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Revista de nefrologia, dialisis y trasplante

On-line version ISSN 2346-8548


GOMEZ-CALCETERO, Carlos et al. Glomerulonefritis crescéntica secundaria a consumo de cocaína adulterada con levamisol. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura. Rev. nefrol. dial. traspl. [online]. 2021, vol.41, n.3, pp.207-213. ISSN 2346-8548.

Introduction: Levamisole is an anthelmintic drug, also known for its use as an immunomodulator which, because of its toxic effects, was withdrawn at the end of the 20th century. In 2005, because of an increase in the diagnosis of pauci-immune vasculitis among the population that uses psychoactive substances, the adulteration of cocaine for commercial purposes by combining it with levamisole was documented. Case Report: The case of a young adult with a history of Alport Syndrome and recent consumption of psychoactive substances is presented. A renal biopsy is performed, demonstrating the presence of pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Therefore, this type of small vessel vasculitis with kidney involvement and immune complex deposition was associated with the use of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. Discussion: Levamisole, a drug approved by the FDA in 1991, acts as an immunomodulator, antiparasitic and adjuvant in chemotherapy. Levamisole produces a rheumatic syndrome characterized by the presence of glomerulonephritis, alveolar hemorrhage, retinal purpura, neutropenia, and agranulocytosis in association with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Conclusion: levamisole is known for its anthelmintic and immunomodulatory properties, additionally it can produce ostensible toxic effects. Given the high consumption of cocaine among the indigent population, the presence of this adulterant constitutes a growing public health problem.

Keywords : anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis; cocaine; levamisole; glomerulonephritis paucimmune.

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