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Ciencia del suelo

versión On-line ISSN 1850-2067


CARFAGNO, Patricia Fabiana et al. Desing of runoff plots for soil loss estimation by water erosion. Cienc. suelo [online]. 2018, vol.36, n.2, pp.14-20. ISSN 1850-2067.

Argentina is going through a process of agriculture favored by macroeconomic policies and the adoption of new technologies. Likewise, the agricultural frontier was expanded, especially in the Pampean and Chaqueña semi-arid region, with the incorporation of land to the intensive cultivation of grains and the monoculture of soybeans, at the expense of dismantled lands, or under livestock use and natural pasture. A recent study indicates that 23% of the national territory is affected by water erosion (EH) (64,6 million hectares). Due to this transformation in the production systems, it is necessary to quantify soil losses with network measurements of runoff plots in different regions of the country. The objective of this work was to develop representative runoff plots that can be distributed in different regions of the country and used to estimate the erodability of soils. In the Instituto de Suelos (CIRN INTA), mobile plots were built using zinc sheets, with a catchment area of 60 m2 (15 m long and 4 m wide). They are installed down slope, so that the runoff is led to two stabilizing boxes that collectively collect one hundredth of the total runoff. For the calibration of the plots precipitations, drained volumes and amount of sediment were registered. The relationships between the drained water sheet (mm) and the rainfall (mm) showed a high positive correlation (r = 0,86) and an erosive rainfall threshold of 15,4 mm. The developed mobile plots are suitable for the study of soil loss by water erosion because measurements are made directly in the field under the conditions of real rains. Due to their low cost and simple installation and maintenance, they are easy to adopt, which will make it possible to establish a test network throughout the territory.

Palabras clave : loss of sediments; EUPS; erosive rainfall.

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