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On-line version ISSN 1668-7027


BRENLLA, María Elena; ZAPATER, Joaquín  and  GERMANO, Guadalupe. Linguistic adaptation, factorial structure and reliability of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for Buenos Aires. Interdisciplinaria [online]. 2019, vol.36, n.2, pp.111-127. ISSN 1668-7027.

Time perspective is a psychological term that refers to the process by which a person sorts out personal experiences into temporal categories. It is associated with mental health, risk behaviors, cognitive and emotional empathy, and future goals. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) from Zimbardo & Boyd (1999) is a self-administered questionnaire consisting in 56 items with 5 answer options. It examines time perspective in a quantifiable way. The questionnaire was translated and adapted to many languages and cultures, most of which reported satisfactory psychometric evidences. The Spanish version of the ZTPI was first made in Spain by Diaz-Morales (2006). Based on this version, two other Spanish speaking countries, Chile and Mexico, made their own version of the questionnaire. In Argentina, there is a version of the ZTPI valid only for teenagers. In the present work the original ZTPI was translated by 3 experts and a linguistic adaptation was done in order to adequate the items to Argentinean speech. A pilot test using the Diaz-Morales version was carried out. Based on the independent and blinded translations, and on the results of the pilot test, an analysis was made. Many items of the Spanish versions were kept, but 34 of the 56 items were changed so as to be compressible for Argentinians. This work resulted in an Argentinian version of the ZTPI, specially done for that culture. Using this version, a pilot study was done with a sample of 323 adults from Buenos Aires. The analysis shows that the reliability of items was satisfactory (values between a = .59 to a = .78). Internal validity evidences confirm the 5 factors structure shown by the authors. External validity was analyzed showing significant associations among negative past and psychological distress (r = .43; p < .005), present fatalistic and locus of control (r = .45; p < .005) and present hedonistic and Self-efficacy (r = .31; p < .005). To study the error variance due to passing of time, test-retest was carried out, showing high and positive correlations. This means that scores of time perspective show time stability. In conclusion, the results of the psychometric analysis are satisfactory. This indicates that the ZTPI is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to evaluate time perspective in adults from Buenos Aires. An analysis of the variability of ZTPI punctuations was done. It suggests that they are due to two main reasons: educational level and sex. Regarding educational level, significant variations were shown in four of the five factors. The only factor that showed no difference was the positive past. Considering sex, significative differences were shown in four of the five factors of the test, in which medias were higher in women than in men. No differences were shown in hedonistic present factor. With respect to the age, present hedonistic orientation decrease as age grows. On the other hand, as age grows future orientation grows too. These three variables (educational level, sex and age) explain the variability, but it is a partial significance. This implies that time orientation can be understood as a personality characteristic. Consequently, the different punctuations people get in the ZTPI are due to individual differences. Suggestions are made in order to make a definitive adaptation of the ZTPI for Argentina. The most important are increasing the sample with people from other regions of the country and increase the sample to make test-retest. Finally, future research could be oriented to make a short version of the ZTPI and use the questionnaire for evaluation in clinical samples to understand how time perspective works in psychopathologies and then use time orientation as a valid variable for diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords : Time perspective; Inventory; Adaptation; Reliability; Validity.

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