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Archivos argentinos de pediatría

versión impresa ISSN 0325-0075versión On-line ISSN 1668-3501


RUSCASSO, Javier et al. Complicaciones trombóticas en niños con síndrome nefrótico primario. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2004, vol.102, n.4, pp.251-258. ISSN 0325-0075.

Introduction. Thromboembolic episodes, although infrequent, are one of the most severe and lifethreatening complications found in children with nephrotic syndrome. The primary aim of this study was to describe retrospectively our experience with these patients, their clinical and laboratory abnormalities, treatment and evolution. Population, material and methods. From 1969 to 2001 we assisted 610 children with primary nephrotic syndrome in the Department of Pediatric Nephrology (Hospital de Niños "Superiora Sor María Ludovica", La Plata, Argentina). They were retrospectively studied for clinically apparent thromboembolic complications. Results. Nine out of 610 (1.47%) had 11 apparent thromboembolic complications during a relapse of their NS. Five were defined as steroid-responsive (two of them had steroid-dependent relapses) and 4 as steroid-resistant. Five were biopsied: 3 showed minimal-change disease and 2, type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The most commonly affected vessels were cerebral (n= 6), deep leg veins (n= 5) and intracraneal sinuses (n= 2). One of the patients had a generalized thromboembolic complication affecting the inferior vena cava, iliac, renal, cerebral and deep leg veins, and a pulmonary thromboembolic episode. Hemostatic abnormalities, such as significant decrease in plasma concentration of antithrombin III (8/8), high fibrinogen level (8/8) and thrombocytosis (5/9), were detected. Other risk factors found in our patients were: use of diuretics, dehydration, trauma, venopuncture and immobilization. The episodes were treated with heparin (9/11), antithrombin III and/or fresh frozen plasma infusion (6/11), followed by oral anticoagulation (7/11). Seven of 11 patients achieved full recovery, while 3/11 had partial neurological recovery and only one reached an end-stage renal failure due to bilateral renal vein thrombosis. No one died as a consequence of apparent thrombotic complication. Conclusions. Thromboembolic episodes, although infrequent, are one of the most severe life-threatening complications found in children with nephrotic syndrome. All of them were seen during nephrotic relapses. We detected coagulation disturbances and certain predisposing factors that may have contributed to the thrombotic episodes. Early anticoagulation and antithrombin III replacement were successful in most patients.

Palabras clave : Nephrotic syndrome; Thromboembolic complications; Thrombosis.

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