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Acta bioquímica clínica latinoamericana

Print version ISSN 0325-2957On-line version ISSN 1851-6114


BOBAN, María José et al. Evaluation of protein electrophoresis in the gamma zone: clinicopathological correspondence. Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam. [online]. 2017, vol.51, n.2, pp.213-220. ISSN 0325-2957.

Serum protein electrophoresis (PEP) is requested to screen changes in the protein profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in the gamma globulin zone and correspondence with various clinical and pathological states. 7259 patients were included (1-89 years of age) who had been requested a PEP in 2013. According to the densitometric tracing, in the gamma globulin zone different groups were recognized: hypogammaglobulinemia (<0.60 g/dL), polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia (≥1,80 g/dL), monoclonal band (MB) and oligoclonal band. The polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia prevailed (4.2%), followed by MB (1.4%) and hypogammaglobulinemia (0.8%). Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia (>3 g/dL) was observed in autoimmune hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, Sjögren’s syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, HIV, hepatitis C and Castleman’s disease. The MB finding corresponded to a 47% of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 40% with multiple myeloma; 0.5% were new cases. In adults, hipogammaglobulinemias prevailed in therapeutic immunosuppression cases (55%), followed by patients with diabetes/ metabolic syndrome/ hypothyroidism (23%); in children, 22% with immunosuppression and 78% corresponded to hipogammaglobulinemias not classified as primary immunodeficiency. To conclude, an alteration in the gamma globulin zone was observed in 6.4% of PEP. In 1 out of 200 PEP MB was found. The finding of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia or MB corresponded to different clinicopathological states.

Keywords : Protein electrophoresis; Hypogammaglobulinemia; Hypergammaglobulinemia; Gammaglobulin zone; Monoclonal band.

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