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Darwiniana, nueva serie

versión impresa ISSN 0011-6793


MOLARES, Soledad  y  LADIO, Ana H.. Plantas aromáticas con órganos subterráneos de importancia cultural en la patagonia argentina: una aproximación a sus usos desde la etnobotánica, la percepción sensorial y la anatomía. Darwiniana [online]. 2012, vol.50, n.1, pp.7-24. ISSN 0011-6793.

We have analyzed the ethnobotany and anatomy of five aromatic species with medicinal or edible use, highly valued in Argentine Patagonia: Valeriana clarionifolia, V. carnosa (Valerianaceae), Azorella monantha, Osmorhiza chilensis and Eryngium paniculatum (Apiaceae).We focused on the characterization of the secretory structures of the underground organs and their possible link to sensory perceptions and uses given by the people. Ethnobotanical work was conducted in two Mapuche indigenous communities of the province of Neuquén and in two communities of Chubut, with a total of 53 interviews. The anatomical work consisted of structural and ultrastructural observation of the secretory structures. Informants indicated that E. paniculatum is mainly used to treat digestive and liver disorders; O. chilensis for vision problems, and A. monantha as urinary and antitussive; also underground organs of these three species are eaten raw and/or cooked. Valeriana species are mainly used as analgesic, digestive, antitussive and in cultural syndromes. The taste and smell are the main sensory properties used to recognize and use the Valeriana and O. chilensis species. Azorella monantha and E. paniculatum are recognized by their morphological characteristics, but also are valued for its taste and smell. The microscopic observations revealed the presence of schizogenous secretory cavities in O. chilensis, E. paniculatum and A. monantha, and abundance of starch. In species of Valeriana periderm is observed with a high content of essential oils like drops. We conclude that these species have organoleptic attributes originated in specialized anatomical structures, which partly explain their food and/or medicinal uses.

Palabras clave : Aroma; Mapuche; Organoleptic perceptions; Secretory structures; Taste.

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