Archivos argentinos de pediatría
versión On-line ISSN 1668-3501
BAUER, Gabriela; DUSSEL, Verónica; FARINA, Diana y RODRIGUEZ, Susana. Infección por virus sincicial respiratorio en poblaciones vulnerables: riesgo biológico contra riesgo social. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2005, vol.103, n.3, pp. 198-204. ISSN 1668-3501.
Introduction. Preterm infants and those carrying bronchopulmonary dysplasia have a higher risk of hospitalization because of respiratory synctitial virus infection. Palivizumab is an expensive drug that has been approved in Argentina. The lack of epidemiological data about respiratory synctitial virus infection hospitalizations in high-risk populations precludes extrapolation of the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines to the Argentine population. Few studies have explored social risk in the biologically vulnerable groups for this severe infection. Objective. To explore the association between biologic and socio-economic factors, and severe forms of respiratory synctitial virus infection in preterm babies with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Population, material and methods. The study design is a case-control study. Inclusion criteria: children who attended to the neonatal high-risk clinic followup program and met the criteria of the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines during a fiveyear period (May to September 1998-2002). Biological and social risk variables were investigated. Results. Of the 121 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 30 patients (25%) required hospitalization (cases) and 91 did not require hospitalization (controls). For the analyzed biological variables of risk, the cases had birth weights and gestational ages greater than controls (329 g ± 450 versus 1,145 g ± 393). There were not significant differences in other variables of biological risk. Only siblings or other children in the household younger than ten years of age and mothers with incomplete primary school were associated with increased risk of hospitalization (OR 5.4, CI 95% 1.7-16; OR 5.8 CI 95% 2.2-15.4). Conclusions. We conclude that the biological risk factors currently used in developed countries are inadequate to define the risk for respiratory synctitial virus infection hospitalization in low socioeconomic groups in developing countries, and that social factors (i.e.: maternal education and the number of siblings) were strongly associated to serious infection by respiratory synctitial virus.
Palabras llave : Respiratory syncytial virus; Orophylaxis; Social risk.