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Revista americana de medicina respiratoria

On-line version ISSN 1852-236X


FERNANDEZ ACQUIER, Mariano et al. Severe community acquired pneumonia in Healthy Adults: A multicenter retrospective study. Rev. amer. med. respiratoria [online]. 2011, vol.11, n.2, pp.58-66. ISSN 1852-236X.

Aims: to analyze epidemiologic, clinical and other abnormalities in healthy young adults with severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP). Methods: retrospective analysis of clinical records of adults younger than 65 years, with SCAP and without previously known comorbidities, admitted from 1998 to 2008. Results: forty patients were included (M/F = 0.48), age 37.8 ± 14.1 years (range 16 - 61). Mechanical ventilation was used in 42.5% and vasopressors in 57.5% of patients. Initial PaO2/FIO2 ratio was 203.6 ± 91.4 mmHg (50 - 366.7); frequent laboratory abnormalities included: anemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia and high urea and creatinine levels. The empiric antimicrobial therapy was ceftriaxone or ß-lactam/ß - lactamases (BL) inhibitor plus macrolide in 70% of cases. The etiology was established in 50%; the specific pathogens were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 35%; Leptospira, 15%; Hantavirus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 10%; and Legionella pneumophila, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae BL (-) and methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 5%. Complications were present in 77.5% including shock, respiratory failure, acute renal failure and pleural effusion. Eight patients presented previously unknown comorbidities including HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, asthma, congestive cardiac failure and hypothyroidism. Mortality was 12.5 %. Diastolic arterial hypotension, taquichycardia, requirement of hemodialysis and inadequate therapy were significantly associated to mortality. Conclusions: 20% of young and presumably healthy adults with SCAP had comorbidities. S. pneumoniae was the commonest pathogen; mortality was associated with severity of sepsis and inadequate therapy.

Keywords : Severe community-acquired pneumonia; Etiology; Clinical characteristics.

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