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Ciencia del suelo

versión On-line ISSN 1850-2067

Resumen

BUSCHIAZZO, Daniel E et al. Potential effects of wind erosion on soil degradation and air quality in different regions of Argentina. Cienc. suelo [online]. 2009, vol.27, n.2, pp. 255-260. ISSN 1850-2067.

Wind erosion can impact soil and air quality. The magnitude of these effects depends on the soil type and management conditions, and is associated with the transport conditions of soil particles: saltation and rolling affect soil quality to a greater extent while suspension tends to increase the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere. The objective of this research was to determine the magnitude of both type of movements in soils of Argentina, in order to predict potential effects on soil or air quality. This study was carried out in four provinces of Argentina: Chaco (CHA), San Luis (SLU), La Pampa (LPA) and Río Negro (PAT). In each case, wind erosion was measured in the 1 ha-square fields by means of BSNE samplers. Results indicated that the total amount of transported material, the so-called mass flux (FM) as well as the absolute amount of eroded soil (Q) were higher in sites with less developed soils of SLU (Ustipsamment) and LPA (Haplustoll) and lower in sites with a better developed soil of CHA (Hapludoll) or with less developed soil but with permanent soil cover with natural grasses of PAT (Haplargid). Saltation and rolling were the main transport forms in SLU, LPA and CHA and suspension in PAT. Though low (10%), the plant coverage existing in this last site was enough to increase the height of the wind profile and to favor the transport of particles by suspension. The quotient FM/Q, an index of the proportion between net soil erosion and the total amount of particles moving in the air, was highest in PAT, medium in SLU and LPA and minimum in CHA. We concluded that wind erosion of Haplargids in environments with high and constant wind speeds, but with a permanent coverage with natural grasses, will not be high and will promote mainly the emission of fine particles at low rates. The extent of this process will largely depend on the surface available for erosion. Wind erosion of cultivated Ustipsamments and Haplustolls, which remain frequently bare, will be high and will affect the soil and the air quality in similar proportions. Wind erosion of cultivated Hapludolls will be high but will affect relatively more the soil than the air quality.

Palabras llave : Wind Erosion; Soil Degradation; Fine Particles.

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