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Archivos argentinos de pediatría

Print version ISSN 0325-0075


BARAJAS VIRACACHA, Norma Carolina. Prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other agents that cause acute otitis media in children in Latin America: A systematic review of the literature. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2011, vol.109, n.3, pp.204-212. ISSN 0325-0075.

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common diagnosis in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent agent worldwide, followed by Haemophilus influenzae. However, the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the microbiology of AOM. Objective. To establish the prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes and other common germs in Latin American children with AOM. Source of data. We carried out a systematic search for original articles in seven databases, limited to publications between 1999 and 2010, children under 18, and English and Spanish languages. Search was completed with "snowball" strategy. Review methods. Eligibility criteria included original prevalence cross-sectional articles, conducted in pediatric populations in Latin America, with homogeneous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted from the selected articles. Results. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria. In Latin America, specifically Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, Streptococcus pneumoniae (43.5%) was the most frequent germ, (serotype 19F is the most frequent, except in Argentina where it is 14) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%). Conclusions. The more prevalent germ in Latin American children AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a finding consistent with those from Europe and the U.S. Further studies are required in the other countries of the region and its pediatric pneumococcal vaccinated population, in order to establish an updated epidemiological and microbiological profile in Latin America.

Keywords : Child; Latin America; Prevalence; Microbiology; Otitis media.

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