Medicina (Buenos Aires)
versión impresa ISSN 0025-7680
CECCHINI, Diego et al. HIV and pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal evolution. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2011, vol.71, n.5, pp. 432-436. ISSN 0025-7680.
Data regarding epidemiological aspects, antiretroviral drug safety, and outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns are limited in Argentina. We underwent a retrospective analysis of registries of HIV-infected pregnant women assisted at Helios Salud, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1997-2006). Variables associated with preterm delivery and neonatal complications were analyzed by univariate and logistic regression analyses. A total of 204 mother-child binomium were included. Maternal age (median): 29 years; 32.5% without prior diagnosis of HIV-infection. Baseline median CD4 T-cell count: 417 cell/μl; 98% received antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy [2 nucleoside analogs plus either nevirapine (55%) or a protease inhibitor (32%)]. Overall incidence of toxicity was 12.5%: rash (8%), anemia (3.5%) and hepatotoxicity (1%). Rash was associated with exposure to nevirapine. Eighty one percent and 50% reached HIV-viral loads <1000 and <50 copies/ml at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Twenty six percent had obstetric complications and 16% had preterm delivery. Of the newborns, 1.6% had congenital defects and 9% had neonatal complications. Overall neonatal mortality was 1% and perinatal transmission was 0.7%. Protease inhibitor use and obstetric complications were associated to preterm delivery while obstetric complications were associated with neonatal complications. In our population, hepatotoxicity was low despite frequent use of nevirapine. Protease inhibitor use was associated to preterm delivery. A favorable virological response and a low rate of perinatal transmission was observed, what supports the consensus that antiretroviral therapy benefits during pregnancy outweigh risks of maternal and neonatal adverse events.
Palabras clave : HIV; Pregnancy; Toxicity; Preterm delivery; Vertical transmission; Nevirapine.