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Revista americana de medicina respiratoria

On-line version ISSN 1852-236X


IMPERIALE, Belén et al. Relevancia clínica, diversidad y variabilidad genética de distintas especies del género Mycobacterium. Rev. am. med. respir. [online]. 2017, vol.17, n.3, pp.00-00. ISSN 1852-236X.

Introduction: The term non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) includes different ambient species capable of sickening humans and/or animals, even by means of a potential zoonotic transmission. Objectives: To determine: The clinical importance of several species within the genus Mycobacterium and the genetic diversity of the M. avium complex (MAC), the in vitro bacterial sensitivity and the success of the specific treatment. Materials and Methods: Collection of clinical and epidemiologic data and information about isolates of the 2009-2016 period; molecular identification of the isolates; determination of the in vitro bacterial sensitivity and genetic diversity of the MAC; treatment evaluation. Results: 225 mycobacteriosis cases were diagnosed, with a stable prevalence of ≈6% per year and 22 recovered species: 4 rapidly growing species isolated from 66 patients and 18 slowly growing species. The MAC was isolated in 95 cases, M. avium hominissuis - 40 cases, M. intracellulare - 51 cases, M. chimaera - 3 cases and M. colombiense - 1 case. We observed a greater probability of getting sick from M. intracellulare in patients previously treated for tuberculosis (TB). HIV-positive patients had a greater risk of falling ill from M. avium hominissuis. Aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and macrolides were the most active drugs against most NTM. Approximately half of the cases healed. Conclusions: M. intracellulare, M. aviumhominissuis with great genetic variability and M. abscessus were the most commonly found pathogens. The cases of TB+NTM mixed disease were an important finding. For treating these patients, it was necessary to add second line drugs to the therapeutic regimen for TB; and most of them healed.

Keywords : Non-tuberculous mycobacteria; Diversity and clinical importance.

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