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Medicina (Buenos Aires)

versión impresa ISSN 0025-7680versión On-line ISSN 1669-9106


PASQUALINI, Titania et al. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Clinical characteristics and genotype in newborn, childhood and adolescence. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2007, vol.67, n.3, pp.253-261. ISSN 0025-7680.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder which can adopt three clinical expressions: two classical forms -salt-wasting (SW), with residual enzymatic activity (EA) < 1% and simple virilizing (SV), with EA 1-2%- and a mild late onset or nonclassical (NC) form, with EA 10-60%. Our objective is to describe clinical characteristics, growth, and bone mass in a group of patients affected by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Besides, molecular genetics studies were performed in patients, and also when available in their parents and siblings. Nine patients with neonatal diagnosis and 8 with pre or postpubertal diagnosis were studied. Analyses of 10-point mutations in the CYP21A2 gene were performed. We found that all the patients with the classical expression, except one with a de novo mutation R356W in one allele, were fully genotyped with predictive < 2% EA mutations. Signs of hyperandrogenism were present in 5/6 NC patients; one was diagnosed by searching for mutations in asymptomatic siblings. All the NC patients were compound heterozygotes carrying V281L mutation in one allele and a predictive low EA in the other, except for one not yet determined. In patients with neonatal diagnosis, mean height was low at one year of age, though it showed a significant increase before the onset of puberty. We conclude that neonatal diagnosis of classical CAH allows an adequate follow up enhancing growth. Molecular analyses of all members of an affected family may disclose asymptomatic patients. The presence of de novo mutations, as well as, the presence of mutations with low predicted EA in NC patients reinforces the importance of genotyping for appropriate genetic counseling. In fully genotyped NC patients, the lowest value of ACTH-stimulated 17OHP was 14 ng/ml. Lower cut-off values might overestimate the diagnosis of the NC form.

Palabras clave : Congenital adrenal hyperplasia; Congenital adrenal hyperplasia molecular genetics; Congenital adrenal hyperplasia clinical characteristics.

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