Revista argentina de cardiología
versión On-line ISSN 1850-3748
MACIN, Stella M. et al. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: Clinical Characteristics and Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes. Rev. argent. cardiol. [online]. 2008, vol.76, n.6, pp. 429-436. ISSN 1850-3748.
Background In Latin America, little is known about dissimilarities between men and women with acute coronary syndromes. We hypothesized that there are differences in acute myocardial infarction between both sexes. Objectives To compare the clinical characteristics and short-term and long-term prognosis in women (group I) and men (group II) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Material and Methods Between January 2001 and December 2004, 536 patients with AMI within 24 hours since the onset of symptoms were prospectively and consecutively admitted. One hundred and forty four (26.9%) were women (group I). Results Median age was greater in group I (66 [interquartile range 25-75: 56-75] versus 60 [interquartile range 25-75: 52-68] years; p<0.001). The incidence of smoking habits (25% versus 46.7%; p<0.001) as well as of prior myocardial infarction (18.1% versus 25.3%; p=0.008) was lower among women; however, chronic stable angina was more frequent than in men (20.8% versus 12%; p=0.01). Heart rate and BUN were greater at admission (80 versus 76 bpm; p=0.01, and 0.48 versus 0.36 g/L; p=0.003, respectively) but ejection fraction was similar between both groups (50% versus 51%; p=0.27). In-hospital outcomes [death (9.7% versus 4.8%; p=0.037), refractory angina (9.7% versus 4.2%; p=0.039) and acute pulmonary edema (12.5% versus 5.4%; p=0.005)] were worse in women than in men. In both groups, reperfusion strategies were similar: thrombolytic therapy (21.4% versus 20.3%; p=ns) and primary angioplasty (18.1% versus 21.8%; p=ns). Survival rates at 54 months were 77% versus 85% in groups I and II, respectively (log rank test: p=0,032). Univariate analysis showed that sex was a significant variable (OR=1.71; p=0.035). Cox proportional hazards model found the following significant variables for mortality: age (HR=1.033; p=0.006), as well as BUN (HR=4.275; p<0.001), heart rate (HR=1.018; p=0.004) and Killip classification (HR=2.771; p=0.01) at admission. Conclusions Women admitted for AMI have different short-term and longterm risk profiles than men; however, they are treated in a similar fashion. After adjusting for other variables, sex did not emerge as an independent predictor of risk at follow-up.
Palabras clave : Myocardial infarction; Sex; Mortality.