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Acta toxicológica argentina

On-line version ISSN 1851-3743


BIRUK, Lucía Nadia et al. Genotoxic evaluation of sludge from Matanza-Riachuelo basin under the influence of different uses of land. Acta toxicol. argent. [online]. 2016, vol.24, n.1, pp.33-47. ISSN 1851-3743.

The Matanza-Riachuelo River and its tributaries traverse areas with different degrees of contamination due to farming, urban and industrial activities. The pollutants entering the water are deposited in sediments, and can be released back into the water producing toxic and/or genotoxic effects on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the genotoxicity of sediment samples from the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin with different land uses. Four sampling sites according to the characteristics of land use were selected. Two methods of extraction (stirring and sonication), two organic solvents (methanol and dichloromethane) and two inorganic solvents (water and acid solution) were used, yielding a total of 5 extracts for each sample. Measurements of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS, respectively were performed. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with 2 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) with and without S9 microsomal fraction, and the Allium cepa test. Taking into account the four sites, sediments from Riachuelo showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs. Only the dichloromethane extracts were genotoxic to the Ames test using the TA100 strain +S9 the mix. Both organic and inorganic extracts were cytotoxic and genotoxic to A. cepa. A negative correlation between some PAHs compounds and micronucleus frequency were observed, indicating the presence of antagonistic effects with other genotoxic compounds in samples. The extracts with high toxic and genotoxic effects were obtained with dichloromethane and acid solution. This study showed that organic and inorganic contaminants extracted from sediment samples from the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin, with varying degrees of impact, have potential toxic and genotoxic risk to the aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords : Ames test; Allium cepa; Genotoxicity; Sediments.

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