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Darwiniana, nueva serie

versión impresa ISSN 0011-6793versión On-line ISSN 1850-1699

Darwiniana, nueva serie vol.4 no.2 San Isidro dic. 2016



Four new combinations in argentinian heliotropiaceae


Federico Luebert1,2 & Michael W. Frohlich3

1 Nees-Institut für Biodiversität der Pf3anzen, Universität Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 170, 53115 Bonn, Germany; (author for correspondence).
2 Departamento de Silvicultura y Conservación de la Naturaleza, Universidad de Chile, 8320000 Santiago, Chile.
3 Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3DS, United Kingdom.



Four new combinations in the genera Euploca and Myriopus (Heliotropiaceae) are established: Euploca aurata, E. catamarcense, Myriopus breviflorus and M. paniculatus var. austrinus.

Keywords. Argentina; Boraginaceae; Euploca; Heliotropium; Myriopus; South America; Tournefortia.


Se efectúan cuatro nuevas combinaciones en los géneros Euploca y Myriopus (Heliotropiaceae): Euploca aurata, E. catamarcense, Myriopus breviflorus y M. paniculatus var. austrinus.

Palabras clave. Argentina; Boraginaceae; Euploca; Heliotropium; Myriopus; Sudamérica; Tournefortia.

Original recibido el 22 de junio de 2016,
aceptado el 25 de agosto de 2016

Editora: Nataly O’Leary



Heliotropiaceae is a monophyletic group (Weigend et al., 2014) and is considered as a family (instead of as a subfamily of Boraginaceae s.l.) for reasons of nomenclatural stability and easiness of morphological recognition, which cannot be fulfilled when Boraginaceae is regarded in its broad sense (Luebert et al., 2016). Four genera are accepted within Heliotropiaceae (Diane et al., 2016): Euploca Nutt., Heliotropium L., Ixorhea Fenzl, and Myriopus Small, all of which are present in Argentina. Euploca, Ixorhea and Myriopus form a clade sister to a broadly defined Heliotropium (Hilger & Diane, 2003; Luebert et al., 2011, Diane et al., 2016). The latter includes Tournefortia L. sect. Tournefortia and the remaining sections traditionally ascribed to Heliotropium, except H. sect. Orthostachys (R.Br.) G.Don, which was transferred to Euploca (Hilger & Diane, 2003). These phylogenetic studies also showed that the traditional Tournefortia is polyphyletic, with T. sect. Cyphocyema I.M.Johnst. forming a clade sister to Euploca and recognized under the generic name Myriopus. Euploca and Myriopus are morphologically well defined groups, and their generic circumscriptions are increasingly being accepted in the taxonomic literature (e.g., Degen Naumann & Melo, 2012; Feuillet, 2008, 2012, 2016; Feuillet & Halse, 2016; Hilger & Diane, 2003; Luebert et al., 2011; Melo & Semir, 2006, 2009, 2010).
During the revision of Argentinian Heliotropiaceae, we came across some species in Heliotropium and Tournefortia still in need of transfer to Euploca and Myriopus, respectively. The purpose of this contribution is to provide the necessary new combinations that can be used in
future treatments of the family in regional floras, as well as the yet incomplete treatment of Heliotropiaceae (sub Boraginaceae s.l.) of Flora Fanerogámica Argentina (Ariza-Espinar, 2006), now continued as Flora Argentina [Anton & Zuloaga]. Type specimens were examined at G, GH, MSB, P, SGO and US (Thiers, 2015).


Euploca Nutt., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. n.s. 5: 189. 1837. TYPE SPECIES: Euploca convolvulacea Nutt.

Heliotropium sect. Orthostachys (R.Br.) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 361. 1838. TYPE SPECIES: Heliotropium foliatum R.Br. (lectotype designated by Johnston, Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 46. 1928).

Observations. Generic description found in Diane et al. (2016). Euploca consists of ca. 100 species of pantropical distribution, especially in semiarid zones, with centers of diversity in the Americas and Australia. Ten species have been reported to occur in Argentina [Euploca aurata (Phil.) Frohlich, E. campestris (Griseb.) Diane & Hilger, E. catamarcense (I.M.Johnst.) Frohlich, E. chrysantha (Phil.) Diane & Hilger, E. filiformis (Lehm.) J.I.M.Melo & Semir, E. hassleriana (Chodat) J.I.M.Melo & Semir, E. mendocina (Phil.) Diane & Hilger, E. ocellata (Cham.) J.I.M.Melo & Semir, E. pallescens (I.M.Johnst.) J.I.M.Melo & Semir, E. procumbens (Mill.) Diane & Hilger, and E. salicoides (Cham.) J.I.M.Melo & Semir; Zuloaga et al., 2008, sub Heliotropium].

Euploca aurata (Phil.) Frohlich, comb. nov. Heliotropium auratum Phil., Anales Mus. Nac., Santiago de Chile 8: 56. 1891. TYPE: Argentina, Catamarca, Antofagasta de la Sierra, I-1885, F. Philippi s.n. (lectotype SGO 54425! designated by Förther, Sendtnera 5: 180. 1998; isolectotypes SGO 42267!, GH bc GH00097639!).

Observations. This species is endemic to northwestern Argentina and was long considered as a synonym of Euploca chrysantha (Phil.) Diane & Hilger (e.g., Johnston, 1928; Pérez-Moreau & Cabrera, 1983; Förther, 1998; Correa, 1999, sub Heliotropium chrysanthum Phil.). Di Fulvio & Ariza-Espinar (2000) consider it to be a good species, a criterion followed in subsequent publications (Zuloaga et al., 2008).

Euploca catamarcense (I.M.Johnst.) Frohlich, comb. nov. Heliotropium catamarcense I.M. Johnst., Contr. Gray. Herb. 81: 59. 1928. TYPE: Argentina, Catamarca, Pilciao, 700 m, 20-IV-1917, P. Jörgensen 1868 (holotype GH bc GH00097604!; isotypes GH bc GH00097605!, LIL bc LIL001430 photo!, LIL bc LIL001431 photo!, SI bc SI001133 photo!, SI bc SI001134 photo!, SI bc 001135 photo!, US bc US00110847!).

Observations. This species is endemic to western Argentina (Johnston, 1928; Zuloaga et al., 2008).

Myriopus Small, Man. S.E. Fl. 1131. 1933. TYPE SPECIES: Myriopus poliochros (Spreng.) Small (lectotype designated by Förther, Sendtnera 5: 128. 1998).

Tournefortia sect. Cyphocyema I.M.Johnst., Contr. Gray Herb. 92: 72. 1930. TYPE SPECIES: Tournefortia membranacea (Gardner) DC.

Observations. Generic description found in Diane et al. (2016). Myriopus comprises around 25 species of largely Neotropical distribution from southern United States to northern Argentina with centers of diversity in Brazil and the Caribbean. Four species have been reported to occur in Argentina [M. breviflorus (DC.) Luebert, M. paniculatus (Cham.) Feuillet, M. rubicundus (Salzm. ex DC.) Luebert, and M. salzmannii (DC.) Diane & Hilger; Zuloaga et al., 2008, sub Tournefortia].

Myriopus breviflorus (DC.) Luebert, comb. nov. Tournefortia breviflora DC., Prodr. 9: 520. 1845. TYPE: Brazil, Rio [de Janeiro], 1834, N. Lund s.n. (holotype G00147013! [photo F neg 7760!, photo MSB!]; isotype P bc P03525470!).

Observations. This species occurs in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay (Johnston, 1930; Zuloaga et al., 2008).

Myriopus paniculatus var. austrinus (I.M. Johnst.) Luebert, comb. nov. Tournefortia paniculata var. austrina I.M.Johnst., Contr. Gray. Herb. 92: 82. 1930. TYPE: Argentina, Tucumán, La Ramada, XII-1914, M. Lillo 3032M (holotype GH bc GH00096176 photo!).

Observations. This variety is distributed in northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia (Johnston, 1930).


We thank Wilhelm Barthlott, Roberto Kiesling, Maximilian Weigend and Jun Wen for support, and the curators of the consulted herbaria for permitting access to their collections. This research received support from the SYNTHESYS project which is financed by the European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” (Grant FR-TAF-1977) Program.


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