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Archivos argentinos de pediatría

Print version ISSN 0325-0075On-line version ISSN 1668-3501


CANCELLARA, Aldo D et al. Multicenter study on invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in children in Argentina. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2016, vol.114, n.3, pp.199-207. ISSN 0325-0075.

Introduction. Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections (ISpIs) cause a high morbidity and mortality, even at present; however, at a regional level there are few publications on this subject in the field of pediatrics. Objective. To describe the prevalence, predisposing factors and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized for ISpI, and analyze risk factors associated with bacteremia and lethality. Material and methods. Retrospective, descriptive study on ISpIs in children <18 years old hospitalized in the Pediatric Ward of 20 healthcare facilities across Argentina between 2010 and 2012. Assessed outcome measures: age, gender, early and late clinical sources of infection, prior chronic condition, predisposing factors, treatment and evolution. Results. One hundred and forty-three patients were analyzed. The incidence of ISpI was 4.97 cases/10 000 hospital discharges. Patients' median age was 54 months old, and 11.2% had a prior chronic condition. Also, 67.1% had predisposing factors. The most common clinical manifestations were in the skin and soft tissue in 77 patients, sepsis in 30, bone and joint involvement in 19, necrotizing fasciitis in 13, and toxic shock syndrome in 11. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in the blood cultures of 56.6%. More than one clinical source of infection and no surgery were associated with bacteremia (odds ratio [OR]: 4.8, p= 0.003 and OR: 3.1, p= 0.0012, respectively). The average length of stay in the hospital was 13.4 days. Fatality rate was 7.6% in association with toxic shock syndrome (OR: 10, p= 0.005), necrotizing fasciitis (OR: 104, p < 0.0001) and admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (OR: 26, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Most ISpIs were observed in patients without a prior chronic condition. The most common manifestation was, frequently with bacteremia, in the skin and soft tissue. A statistically significant association was observed between bacteremia and ≥2 early sources of infection and no surgery. Fatality rate, in association with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis, was similar to that observed in other publications.

Keywords : Streptococcus pyogenes; Necrotizing fasciitis; Toxic shock syndrome.

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