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Insuficiencia cardíaca

versión On-line ISSN 1852-3862


BEVACQUA, Raúl J.  y  PERRONE, Sergio V.. Manifestaciones pulmonares y sistémicas de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar: Un enfoque panvascular. Insuf. card. [online]. 2021, vol.16, n.1, pp.14-36. ISSN 1852-3862.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious disease whose end result of the interaction between vascular tone and the progressive alteration of the remodeling of the pulmonary arteries causes right heart failure and death. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is the key structural alteration in pulmonary hypertension. This process involves changes in the intima, media, adventitia, and perivascular space, often with the interaction of inflammatory cells. The pathophysiological mechanisms of PAH include a series of vascular modifications that produce an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Vascular modifications that occur in PAH include: vasoconstriction, proliferation of smooth muscle, inflammation, Endothelial apoptosis, apoptosis-resistant endothelial proliferation, fibrosis, in-situ thrombosis, and finally, plexiform lesions. Until recently, PAH was considered a disease restricted to the pulmonary circulation. However, there is growing evidence that patients with PAH also exhibit systemic vascular dysfunction, as evidenced by impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, abnormal cerebral blood flow, skeletal myopathy, and intrinsic kidney disease. Recent data support a link to the genetic and molecular events behind the pathogenesis of PAH. This review serves as an introduction to the main systemic findings in PAH and the evidence supporting a common link with the pathophysiology of PAH. Based on the available evidence, we propose a paradigm in which metabolic abnormalities, genetic injury, and systemic vascular dysfunction contribute to the systemic manifestations of PAH. This concept not only opens up interesting research possibilities, but also encourages consideration of extrapulmonary manifestations in the treatment of patients with PAH, since systemic vascular dysfunction would contribute to the systemic manifestations of PAH.

Palabras clave : Pulmonary hypertension; Pulmonary vascular remodeling; Endothelial dysfunction; Cerebral vascular flow alteration; Renal vascular flow alteration; Systemic vascular alteration; Respiratory muscle dysfunction.

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