versión On-line ISSN 1668-7027
CHARRIA ORTIZ, Victor Hugo; SARSOSA PROWESK, Kewy y ARENAS ORTIZ, Felipe. Design and validation of contents for a dictionary of academic, professional, and work-related generic competencies for psychologist. Interdisciplinaria [online]. 2011, vol.28, n.2, pp. 299-322. ISSN 1668-7027.
The following article presents the final results of the design and content validation of a generic competencies dictionary for the trained psychologist. Different authors, such as Collazos and Garcia (1999), argue that the research and identification of competencies have helped to solve the weakness of traditional psychometric tests used to predict worker's productivity. Moreover, Peiró (2003) mentions that in defining the objectives to be achieved by education, it is required to determine the qualifications or competencies that should have a professional. However, in the field of Psychology, there is little research leading to the development of tools for identifying and evaluating competencies among students and professionals (ANECA, 2005; Castro Solano, 2004; González, 2007; Herrera, Restrepo & Uribe, 2008; Pérez-Santamarina & López, 2006; Ruiz, Jaraba & Romero, 2005; Uribe, Aristizábal, Barona & López, 2009). A theoretical overview of the concept of competency has been made, taking in to account different approaches, like the sociolinguistic (Hymes, 1972) and the job performance (McClelland, 1973). From the revised definitions and interpretations given to the concept of competence, it is concluded that they integrate self-knowledge (motivation, initiative, and teamwork with others), self-teaching (observation, explanation, comprehension, and analysis), and ‘know-how' (performance based on strategies and procedures) (Braslavsky & Acosta, 2006; Cejas, 2003; Echeverría, 2002; Ibarra, 2000; Tobón, 2004). Different classifications to the concept of competencies that have been applied to different contexts were also reviewed. For instance, Gordillo (2003) argues that competencies can be grouped into methodological, technical, social, and individual. Álvarez, Gómez, and Ratto (2004) classify them in technique and general competencies, similar to the one proposed by Ruiz, Jaraba, and Romero (2008) and the Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación (ANECA, 2005), whoever divide them in general (or transverse) and specific competencies. For the purpose of this research and taking in to account these classifications, it is proposed for this work a distinction between academic, professional, and work-related generic competencies. The creation of the generic competencies dictionary for the trained psychologists followed the guidelines for instrumental studies as suggested by Montero and León (2005) and Carretero and Pérez (2007): the conceptual outline of the evaluation subject, and the design and qualitative evaluation of the items. In the content validation by expert evaluators, participated six professional psychologists with expertise in the fields of research methodology and Organizational Psychology, who are teachers of the Department of Social Sciences from a private university in Cali (Colombia). Subsequently, the pilot application of the instrument was attended by 23 people: 7 final year students of the Career of Psychology and 16 graduates of the same university. These research findings led to the creation of a generic competencies dictionary for public use, composed by 13 academic competencies, 12 professional competencies, and 10 work-related competencies. This dictionary is the result of a research aimed to identify the most significant competencies, as well as the definitions that fit these best, to ensure the recognition of crucial requirements in the field and their adequate implementation among psychologists. It is concluded that this dictionary is useful to understand standards and determine competencies that a professional psychologist must obtain from educational institutions, at least in the work and academic contexts where the research was conducted. It also constitutes a timely contribution to meet the challenges, demands, and possibilities of professional performance, given the socio-economic, demographic, and cultural changes of the 21st century, which impact the training and functions of a professional psychologist.
Palabras clave : Competencies dictionary; Content validation; Competencies of a professional psychologist; Generic competencies; Academic competencies; Professional competencies; Work related competencies.