento en el contenido de Na y K. El contenido de Al, Fe, Mn y Ti estaría relacionado con la presencia de material terrígeno; sin embargo, el escaso aporte a la cuenca indicaría condiciones climáticas de aridez con bajo régimen pluvial. La estratificación entrecruzada en el nivel 2 se asocia a corrientes marinas. La abundancia de fósiles fragmentados revelaría la alta energía del medio. Sobre las planicies de marea las trazas de bioturbación de poco espesor, marcarían condiciones de inestabilidad, además de estadios de energía moderada a relativamente baja con tasa de sedimentación de igual calificación. En la etapa final las condiciones de depositación son marinas costeras, someras, con presencia de conchillas enteras dispersas, estratificación entrecruzada y aumento en el contenido de Fe y Mn. Mientras que en otras áreas el aumento en el contenido de azufre como yeso, señalaría una sostenida regresión del mar en dirección SO-NE.<hr/>The fast growing cement industry has reactivated the exploration for calcareous materials in southern Argentina.A carbonatic deposit is found in Punta Colorada, located 36 km from the town of Sierra Grande, Río Negro Province. These rocks, deposited during a Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary marine ingression, belong to Arroyo Verde Formation (Early Eocene). These coastal deposits have been studied since 1927 by Wichmann, Arnolds (1952), de Alba (1964), Weber (1983) and Busteros et al. (1998). Rossi de García and Levy (1982) assigned these rocks to the Eocene; Spalletti et al. (1993) located them within the Roca Formation (Rocanense ingression) and Gelós et al. (1992) correlated these rocks with Arroyo Verde Formation (Malvicini and Llambías, 1974). Arroqui Langer et al. (2006) from sedimentologic, geochemical and lithologic data in carbonatic rocks of the Precordillera Argentina established an exploration and exploitation pattern. Bonuccelli (2006) made a similar technical study in Punta Colorada, where 14,806,106 tn of measured reserves and 1,799,174 tn of indicated reserves were determined in a carbonate of less than 4% MgO grade. The study area comprise 800 Ha divided in two zones separated by Arroyo Las Palmas gully and located at the north and at the south of a basement outcrop denominated Punta Colorada, in the atlantic marine coast (Fig. 1). By means of 12 drills cores and 8 stratigraphic profiles, a thickness of 10 m was determined for the limestone. Major and minor chemical elements were determined by ICP-MA in 100 ml with two replicas in Alex Steward laboratories, Mendoza. The criterion of Tucker (1981) was used to classify the limestones by the dolomite percentage. From stratigraphic profiles four levels composed of cross-bedded massive to granular fosiliferous limestones were determined. Microscopically they are composed of a fossiliferous limestone (bioclastic packstone) with bivalves, equinoderms, corals, foraminifera and algae, being algal buildups more abundant in level three. The clastic sand to silt fraction is mainly composed of quartz, feldspar and green clay concretions. CaO and MgO contents and the relationships Mg/ Ca (Tables 1 and 2) in the stratigraphic profiles and drills cores show vertical variations with increasing MgO values toward the upper levels of the sequence. Based on the percentages of these oxides the rocks are classified as limestone, dolomitic limestone and calcitic dolomite. In drill cores Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S and Ti contents, indicate lateral and vertical variations that would be related to geomorphological and paleoenvironmental changes and to the basin evolution as well (Fig. 2, Tables 1-3). It is concluded that the limestones are mainly composed of calcite with variable quantities of MgO. These rocks would have been formed in warm lagoons with high P content. At the same time shallower areas with intermittent influx of marine waters would have been developed in other sectors. The increase in the content of Na and K in these sectors would support the idea that these evaporitic deposits were temporarily isolated from the dominant marine environment. Al, Fe, Mn and Ti concentrations would be related to the presence of terrigenous material; however, the scarce contribution to the basin would indicate climatic conditions of aridity with low pluvial regimen. Crossbedding in level 2 is associated to marine currents. The abundance of broken fossils would indicate a highly energy environment. On the tidal flat, the presence of rather thin bioturbation traces (Thalassinoides) would indicate conditions of instability during the development of this ichnofacies, as well as a rather moderate energy with low sedimentation rates. At the final stage, shallow marine, coastal, sedimentation prevail, marked by the abundance of entire shells, cross-bedding and an increment in the Fe and Mn concentration. At the same time in other sectors, the increase in the sulfur content as gypsum, would indicate a sustained SW-NE sea regression. <![CDATA[Las Secuencias Depositacionales del Plioceno-Cuaternario en la Plataforma Submarina adyacente al Litoral del Este Bonaerense]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-49792008000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Se describen las características sismoestratigráficas, sedimentológicas y morfológicas del sector de plataforma submarina adyacente al este bonaerense. El trabajo se basa en los resultados obtenidos durante el desarrollo de sucesivos proyectos destinados al estudio de la cubierta sedimentaria del Plioceno-Cuaternario y reciente, utilizando metodologías de relevamiento sísmico de reflexión de media a alta resolución y muestreos de sedimentos. El sector de plataforma estudiado constituye una típica plataforma submarina silicoclástica de margen pasivo, de gran extensión y suave relieve. Su configuración morfológica está caracterizada por relieves aterrazados con una cobertura sedimentaria de depósitos arenosos relicto a palimpsestos que resultaron del retrabajamiento de sistemas costeros de playas, barreras y lagunas litorales durante el retroceso de la línea de costa como consecuencia del ascenso del nivel del mar durante la transgresión postglacial, con una etapa final de remodelado parcial durante el descenso del nivel del mar del Holoceno superior. Se diferencian dos ámbitos, la plataforma interior ("Terraza Rioplatense", entre la línea de costa y los 30/40 m de profundidad) con geoformas ajustadas a la hidrodinámica actual, y la plataforma exterior (entre la isobata de 70 m y el borde exterior de la plataforma en transición al talud), con sedimentos relicto de poca movilidad; en ambas se hallan relieves pre-transgresivos labrados en depósitos marinos y continentales del Plio-Pleistoceno que afloran bajo la cubierta sedimentaria reciente. Un escalón abrupto de 30/40 m de desnivel separa ambas plataformas. La secuencia estratigráfica estudiada está constituida por seis Secuencias Depositacionales (SD 1 a SD 6 de techo a base) que representan paquetes sedimentarios separados por discordancias. La SD 6 constituye la base de la secuencia, y corresponde a depósitos marinos del Mioceno correlacionables con las unidades costeras conocida como "Paranense-Entrerriense-Chapadmalense". La SD 5 son depósitos marinos en transición a continentales equivalentes a la Fm Barranca de los Lobos del litoral marplatense y a la unidad conocida como "Fm Puelches Equivalente" del Plioceno. La SD 4 está caracterizada por sedimentos marinos correspondientes al denominado "Interensenadense" en el litoral bonaerense, de edad aproximada a los 2,41 Ma (Plioceno superior), y se reconocen en ella diversas sismofacies de ambientes marinos, costeros y continentales con una secuencia litológica granodecreciente hacia arriba. La SD 3, marina, tiene la particularidad de tener una distribución saltuaria, a diferencia de las restantes que se extienden de manera uniforme en toda la región, lo que demuestra la ocurrencia, con posterioridad a su depositación, de importantes procesos erosivos probablemente asociados a tectónica y/o glacioeustatismo. La SD 2 representa a los depósitos marinos-costeros formados durante el estadío isotópico 5e (120 ka), que en las llanuras costeras vecinas se lo conoce como "Belgranense", y está constituida por diversas facies entre las que se destacan barreras-lagunas litorales, playas y estuarios. La SD 1 es la cobertura superficial formada durante la transgresión postglacial en ambientes de barreras-lagunas costeras-estuarios. La secuencia integrada por las SD 5 a 1 representa a las transgresiones glacioeustáticas del Plioceno- Cuaternario, con diferentes grados de preservación en la plataforma y el Río de la Plata en virtud de variantes tectónicas y morfológicas. Existe la posibilidad de que no todas las transgresiones marinas ocurridas en la región hayan quedado preservadas en el registro geológico.<hr/>The Argentina Continental Shelf (ACS) is one of the largest and smoothest silicoclastic shelves in the world, condition that resulted from its geotectonic setting in a passive margin adjacent to a continental region with very extended and low-lying coastal plains. As a consequence, Pliocene-Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations have been very important in its modelling and sedimentary characteristics. The study area is located between 35 and 39º S, the western boundary is the coastline and the eastern boundary in around 55º W that includes the outer shelf border (Fig. 1). The research is based on middle to high-resolution seismic reflection surveys and bottom/ subbottom sampling (piston cores), carried out in the context of several projects that are part of the Framework Project "Reconocimiento Geológico Geofísico del Margen Continental". The information obtained during these projects, as well as the results coming from previous projects and bibliographic compilation, allowed to gather around 4.000 km of seismic lines, 1.200 bottom samples and 92 piston cores (Fig. 2). Morphology: The ACS shows two major features (Figs. 1 and 3): inner shelf (corresponds to Terrace I, Parker et al., 1997, 1999; Violante, 2005) and outer shelf (northern part of Terrace II, Parker et al., 1997; Violante, 2005). The inner shelf extends from the coastline (or the prodelta front in the de la Plata River outlet) to the 30/40 m isobath, and includes the "Rioplatense Terrace" (RT) which represents the surface that has been modelled during the postglacial transgression but not covered by the late Holocene coastal wedge that constitutes the coastal plains. Several lower-order features modelled by the postglacial transgressive and regressive events developed on the RT surface, as the de la Plata river delta, the linear shoals systems and the La Plata Bank (Fig. 1). On the other hand, relict features composed of semiconsolidated plio-pleistocene sediments as Punta Piedras-Alto Marítimo and Restinga de los Pescadores, are significant elements in the inner shelf morphology. The outer shelf is separated from the inner shelf by a high-gradient step between 40-80 m depth (outer border of RT), which becomes, south and southeast Mar del Plata, of lower relief with a rough surface cut by transverse channels and depressions. Further east from the 80 m contourline, the outer shelf can be subdivided in two sectors: north of Querandí lighthouse it is uniformly dipping towards the shelf border, whereas in the southern part it shows a western depression (90 m depth) closer to the outer border of RT, and a eastern shoal-like elevation (75/80 m depth) near the shelf-slope transition (Fig. 3). Sedimentology: The ACS is a silicoclastic shelf where sediment characteristics and distribution are the result of dynamic, oceanographic and climatic factors. The shelf surface is covered by a relict to palimpsestic terrigenous sandy mantle which is the remnant of reworking of the deposits that constituted ancient coastal environments (barriers, coastal lagoons, estuaries) during the coastline retreat that occurred as a result of the postglacial transgressive event as well as during the sediment redistribution during the late Holocene regressive event (Urien and Ewing, 1974; Parker and Violante, 1982; Parker et al., 1999; Violante and Parker, 2000, 2004). The sandy mantle constitutes in the inner shelf a "shoal retreat massif" (in the sense of Swift, 1976) partially reworked in linear shoals systems; outcrops of the underlying plio-pleistocene substratum - partially covered by a discontinuous sheet of pebbles composed of rock fragments and caliche, beach rocks (coquinas) and sand- are common in some parts of the inner shelf. On the other hand, the outer shelf is mainly characterized by outcrops of the same substratum with minor patches of post-transgressive relict sands with a shoal-like morphology (Fig. 4). Sediment dynamic: Coastal dynamic that influenced Holocene and recent sedimentation is the result of three main sediment transport pathways: a) from the south and southeast as a consequence of the dominant oceanic circulation, that brings the relict sands stored on the shelf surface towards the coastal system, b) the regional northwards littoral transport (coastal currents) parallel to the coastline, although local inversions in the general circulation (littoral cells) are evident in the geological record, as in the Mar Chiquita Lagoon area; this transport redistributes along the coast both the shelf sands and the products of coastal erosion, c) The southwards transport of fine (muddy) sediments from the de la Plata River. Stratigraphy: The Neogene stratigraphy was defined by the application of the seismic stratigraphic method following de concepts of Mitchum et al. (1977). Six Depositional Sequences (named SD 1 to 6 from top to bottom) bounded by major seismic reflectors identified by their seismic attributes (amplitude, frequency and continuity) were recognized (Figs. 4 and 5). SD 6 (base of the sequence): corresponds to marine deposits correlated with the Miocene-Pliocene sediments known as "Paranense-Entrerriense-Chapadmalense" in the adjacent coastal areas (Parker et al., 1994, 2005). SD 5: it has seismic and sedimentological characteristics that indicate marine facies at sea changing to nearshore and fluvial facies towards the coast, and is correlated with the upper Pliocene Barranca de los Lobos Fm as well as with the Puelches Equivalente Fm defined by Yrigoyen (1975) and Parker et al. (1994). SD 4: this unit is broadly extended on the shelf with diverse seismic and litho-facies of marine, nearshore, sublittoral, low-energy coastal and continental environments, with an upwards decreasing grain-size sequence; SD 4 is equivalent to the unit known as "Interensenadense" in the adjacent coastal plains and has an upper Pliocene (2.41 Ma) age. SD 3: it is also marine/littoral and has a unique characteristic given by its discontinuous distribution in the nearshore and coastal regions as well as in some places of the shelf (Figs. 4 and 6) as a consequence of deep post-depositional erosive processes probably produced by intensification of tectonic and/ or glacioisostatic adjustments. SD 2: this unit has again a broad regional distribution, and shows different facies that represent diverse nearshore, coastal and continental environments with the particular characteristic of having been deposited as extensive barriers-coastal lagoon systems (Parker et al., 1999; Violante, 2003); it is correlated with the unit known as "Belgranense" in the adjacent coastal areas, and corresponds to the isotopic stage 5e (120 ka). SD 1: represents the uppermost sedimentary sequence formed during the last postglacial transgressive event; it is constituted by a lower transgressive system tract with different environments such as barriers/lagoons systems and estuaries, and an upper highstand system tract with regressive coastal plains, deltas and a mantle of palimpsestic and relict sands formed by reworking of the previous transgressive deposits; in most of the inner shelf surface their deposits are adjusted to the present hydrodynamic conditions (Urien and Ewing, 1974; Parker et al., 1982). Conclusive remarks: The following conclusions can be highlighted: 1) Major geomorphological features are the inner and outer shelf, which correspond to two topographically and sedimentologically different terraces separated by a step. The upper terrace (inner shelf) is a significant feature in the region which is named "Rioplatense Terrace". 2) From the sedimentological point of view, the shelf is silicoclastic; surface deposits resulted from the postglacial transgressive-regressive event. The main difference between the inner and outer shelf is given by the predominance of palimpsestic deposits in the first one and relict deposits with outcrops of the underlying Pliocene-Pleistocene substratum in the second one. 3) The Neogene stratigraphy is defined by seismicstratigraphic units representing Depositional Sequences (SD), which have been characterized on the basis of their seismic and lithological aspects and correlated with geological units known in the adjacent coastal regions. In this way it was described an uppermost, postglacial unit, followed below by a sequence of three transgressiveregressive units equivalent to the "Pampean" (Plio-Pleistocene) deposits, then a underlying unit corresponding to the "Puelches" (upper Pliocene) sands and finally the basal unit correlated with the "Paranense-Entrerriense- Chapadmalense" (Miocene-Pliocene) sequence. 4) Each SD shows a vertical sequence grading from marine (in the base) to continental (in the top) deposits in an upward decreasing grain-size distribution, therefore representing an individual and complete transgressive-regressive event. 5) The different degree of preservation of the SD in the shelf and the de la Plata River not only indicates different tectonic-glacioisostatic behaviours between both regions, but also determines the possibility that other transgressive events than those preserved in the shelf could have occurred but later completely eroded without leaving any record of their deposition. <![CDATA[Grain Size Analysis and Clay Mineral Associations in Bottom Sediments From Paraná River Basin]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-49792008000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Three different clay mineral assemblages are detected in mud-sandy bottom sediments of the Paraná Basin of Argentina. A dominant Kaolinite association, with sources areas in the Upper Amazon, north-east of the study area and within the Brazilian Shield (also with subordinated crystalline Illite); an Illitic- Smectitic and Interlayer I/S association, from the Andean Cordillera and the Chaco Plains in the north-west and mainly represented by the Bermejo and Pilcomayo Rivers; a southern Illitic-Chlorite dominant, but with lower crystallinity index than in the northern area, whose source is in the Pampean Plains to the west of Argentina. Mixed layer clays (Illite/Smectite) were also detected in this southern sector. These clay mineral associations reflect not only the climate but the source rock composition in these three main geographical areas. The tributaries of the lower Paraná River Basin show a dominant Illitic-Smectitic clay mineral association that has been eroded and transported from the Pampean Plains. In this contribution, three main clay mineral associations (Illite-Chlorite, Smectite-I/S, and Kaolinite) in stream sediments of the Paraná River and tributaries within a wide area of Argentina are described and their provenance is interpreted on the basis of controlling factors, climate and provenance.<hr/>Se describen tres asociaciones de argilominerales presentes en sedimentos de fondo limo-arcillosos del río Paraná y algunos de sus tributarios en Argentina. Una asociación con Caolinita (con Illita cristalina subordinada) y con áreas de aporte hacia el noreste de la zona de estudio, en el Alto Amazonas y el Macizo Brasileño, una asociación de Illita-Esmectita e interestratificado Esmectita/ Illita, procedente de la Cordillera Andina y las Planicies del Chaco ubicadas hacia el noroeste y representadas por los ríos Bermejo y Pilcomayo y una asociación de Illita-Clorita dominante, de menor índice de cristalinidad que las del área norte, procedente de las Planicies Pampeanas de Argentina hacia el oeste. Argilominerales interestratificados de tipo Illita/ Esmectita son también descriptos en este sector sur. Las asociaciones de arcilla reflejan tanto la influencia del clima como a la litología y composición de estas áreas de aporte. Los tributarios del río Paraná Inferior muestran una composición de argilominerales dominante, de tipo Illita-Esmectita con proveniencia de las Planicies Pampeanas. En esta contribución tres asociaciones de argilofacies (Illita-Clorita, Illita- Esmectita interestratificado y Caolinita) en los sedimentos de fondo de los tributarios del Río Paraná son analizadas e interpretadas en base a los principales factores de control como clima y procedencia. <![CDATA[Geomorphology: A Canadian Perspective]]> http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-49792008000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Three different clay mineral assemblages are detected in mud-sandy bottom sediments of the Paraná Basin of Argentina. A dominant Kaolinite association, with sources areas in the Upper Amazon, north-east of the study area and within the Brazilian Shield (also with subordinated crystalline Illite); an Illitic- Smectitic and Interlayer I/S association, from the Andean Cordillera and the Chaco Plains in the north-west and mainly represented by the Bermejo and Pilcomayo Rivers; a southern Illitic-Chlorite dominant, but with lower crystallinity index than in the northern area, whose source is in the Pampean Plains to the west of Argentina. Mixed layer clays (Illite/Smectite) were also detected in this southern sector. These clay mineral associations reflect not only the climate but the source rock composition in these three main geographical areas. The tributaries of the lower Paraná River Basin show a dominant Illitic-Smectitic clay mineral association that has been eroded and transported from the Pampean Plains. In this contribution, three main clay mineral associations (Illite-Chlorite, Smectite-I/S, and Kaolinite) in stream sediments of the Paraná River and tributaries within a wide area of Argentina are described and their provenance is interpreted on the basis of controlling factors, climate and provenance.<hr/>Se describen tres asociaciones de argilominerales presentes en sedimentos de fondo limo-arcillosos del río Paraná y algunos de sus tributarios en Argentina. Una asociación con Caolinita (con Illita cristalina subordinada) y con áreas de aporte hacia el noreste de la zona de estudio, en el Alto Amazonas y el Macizo Brasileño, una asociación de Illita-Esmectita e interestratificado Esmectita/ Illita, procedente de la Cordillera Andina y las Planicies del Chaco ubicadas hacia el noroeste y representadas por los ríos Bermejo y Pilcomayo y una asociación de Illita-Clorita dominante, de menor índice de cristalinidad que las del área norte, procedente de las Planicies Pampeanas de Argentina hacia el oeste. Argilominerales interestratificados de tipo Illita/ Esmectita son también descriptos en este sector sur. Las asociaciones de arcilla reflejan tanto la influencia del clima como a la litología y composición de estas áreas de aporte. Los tributarios del río Paraná Inferior muestran una composición de argilominerales dominante, de tipo Illita-Esmectita con proveniencia de las Planicies Pampeanas. En esta contribución tres asociaciones de argilofacies (Illita-Clorita, Illita- Esmectita interestratificado y Caolinita) en los sedimentos de fondo de los tributarios del Río Paraná son analizadas e interpretadas en base a los principales factores de control como clima y procedencia.