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Medicina (Buenos Aires)

Print version ISSN 0025-7680On-line version ISSN 1669-9106


PUCHE, Rodolfo C. On the genetic determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2019, vol.79, n.3, pp.217-224. ISSN 0025-7680.

Hypovitaminosis D, defined by low serum levels of 25(OH)D, is a recognized worldwide public health problem. The most accepted definition considers that deficiency occurs with serum levels fall below 12 ng/ml of 25(OH)D. Long term vitamin D deficiency results in decreased bone mineralization, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased cortical bone loss (pathogenesis of osteoporosis and hip fractures), differentiation and division of various cell types, muscle strength, diabetes type 2, blood pressure, etc. Twin- and family-based studies indicate that genetic factors influence serum 25(OH)D levels. Genetic studies have shown single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are linked to low serum 25(OH)D concentrations through changes in the activity of the enzymes of the 1α,25(OH)2D metabolic pathway. Carriers of high genetic risk scores would need a h igher amount of vitamin D supplementation to achieve adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Clinicians would not need to indicate studies to identify patients with vitamin D insufficiency of genetic origin. They should instruct their patients on their own care, to control the intake of vitamin D and the serum 25(OH)D levels until the latter are adequate. Overall, the literature reveals that the consequences of hypovitaminosis D on bone health are observed in old and infrequently in young subjects. A probable explanation for the latter is: if the rate of bone remodeling allows it, bone tissue has endogenous (genetics, hormones) and exogenous determinants (diet, physical activity) that may compensate the variables of bone health. The consequences of vitamin D deficit on bone health, has not been completely uncovered.

Keywords : Hypovitaminosis D; Single-nucleotide-polymorphisms; Genes; Bone remodeling; Age.

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