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Archivos argentinos de pediatría

Print version ISSN 0325-0075On-line version ISSN 1668-3501


GENTILE, Angela et al. Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis: Is there a re-emergence? 24 years of experience in a children's hospital. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2017, vol.115, n.3, pp.227-233. ISSN 0325-0075.

Introduction. Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) used to be the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children younger than 5 years old. Following the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the immunization schedule (1998), its incidence reduced significantly but it has increased over the last years. The objectives of this study included describing the characteristics and analyzing the epidemic curve of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) meningitis by comparing the pre- and postimmunization periods. Material and methods. Time-series study. All patients hospitalized with Hib meningitis at Hospital de Niños "R. Gutiérrez" (January 1992-May 2016). Hospitalization rates were compared before (pre-immunization) and after (post-immunization) the introduction of the Hib vaccine. The post-immunization period was divided into three similar periods. Results. Eighty-five patients with Hib meningitis were admitted (73.3% in the pre-immunization period). No differences were observed in relation to the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of cases in both periods. Pre-immunization: 10.5 cases/year; postimmunization: 0.7 cases/year. As of 2014, the rate has increased. Lethality rate: 4.8% (all preimmunization). Post-immunization data (n= 15): 40% had completed their primary immunization schedule, 40% were delayed on the immunization schedule for their age. Overall reduction in the hospital rate of Hib meningitis by 89.8% (95% confidence interval: -82.79-93.96%, p < 0.001) in the post-immunization period. The analysis of the different post-immunization periods shows a decline in reduction over time. Conclusions. A very significant reduction in hospitalizations due to Hib meningitis was observed after the Hib vaccine was introduced; however, over the past years, the number of cases has increased although no changes have been observed in patient characteristics.

Keywords : Haemophilus influenzae type B; Vaccines; Time-series studies.

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