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Medicina (Buenos Aires)

versión impresa ISSN 0025-7680versión On-line ISSN 1669-9106


FERRAN, Ceila; PEDEMONTE, Virginia; TURCATTI, Emilio  y  GONZALEZ, Gabriel. Neuromielitis óptica. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2019, vol.79, suppl.3, pp.60-65. ISSN 0025-7680.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory and de myelinat ing disorder of the central nervous system with a predilection for the optic nerves and spinal cord. In 2004 the association of NMO with an antibody against the water channel aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) was published as a different pathology from multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently the term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is proposed, because the manifestations of the disease can be more extensive, affecting in addition to the optic nerve and spinal cord, the area postrema of the dorsal medulla, brainstem, diencephalon and typical brain areas (periependymal, corpus callosum, internal capsule and subcortical white matter). NMOSD is also applied to patients who meet the NMO criteria and are negative for AQP4-IgG. Within the latter group, the presence of another antibody, anti-MOG, has been detected in 20%, with a different physiopathological mechanism, but with a similar clinic and a better prognosis. The immunosuppressive treatment in the attack, as well as the long-term treatment in the cases that are indicated, is fundamental to avoid sequelaes and recurrences. The correct diagnosis of this entity is essential since it can be aggravated with the use of drugs useful in the treatment of MS. In this publication we will review the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria of NMOSD, and discuss the different therapeutic options.

Palabras clave : Neuromyelitis optica; Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders; Aquaporin-4; Immunoglobulin G; Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein.

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