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Revista americana de medicina respiratoria

On-line version ISSN 1852-236X


MENGA, Guillermo et al. Normativas de diagnóstico y tratamiento del déficit de alfa-1 antitripsina. Rev. am. med. respir. [online]. 2014, vol.14, n.1, pp.28-46. ISSN 1852-236X.

The alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a rare hereditary condition which is rarely diagnosed in the world, including Argentina. Underdiagnosis is mainly due to lack of knowledge of its diagnosis and treatment by many physicians. For this reason, the Argentine Association of Respiratory Medicine convened a group of experts to develop the present guidelines. AAT is a glycoprotein secreted by the liver; it reaches high levels in blood, body tissues and fluids. Its main function is to inhibit the neutrophil elastase and other serum proteases providing 90% of human serine antiprotease activity. The AAT deficiency is produced by mutations of the SERPINA1 gene. Its clinical manifestations are pulmonary emphysema, liver cirrhosis, and less often panniculitis, systemic vasculitis and possibly other conditions. The severe AAT deficiency affects mainly Caucasian individuals. The highest prevalence, ranging from 1 in 2000 to 1 in 5000 population is observed in northern, western and central Europe. In the USA and Canada, the prevalence varies from 1 in 5000 to 1 in 10000 population. It is 5 times less frequent in Latin American countries. It is estimated that in Argentina there may be 18000 cases with severe deficiency of SZ y ZZ genotypes, most of them undiagnosed. It is crucial to suspect the disease in order to measure the serum AAT concentration, and, if the concentrations are low, to confirm the diagnosis with the phenotype or genotype determinations. Case detection allows genetic advice, control of blood-related relatives and in selected cases, replacement therapy.

Keywords : Alpha-1 antitrypsin; SERPINA1; Alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor; Alpha-1 antitrypsin; Genetic variants; Replacement treatment.

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