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Revista argentina de radiología

versão On-line ISSN 1852-9992

Resumo

VIDELA, Ricardo Luis; CAMARA, Héctor Alfredo  e  DEFAGO, María Rosa. Radiology in Achalasia and Pseudoachalasia. Rev. argent. radiol. [online]. 2008, vol.72, n.4, pp. 429-433. ISSN 1852-9992.

Objective: To review clinical (age, dysphagia duration) and radiological findings (esophagus dilatation, stenosis length) in order to differentiate primary achalasia from malignant pseudoachalasia. Material and methods: Clinical records in patients with confirmed diagnosis of achalasia or pseudoachalasia from April 1997 to April 2007 (ten years) were analyzed. Criteria of inclusion: primary achalasia: absence of primary peristalsis and failure in relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter; pseudoachalasia: absence of primary peristalsis and narrowed lower esophageal segment. The clinical variables studied were: age, sex, duration of dysphagia and presence or absence of Chagas disease. The radiological variables were obtained from barium studies, determining stenosis length and maximum esophagus diameter. The statistical analysis of the variables was made with test T of student. Results: 64 patients, 55 of primary achalasia, eight of pseudoachalasia and one of secondary achalasia were included for the study. Malignant pseudoachalasia: three esophageal carcinomas, two carcinomas of the cardias and one metastasis of pulmonary cancer. Benign etiology: one peptic stenosis and one leiomyomatosis. One patient with Chagas disease was considered secondary achalasia. The clinical variables that showed significant differences were: The age, that in the primary achalasia group was 56 ± 16 years and in malignant pseudoachalasia group was 68 ± 8 years with p <0,01 (significant). The duration of dysphagia in primary achalasia was 40 ±50 months, and in malignant pseudoachalasia was 11, 33± 6.74 months, p<0,001 (significant). The stenosis length for primary achalasia was 2,17 ± 0,63 cm, and for malignant pseudoachalasia 3,91 ± 1,56, p<0,05 (significant). Finally the maximum esophagus diameter in primary achalasia group was 5,40 ± 1,67 cm and for malignant pseudoachalasia 3,66± 0,81 p<0.001 (significant). Conclusion: Primary achalasia is more frequent in patients younger than 55 years with lasting of dysphagia of more than one year. The maximum esophagus diameter is over 4 cm and the stenosis length shorter than 2 cm. Malignant pseudoachalasia is more frequent in older patients of 65 years, with the duration of dysphagia less of 1 year. The maximum esophagus diameter is under 4 cm and the length of the narrowed segment is greater to 2 cm.

Palavras-chave : Esophagus; Achalasia; Pseudoachalasia.

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