Revista argentina de cardiología
versión On-line ISSN 1850-3748
NAU, Gerardo et al. Long-Term Outcome of Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease in Patients Treated with Angioplasty. Rev. argent. cardiol. [online]. 2011, vol.79, n.1, pp. 27-32. ISSN 1850-3748.
Background The current increase in the diagnosis of atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARD) results from the progressive recognition of its clinical impact. The role of percutaneous renal angioplasty as alternative therapy has been motivating several clinical trials. Objectives To analyze a population undergoing percutaneous renal angioplasty, and to assess the safety of the procedure and the long-term clinical response. Material and Methods A retrospective study of 100 consecutive patients treated with percutaneous surgery. Follow-up visits or telephone calls (median 1.7 years; interquartile range 25-75, 1.2-2.7 years) were performed, during which clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results A total of 100 patients were analyzed, most of them male subjects (72%), mean age of 67.3±9.9 years, with multiple cardiovascular risk factors (HBP 95%, DLP 74%, smoking 63%, DM 28%) and extensive atherosclerotic vascular involvement (coronary heart disease 56%, peripheral vascular disease 39%). Angioplasty with stent-graft was performed in 98% of the patients, 22% bilaterally, with a success rate of 99%. A significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was observed at long-term follow up (preprocedural SBP 139.7±24.2 mm Hg - preprocedural SBP 129.7±13.9 mm Hg; p <0.05), and a reduction in the number of drugs indicated (2.8±1.03 - 1.7±0.9; p=0.02). These beneficial outcomes were even greater in patients with bilateral involvement. Regarding renal function, 49% of the patients showed sustained improvement (creatinine clearance: 53.6±18.4 ml/min basal vs. 60.8±19.5 ml/min at follow up; p=0.011), whereas 20.4% showed significant impairment in glomerular filtration. Improvement in glomerular filtration was more common in patients with advanced chronic impairment (70.5% stages ≥III vs. 13.5% stages 0-II; p=0.01) and with bilateral renal angioplasty (creatinine clearance: 52.8±25.3 ml/min basal vs. 66.1±15.1 ml/min at follow up; p=0.032). In multivariate analysis, renal disease degree ≥III (OR 29.6, CI 95% 8.3-105.8; p >0.001) and male sex (OR 16.2, CI 95% 4.3-105.8; p >0.001) were independent predictors of improved glomerular filtration at follow up. Conclusions Percutaneous treatment of renovascular disease is an additional therapeutic option, highly safe and with positive long-term outcomes in high risk patients. Benefits of the TRA in patients with significant baseline renal impairment should also be pointed out, despite the late revascularization.
Palabras clave : Renal Artery; Atherosclerosis; Angioplasty; Renal Failure; Renovascular Hypertension.