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FLORES-KANTER, Pablo Ezequiel  and  MEDRANO, Leonardo Adrián. Basic Core in the Analysis of Qualitative Data: Steps, Techniques to Identify Themes, and Data Display Forms. Interdisciplinaria [online]. 2019, vol.36, n.2, pp.203-215. ISSN 1668-7027.

Within the research process, the analysis of the data emerges as one of the most important steps. In qualitative research, the analysis of data is a difficult task for even the most experienced researchers and often brings up many doubts about the way to implement it. It is therefore necessary to have material that facilitates the analysis process. Even though there are numerous manuals that focus on the analysis of qualitative data, researchers often can be confused with the large number of names that this type of analysis receives (e.g. Thematic Analysis, Content Analysis) or with the various qualitative methods (e.g. Phenomenology, Grounded Theory) that are available. Each of these qualitative approaches presents a particular language to detail the research process, which makes it difficult to recognize common aspects shared by these methods. Recently, the American Psychological Association has emphasized the need to identify, within the various qualitative methods and procedures, shared standards for reporting this type of work. In agreement with the above, several qualitative researchers have pointed out that beyond the aforementioned diversity it is possible to identify a basic core with regard to qualitative analysis, without having to match the different perspectives of the qualitative method, such as Grounded Theory, Ethnography ore Phenomenology. Focusing on this communality will facilitate a simpler and clearer approach to the data analysis process. The analysis process mainly involves 1) data condensation, and 2) presentation of results. Following this line, the present manuscript aims to: (a) develop what the basic core of data analysis consists of, (b) show the necessary steps to carry out this analysis process, (c) review specific techniques for the detection of categories, (d) present examples using the Atlas.ti software, and (e) show the possible ways of presenting the results. Researchers have realized the importance of having methodological works that facilitate the analysis of qualitative data, and allow answering the question: What does qualitative analysis look like in practice?. The development of this type of work pretends on the one hand to facilitate the understanding of the process of qualitative data analysis and, on the other hand, serve to shape better and in a more standard way which was the data analysis procedure applied in the respective investigations. This material should be taken as a first step in the understanding of the process, and it should not be understood that the qualitative analysis is reduced only to what is developed in this article. For example, in the first level grouping step or first coding cycle, the researcher can make use of 25 different types or forms of coding (e.g., live coding). Even so, the development of works such as the present manuscript is intended to facilitate the understanding and reporting the process of qualitative data analysis. Beyond the name with which the researcher calls the analysis procedure carried out, it is relevant to report in his works the basic steps (i.e. Identification, First and Second Level of Categorization), and the specific techniques used to detect categories or topics (e.g. repetition or similarities). Likewise, it is advisable to follow the guidelines recently published by the APA for the publication of qualitative research. We hope that this material will be useful especially for new researchers who need an introductory text to carry out the qualitative data analysis.

Keywords : Qualitative Data Analysis; Basic Core; Techniques to Identify Themes or Categories; Coding; Atlas.ti.

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