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Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana

versão impressa ISSN 0326-4815versão On-line ISSN 1852-4834


ROJAS, Andrés M. et al. Anacardium excelsum phytochemical analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activity against oral cavity microorganisms. Acta odontol. latinoam. [online]. 2021, vol.34, n.2, pp.127-135.  Epub 31-Ago-2021. ISSN 0326-4815.

Infections of the oral cavity have a broad microbial etiological profile that varies according to each microenvironment in the mouth. Such infections often require antimicrobial treatment, which can lead to the development of resistance. There is thus a need to find new therapeutic strategies based on natural plant-derived compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical nuclei and the antimicrobial effect of Anacardium excelsum leaf and stem extracts, and of fractions derived from the leaf extract, against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35548, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The plant material was collected from the Quindío Botanical Garden (Calarcá, Quindío-Colombia), located at an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level. Hydroalcoholic extracts of A. excelsum leaves and stems, and fractions of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract, were obtained by percolation extraction. Phytochemical nuclei were identified by thin layer chromatography. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions (at concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg / ml) against the five ATCC reference strains was evaluated using the well diffusion technique on Mueller-Hinton agar. The leaf extract showed no antimicrobial activity against E. coli, but it did show antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. aureus, E. faecalis and C. albicans, at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, with zones of inhibition of 9 to 11 mm. The ethyl acetate and acetone fractions obtained from A. excelsum leaf extract had greatest antimicrobial activity at 10 mg/ml. In conclusion, (1) the A. excelsum leaf extract, and the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions obtained from the leaf extract, had the greatest antimicrobial activity on all the study microorganisms, and (2) the phytochemical nuclei in the fractions (ethyl acetate and acetone) were found to contain phenolic-type compounds, tannins, triterpene-type terpenes and steroidal-type terpenes, which might explain the antimicrobial activity observed.

Palavras-chave : anacardium; plant bioactive compound; antiinfective agent; oral cavity.

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