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Medicina (Buenos Aires)

versión impresa ISSN 0025-7680versión On-line ISSN 1669-9106

Resumen

LARRAURI, Blas J et al. Anafilaxias y reacciones alérgicas durante cirugías y procedimientos médicos. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2017, vol.77, n.5, pp.382-387. ISSN 0025-7680.

Anaphylaxis during anesthesia is an unpredictable, severe, and rare reaction. It has an incidence of 1/10 000 to 1/20 000 surgeries. In most series, the responsible drugs include neuromuscular blocking agents, latex, or antibiotics. The frequency and etiology of systemic allergic reactions in other medical procedures are largely unknown. The identification of responsible drugs of anaphylaxis is a complex task, requiring testing of all medications and substances used during surgery. We describe our experience in a retrospective study of 15 patients. Ten subjects developed anaphylaxis during surgery, two in endoscopic studies and one in a trans-vaginal ultrasound. The remaining two subjects, one in a trans-vaginal ultrasound and another during a dental procedure had a systemic allergic reaction. We studied all patients with all medications administered during the procedures, including latex and detergents and disinfectants. Three surgeries had to be suspended at induction of anesthesia, five were stopped incomplete and two were completed. Both patients that presented a reaction during endoscopy required intensive care unit admission and the rest were observed in a Hospital. The responsible drugs during surgery anaphylaxis were neuromuscular blocking agents, latex, patent blue, and ranitidine. Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) was identified during endoscopic studies; latex was responsible in transvaginal ultrasounds; and amoxicillin in the dental procedure. The aim of the present article is to review our experience studying allergic systemic reactions and anaphylaxis during general anesthesia and medical procedures, emphasizing the severity of these reactions and the need for causative drug identification.

Palabras clave : Perioperative anaphylaxis; Medical procedure; Latex; Ortho phthalaldehyde; OPA; Neuromuscular blocking drugs; Allergy.

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