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Ciencia del suelo

On-line version ISSN 1850-2067


DALPIAZ, María Jimena  and  ANDRIULO, Adrián. Comparación de índices de riesgo de lixiviación de plaguicidas. Cienc. suelo [online]. 2017, vol.35, n.2, pp.365-376. ISSN 1850-2067.

The use of pesticides is considered one of the main causes of groundwater contamination by leaching in areas under agricultural production. The objectives of this work were: a) to estimate the risk of leaching of the pesticides glyphosate, atrazine, acetochlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos in two soils with constrasting texture of the north of the province of Buenos Aires using the GUS, USEPA/CDFA, FAT, GWCP and GWCPmodified (GWCPm) indexes, b) compare them with experimental data obtained in lysimeter drains and c) check whether the inclusion of the preferential flow and the change in the value scale for the organic matter of horizon A (GWCPm) improves GWCP sensitivity. The estimated leaching risks were very variable, assigning different risks for the same pesticide. Compared with the experimental data, predictions with indexes that only take into account the properties of pesticides (USEPA/CDFA and GUS) coincided except for glyphosate + AMPA. Considering the indexes that include the soil attenuation capacity in its calculation (FAT, GWCP and GWCPm), the FAT had no similarities with the experimental data since it did not predict the risk of leaching for either glyphosate or atrazine. GWCP was more sensitive because it takes into account timing and frequency of application, together with the properties of the pesticides. The modifications of the original GWCP index (GWCPm), increased it further. Consequently, GWCPm could be an initial tool for estimating the mobility of pesticides applied to crops through the soil profile and its prediction of contamination to groundwater in the rolling pampas.

Keywords : Attenuation factor soil; Groundwater contamination potential; Glyphosate; Atrazine.

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