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Revista argentina de endocrinología y metabolismo

versão On-line ISSN 1851-3034


COSTA GIL, José Esteban  e  SPINEDI, Eduardo. The stormy relationship between fats and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Updated. Part 2. Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab. [online]. 2017, vol.54, n.4, pp.185-195. ISSN 1851-3034.

In this part of the review, the functional relationship between lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms and their interdependence is described, from the glucose-fatty acid cycle and the portal hypothesis of insulin resistance to the new knowledge on brown and beige adipocytes, with emphasis on the normal functioning of an endocrine pattern in which its dysfunction is a key factor in the pathophysiology of T2DM and obesity. Ectopic fat deposition in lean tissues due to the inability of the adipose tissue to continuously collect lipids and the endocrine activity of adipocytes is discussed. The production of molecules (adipokines) influencing some of the mechanisms involved in the development of insulin resistance (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, resistin, etc.) and beta cell dysfunction is also revisited. The decrease in the oxidative capacity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the rebirth of the concept of de novo lipogenesis are described, both effects favouring intracellular lipid accumulation. In lean tissues there are small intracellular lipid reserves that help to maintain the regulation of essential functions; however, when a lipid overload occurs the phenomenon could lead to severe cell dysfunction (lipotoxicity), and death (lipo-apoptosis). The stormy relationship between lipids and the Langerhans' islets goes beyond the functional effort imposed by peripheral insulin-resistance on the β cells, either by the direct effect of lipids or by their derivatives on overall pancreatic islet function. Within a scenario of no insulin deficit, diabetes does not develop.

Palavras-chave : Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Adipose tissues; Adipogenesis; Lipids; Adipokines.

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