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Interdisciplinaria

versión On-line ISSN 1668-7027

Resumen

PALOMAR LEVER, Joaquina  y  GOMEZ VALDEZ, Norma E.. Construction of a measurement scale of resilience in mexicans (RESI-M). Interdisciplinaria [online]. 2010, vol.27, n.1, pp. 7-22. ISSN 1668-7027.

People who live through adverse situations may experience serious consequences in their psychological development. However there is evidence that show that many individuals have not only been able to overcome such difficulties but have emerged stronger from them. These people we may call resilient. Resilience is not a dimensional or a dichotomous attribute that individuals have or have not; it implies the possession of multiple habilities in some level that help individual to cope (Reivich & Shatté, 2002). The object of the current study has been to develop a scale with Mexican population (Mexican Resilience Scale RESI-M) the use of two scales which may be used to measure resilience in adults. The Connor- Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, 1999) and the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA - Friborg, Hjemdal, Rosenvinge, & Martinussen, (001)). The research included 217 adults between the ages 17 to 25 of both sexes. The results showed that of the 43 recognized items, five factors have been formed. (1) Strength and confidence in theirselves: Personal competition, high standards and determination. It is the conviction that one is sufficiently prepared to be able to face any situation that appears even if unforeseen. It is the conviction that, although not all the answers might be known, one can look for them and find them. It refers to the set of positive expectations on oneself or more specific oneself actions, as well as to the aptitude to accept or to cope with events in spite of the stress that they may inflict with it. (2) Social competence: Capacity or ability of the subject to interact in a successful way with his environment and to achieve the legitimate satisfaction of his needs, upon exercising determined influence on his similar (in the sense of to be taken into account), is a quality very related to the health, the emotional adjustment and the welfare of the individuals. (3) Family support: It refers to the time that the members of the family share, the loyalty that exists among them and the fortress of the family ties. (4) Social support: It refers tothe existing links among the subject and a definite assembly of people, with which is feasible the exchange of communication, solidarity and confidence. (5) Structure: It is understood like the rules and the activities that carry out the people and that facilitate them to have organization and order in their life. At the same time they observed the existence of statistical differences in the factors of the resilience according to gender, age and marital status, observing that women obtained higher scores in social support, the older group has higher scores in social competence and familiar support and finally, married people feel emotionally stronger and higher self-confidence and single group senses higher supported (social support) than married. To conclude we can affirm that according to the results of this study, it can be observed that this construct is multidimensional since includes abilities of diverse type that help the individuals to cope in life. The RESI-M contains five dimensions, in which they are grouped some of the characteristics that emphasize the resilient answers in different levels: individual, family and social. The individual level is very important since this related to behaviors such as to set goals, to be motivated, to be engaged, to have self-control, to be responsible, to make decisions, to confront pacific and objectively the problems, to have an internal locus of control and a sense of life, as well as to be optimist, they are very powerful tools to confront difficult situations. It is considered besides that the family support is the most important social backup, since is in the family breast where is educated the children, security offers them and so much material as emotional support. Nevertheless other sources of support exist such as the school, the friends, the tutors, among others, that also they respond to the needs of the individuals.

Palabras llave : Evaluation; Resilience; Scale; Hardiness; Self-confidence..

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