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Medicina (Buenos Aires)

versión impresa ISSN 0025-7680versión On-line ISSN 1669-9106


ARROYO, Hugo A. Microcefalia. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2018, vol.78, suppl.2, pp.94-100. ISSN 0025-7680.

Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. It is an important neurological sign and predictor of future disability. One of its diagnostic difficulties lies in the ranks of the head circumference reference against which we measure each child. The WHO developed growth curves that could be used universally, topic on which there may be discrepancies. Recently, Zika virus epidemic demanded to review the criteria for the diagnosis of microcephaly. The classification of the microcephaly in congenital and postnatal makes it possible to define the etiology, the associated symptoms and the prognosis. The evaluation of a child with microcephaly requires a thorough analysis of its history, clinical examination and complementary studies. MRI is the first step in the etiologic research. Genetic causes forming part of a syndrome or not, and prenatal infections are the most frequent etiologies but in half of the cases, no cause is found. The comparative hybridization genomic array (array-CGH) and full exome sequencing are techniques that more and more help us in the evaluation of patients with microcephaly. Depending on the cause and severity, children with microcephaly may have different problems such as intellectual disabilities, development retardation, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, as well as vision and hearing disorders. The microcephaly requires a multidisciplinary approach both in its initial assessment as it is its post-program monitoring.

Palabras clave : Microcephaly; Infectious; Genetic; Congenital microcephaly; Acquired microcephaly.

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