Medicina (Buenos Aires)
versión impresa ISSN 0025-7680
Clinical depression is a physical and psychic disease that has neuropathological basis, although the clear understanding of its ethiopathology is still missing. There is evidence of a genetic component in depression, however, the participation of environment is crucial. Stress plays an essential role in the onset of depression. The interaction and the response of the endocrine system with the immune and nervous system are altered in depression. The observation of the effect of antidepressants on monoaminergic transmitters leads to the hypothesis of monoamines. However this hypothesis cannot explain many of the mechanisms involved in the action of antidepressants. The new hypothesis proposed to explain the action of antidepressant is the neuroplasticity hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that the effects of antidepressants on nervous, immune and endocrine systems are able to induce neuroadaptative changes in the brain. The neuroplasticity have been described as the ability of the brain to reorganize itself and form new neuronal connections throughout life. It is proposed that antidepressants influence neuroplasticity inducing improvements in the symptoms of this illness.
Palabras clave : Depression; Neuroplasticity; Inflammation; Stress.