Phyton (Buenos Aires)
versión On-line ISSN 1851-5657
ZHANG, WD; LIU, DS; TIAN, JC y HE, FL. Toxicity and accumulation of arsenic in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of China. Phyton (B. Aires) [online]. 2009, vol.78, n.2, pp. 147-154. ISSN 1851-5657.
Soil arsenic contamination becomes a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide, and has been a serious problem for safe food production. A field experiment on soil contamination was conducted on four wheat varieties (Jimai, Gaoyou, Weimai and Wennong) in Eastern China, using 50 or 100 mg arsenic/kg soil. Biomass production and yield components were determined and arsenic concentrations were measured in plant tissues. Differential arsenic effects on wheat varieties were determined at maturity. Results showed that addition of arsenic significantly (p<0.05) reduced root, stem and spike dry weight and yield components, which resulted in the decrease of grain yield per plant. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissues increased significantly (p<0.05) with treatments, and its uptake varied considerably among wheat varieties, plant tissues and arsenic treatments. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissues were as follows: roots > stems > leaves and rachises > grains > glumes > awns. In the arsenic treatments, arsenic concentrations in bran were about 2-3 times higher than those in flour. Most of the arsenic contaminated flour exceeded the Chinese tolerance limit. Arsenic contents of grain parts were dependent on variety and treatment level in polluted soils. Weimai and Wennong showed highest amounts of arsenic in flour than the other varieties at 50 or 100 mg/ kg soil treatment, respectively. Weimai possessed significantly lower (p<0.05) amount of arsenic in bran than any other wheat variety. Results showed significant variety differences in arsenic concentration in polluted areas; it is of outstanding importance that wheat with the lowest possible arsenic concentration is used for food or fodder production. The present results provide scientific basis for revising the standards of wastewater discharges.
Palabras clave : Arsenic; Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.); Biomass; Yield components; Arsenic toxicity.