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SAMPER-GARCIA, Paula; MESURADO, Belen; RICHAUD, María Cristina  and  LLORCA, Anna. Validation of Emotional Awareness Questionnaire in Spanish Adolescent. Interdisciplinaria [online]. 2016, vol.33, n.1, pp.163-176. ISSN 1668-7027.

Emotional awareness is an attentional process that enables us to monitor our emotions and to differentiate between various emotions in a qualitative sense, to locate their antecedents, and to acknowledge the physiological correlates of the emotion experience (Rieffe, Oosterveld, Miers, Terwogt, & Ly, 2008). Rieffe and colaborators (2008) consider that emotional awareness also includes attitudinal aspects such as positive or negative appreciation of the own emotions, consideration of them as aspects of oneself, or on the contrary, that they must be communicated to the others. Emotional awareness would be a cognitive skill that would enable the opportunity to regulate the most primitive emotional reactions and find patterns that are more appropriate reaction to a particular context (Rieffe, Terwogt, Petrides, Cowan, Miers, & Tolland, 2007). It is necessary to have a good emotional awareness to adequately cope a particular situation. Since there were no scales to measure emotional awareness but often alexithymia scales were used to evaluate it as its opposed emotional state, Rieffe and colleagues (2007) developed the Emotional Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ). Different analyses carried out by Rieffe and collaborators led to the Revised Emotional Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ Revised - Rieffe et al., 2008). Subsequent studies developed by Lahaye, Luminet, Broeck, Bodart, and Mikolajczak (2010) using the revised Emotional Awareness Questionnaire, found a positive correlation of the questionnaire’s six dimensions with emotional intelligence. The same study showed a negative correlation between emotional awareness and the three dimensions - difficulty in identifying feelings, difficulty in describing feelings, and oriented to an external thinking - that make up Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children developed by Rieffe, Oosterveld, and Meerum Terwogt (2006). Given the importance of emotional awareness to the emotional development of children and adolescents and that there are no instruments published in Spanish that validly measure this construct, in this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Emotional Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ 30; Rieffe et al., 2008). The EAQ30 is a self-report questionnaire comprising 30 items rated on a 3-point scale (1 = Not true, 2 = Sometimes true, 3 = True). It includes six subscales or dimensions: (1) Differentiating emotions or ability to differentiate and understand the causes of emotions; (2) Bodily awareness or identification of the physical aspects of emotional experience; (3) Verbal sharing or verbal communication’s own emotional state; (4) Acting out emotions or impulsive tendency to show emotions of oneself in a way non- functional; (5) Analyses of emotionsor ability to deal voluntarily to one’s emotions; and finally, and (6) Attending to others’ emotions or the voluntary decision to deal with the emotions of others. The EAQ30 was administered to 1316 children aged 14 to 16 years old (age: M = 14.95; SD = .72), from Valencia (Spain), of middle socioeconomic level. The translation of this questionnaire was performed according to the International Test Commission guidelines for test adaptation (Hambleton, 2001). Asix-factor model was tested using AMOS Program; the results have shown that the original 6-factor structure was replicated in our data. The internal consistency coefficients of the EAQ30 subscales were satisfactory -Cronbach’s estimates between .68 and .70- and equivalent to those obtained in the original scale. A multiple group analysis was used to test whether the six-factor model was invariant across the gender by examining the change in model ji square and comparative t index (CFI) values. We found the model of 6-factor has metric invariant through gender. These results allow us to claim that the Spanish version presented here can be used to evaluate the construct emotional awareness in Spanish adolescents of a valid and reliable way. It would be interesting to do further studies with different Spanish-speaking populations to see if the stability of the structure is preserved after making appropriate adjustments to the specific language in the use of Spanish for each of the populations involved.

Keywords : Emotional awareness; Validity; Reliability; Adolescents.

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