SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.34 número1Leaf surfaces of Gomphrena spp. (Amaranthaceae) from Cerrado biomeSecondary zoospores in the algal endoparasite Maullinia ectocarpii (Plasmodiophoromycota) índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




  • No hay articulos citadosCitado por SciELO

Links relacionados



versión impresa ISSN 0327-9545

Biocell vol.34 no.1 Mendoza ene./abr. 2010



Interleukin-1β regulates metalloproteinase activity and leptin secretion in a cytotrophoblast model

Vanina Andrea Fontana1, Melisa Sanchez1, Elisa Cebral2 and Juan Carlos Calvo1,3 *

1.  Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2.  Laboratorio de Biología del Desarrollo, Instituto de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Neurociencias, DBBE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3.  Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

*Address correspondence to: Juan Carlos Calvo. E-mail:

ABSTRACT: Implantation is one of the most regulated processes in human reproduction, by endocrine and immunological systems. Cytokines are involved in embryo-maternal communication and an impaired balance could result in pregnancy loss. Here we investigated the effect of interleukin 1-β on the activity of two important metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) that are involved in extracellular matrix remodeling as well as the secretion of leptin, one of the reproductive hormones actively regulating their activity and secretion. We found that IL-1β activates matrix metalloproteinase activity as well as increases leptin secretion. We propose that this interleukin, through the regulation of leptin, in turn activates matrix metalloproteinases which results in an increased cytotrophoblast invasion.

Key words: Cytokines; Embryo implantation; Placenta; Extracellular matrix


The implantation process is the most critical step in achieving a successful early pregnancy. It relies on uterine-dependent and embryo-specific events, which need to be critically coordinated.
After initial attachment of the blastocyst to the endometrial lining, mononuclear cytotrophoblastic cells that surround the embryonic disc fuse to form a syncytium. These multinucleated and differentiated cells invade the pseudo-decidualized endometrium. Cytotrophoblastic cells can differentiate (Bischof and Irminger-Finger, 2005) into villous cytotrophoblastic cells, considered as stem cells, form a monolayer of polarized epithelial cells that proliferate and eventually differentiate by fusion to form the syncytiotrophoblast (Kao et al., 1988) or villous cytotrophoblastic cells which can also form multilayered columns of proliferating mononuclear cells that differentiate into non-polarized and invasive cytotropho­blastic cells. These motile and highly invasive cytotrophoblastic cells are found in the maternal decidua, the intima of the endometrial spiral arteries and the proximal third of the myometrium (Enders, 1968). Villous cytotrophoblastic cells are proliferating cells, in contact to one another and to the syncytiotrophoblast through the adhesion molecule E-cadherin. They express epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors and actively secrete EGF, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β).
The motile and highly invasive cytotrophoblastic cells, as well as tumor cells, are invasive because they secrete proteases capable of digesting the surrounding extracellular matrix. These proteases named matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors are tightly regulated. Serine proteases, cathepsins and matrix metalloproteinases have been implicated in the invasive process of tumors as well as cytotrophoblastic cells (Nagase, 1997). All matrix metalloproteinases are not equally important for trophoblast invasion; for example MMP-9 has been shown to mediate cytotrophoblastic cells invasion in vitro. In contrast to tumor cells, cytotropho­blastic cells are only transiently invasive (first trimester) and their invasion is normally limited only to the endometrium and to the proximal third of the myometrium (Shimonovitz et al., 1998). This temporal and spatial regulation of trophoblast invasion is believed to be mediated in an autocrine way by trophoblastic factors and in a paracrine way by uterine factors. Several types of regulators have been investigated such as hormones, cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix  glycoproteins (Bischof and Irminger-Finger, 2005; Oktay et al., 1994). Cytokines and growth factors are known to affect the invasive behavior of cytotrophoblastic cells (Chaouat et al., 2005) such as several interleukins (IL-1, -6, -10, -15) as well as tumor necrosis factor, EGF, leukemia inhibitory factor, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and insulin-like growth factor II and leptin have all been shown to modulate matrix metalloproteinase secretion and/or invasion in human trophoblastic cells.
Leptin appears to play a critical role in reproductive function and is linked to the inflammatory response (Gonzalez et al., 2000a; Moschos et al., 2002). Published data show that leptin could play key roles in the development of the preimplantation embryo and in the implantation process (Kawamura et al., 2002; Gonzalez et al., 2000b; Wu et al., 2002; Alfer et al., 2000; Gonzalez et al., 2000b; Kitawaki et al., 2000; Wu et al., 2002; Gonzalez et al., 2000b; Cameo et al., 2003; Henson and Castracane, 2006; Cervero et al., 2006). The down-regulation of the leptin receptor Ob-R expression at the time of implantation could play a role in subfertility (Alfer et al., 2000). However the leptin function in the normal implantation process is not well characterized (Yang et al., 2006). Leptin upregulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinases genes and enzyme related in trophoblastic invasion of mouse and human trophoblastic cells culture (Gonzalez et al., 2001; Schulz and Widmaier, 2004). Recent evidences indicated that leptin could promote adhesion and expansion of trophoblastic cells into the maternal endometrium in vivo (Yang et al., 2006). On the other hand, leptin up regulate the expression of relevant integrins for embryo adhesion in human epithelial endometrial cells (Gonzalez et al., 1999, 2001; Gonzalez and Leavis, 2001) and intensify the epithelial endometrial cell receptivity to the embryo implantation (Yang et al., 2006). Although leptin is regulated in several tissues by IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and TGF-β (Sarraf et al., 1997), leptin may itself induce the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro (Loffreda et al., 1998).

The IL-1 system composed of ligand (IL-1β), receptor type I (IL-1R I) and receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), is produced by both preimplantation embryos and endometrium. It has been proposed to be an important factor in embryo-maternal molecular cross-talk during implantation (Sheth et al., 1991; Simon et al., 1993). IL-1β (Simon et al., 1997) and leptin (Gonzalez and Leavis, 2001) up-regulate β3 integrin expression (a molecular marker of endometrial receptivity) by endometrial epithelial cells. However, leptin exerts a significantly greater effect on β3 integrin up-regulation than IL-1β at similar concentrations and IL-1β stimulates leptin secretion and Ob-R expression by endometrial epithelial cells (Gonzalez and Leavis, 2001). Leptin produced and secreted locally by preimplantation embryos and endometrial epithelial cells could act in an autocrine or paracrine manner to regulate biological functions that may mediate endometrial receptivity (Gonzalez et al., 2000a, b).
Considering that invasion is crucial for a successful implantation and that matrix metalloproteinases actively participate in this process, our objective in the present study was to evaluate the effect of endometrial paracrine factors on trophoblastic invasion. We used in vitro cultured human choriocarcinoma trophoblastic cells (JEG-3) as a model of embryo implantation and we focused our attention on the effect of human IL-1β on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and on the expre ssion/secretion of leptin in a trophoblastic cellular model (line JEG-3).

Materials and Methods

Cell Culture

Human choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3 (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, USA) was cultured in DMEM-F12/10% (w/v) fetal bovine serum, at 37ºC in 5% (v/v) CO2.
After 24 h, different concentrations of recombinant human interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 0-100 pg/mL) (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) were added to the culture, now in DMEM-F12/1% fetal bovine serum (w/v), for 3 days. Cells and conditioned media were collected separately and conserved at -20ºC.

Gelatin zymography

Gelatin zymography was used to determine metalloproteinase activity. Briefly, gelatin at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL was incorporated to a 10% SDS-PAGE with a 2% SDS-PAGE stacking gel. Aliquots (10 μl) of each sample were loaded and proteins electrophoresed for 1 h at 100 V. After electrophoresis, gels were washed five times (5 min each) in a Tris-based solution consisting of 2.5% Triton X-100 (w/v), then three times for 10 min in PBS. Then, the gel was incubated in 0.05 mol/L Tris-HCl, 0.15 mol/L NaCl, 0.005 mol/L CaCl2 (pH 7.5) at 37ºC for 24 h. Thereafter, the gels were stained with 0.5% Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 (w/v)  (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 45 min, lightly destained in methanol: acetic acid: water (3:1:6) and finally stored in 5% acetic acid (v/v). Each gelatinase band was identified according to molecular weight, with purified human MMP-9 as standard. The presence of gelatinases was confirmed by inhibition with EDTA. Quantification of the bands was performed with the image program Image-J (NIH, Bethesda, MD). Data were expressed as fold-values of the average optical density, relative to the control band (no IL-1β) and considering the serum albumin band as load control.

Effect of IL-1β on matrix metalloproteinase activity

This was analyzed in conditioned media from JEG-3 cells, after 3 days of culture, by gelatin zymography assay. The migration of MMP-2 (72 kDa) and MMP-9 (92 kDa) specific bands was previously determined in different cell types (JEG-3/BeWo/3T3-L1) and compared to purified MMP-9 and molecular weight markers (data not shown). The presence and intensity of digestion bands (clear bands) in the gelatin-containing gel (dark background) was evaluated. Absence of activity was observed when EDTA was added at the incubation buffer (negative control).
JEG-3 cells were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of IL-1β (0-100 pg/mL) for 3 days and conditioned media were collected. Matrix metalloproteinase activity was evaluated in the corresponding band for each experimental condition. Digitalized area from each digested clear band was normalized against the bovine serum albumin band which appeared as a dark one, using this as a load control.

Western Blot analysis for leptin secretion

Samples from conditioned media (20 μg of protein) obtained from each experimental condition, were electrophoresed in denaturing 10% SDS-PAGE for 1h at constant voltage (100V). Samples were previously heated at 85ºC for 10 min and loading buffer containing β-mercaptoethanol and SDS was added. Then, proteins were electrophoreticaly transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane (Hybond, Amersham, Pharmacia) for 90 min at constant voltage at 4ºC. The membrane was blocked with 5% skim milk (w/v) in PBS buffer, for 30 min, at room temperature. Then, first antibody was added (polyclonal anti-leptin developed in rabbit, Sigma Co.) diluted 1:1000 in 5% skim milk (w/v) in PBS, and left overnight at 4ºC. Afterwards, 4 x 5 min-washes were performed with PBS buffer. Second antibody (anti-rabbit IgG bound to peroxidase, Sigma Co.) was added at a 1:1000 dilution in 5% skim milk (w/v) in PBS for 90 min at room temperature. Afterwards, 4 x 5 min-washes were performed, at room temperature.
The membrane was developed for chemiluminescence using ECL Western blotting system (GE Healthcare) and a bio-imaging analyzer (Fujifilm LAS-1000). Negative control did not include first antibody. BSA present in the conditioned media was used as load control.  Bands were analyzed with Image-J Software (NIH, Bethesda, MD)
Total cell lysates were prepared in lysis buffer (PBS, 1% Nonidet P-40 (v/v), 0.1% SDS (w/v), and 0.01 mol/L EDTA, 0.005 mol/L Tris-HCl pH 6.8) and used as a control of total protein content. The lysates were centrifuged at 10000 x g for 10 min to remove cellular debris. Protein content was determined according to the Bradford method. Lysates were mixed with SDS-PAGE sample buffer containing 4% β-mercaptoethanol (v/v), boiled for 5 min, resolved by SDS-PAGE on a 10% gel, and stained with Coomassie Blue.


Dose-response curves were analyzed for statistical correlation using the two-tailed Spearman test and considering the result significantly different from the horizontal line with a P value less than 0.05.


Effects of IL-1β on the activity of MMP-2 and -9

MMP-9 activity increased (Fig. 1) in a dose-dependent manner with IL-1β concentrations and it was more evident at the higher concentration tested (100 pg/mL). The upper panel of the figure shows a representative gel. A similar stimulation was observed for MMP-2 activity (Fig. 2). Also in this case the upper panel shows a gel from one representative experiment.

FIGURE 1. Effect of IL-1β on the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 in trophoblastic cells. The statistical test showed that the differences in MMP-9 activity from conditioned media of cells treated with IL-1β positively correlated with the different concentrations of IL-1β used (1-100 pg/mL), relative to the control group (n=3, P=0.0009). Correlation coefficient (R) was 0.7667 (Two-tailed Spearman test).

FIGURE 2. Effect of IL-1β on the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 in trophoblastic cells. The statistics test showed that the differences in MMP-2 activity from conditioned media of cells treated with IL-1β positively correlated with the different concentrations of IL-1β used (1-100 pg/mL), relative to the control group (n=3, P=0.0019). Correlation coefficient (R) was 0.7315 (twotailed Spearman test).

Also,  the effect of IL-1β on the expression of secreted MMP-9 was evaluated. The cytokine did not significantly change the expression of MMP-9 at any concentration tested in conditioned media (data not shown).

Effects of IL-1β on the expression of secreted leptin

Being leptin one of the reproductive hormones involved in regulation of metalloproteinase activity and secretion, we then analyzed its concentration in the conditioned media of trophoblastic cells, cultured in the presence of various IL-1β concentrations (0-100 pg/mL). Figure 3 shows the dose-response increase in leptin secretion by IL-1β.

FIGURE 3. Western blot analysis of leptin secreted to the conditioned media by trophoblastic cells. The statistical test showed that the differences in leptin secretion into conditioned media of cells treated with IL-1β positively correlated with the different concentrations of IL-1β used (1-100 pg/mL), relative to the control group (n=2, P=0.0234). Correlation coefficient (R) was 0.7161 (two-tailed Spearman test).


After oocyte fertilization has occurred, the newly formed embryo travels towards the uterus which is receptive for embryo implantation. Bidirectional interplay takes place, with stimuli coming from the endometrium affecting the embryo and, also, signals from the embryo must appear to allow for tissue invasion. The embryo must adhere and invade the endometrium in order to continue through the rest of the pregnancy. At this point, inflammatory responses take place and the immune system through a Th1/Th2 balance could prevent or assist in pregnancy development. A review by Hauguel-de Mouzon and Guerre-Millo (2006) addresses this placental cytokine network.
Several cytokines are known to be produced by cells other than those related to the immune system. For example, both syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells are considered to produce cytokines (Guilbert et al., 1993) and almost all cell types of the uteroplacental tissues have been shown to participate in the cytokine network (Hunt, 1989). The IL-1 system (IL-1 isoforms and their receptors) has been connected to the leptin system (leptin and its various receptors) and, thus, leptin has been shown to trigger similar responses as IL-1β, suggesting a possible redundant system during the implantation process (Gonzalez et al., 2003).
We have previously shown that another cytokine, interferon-γ was deleterious to embryo implantation and development (Cameo et al., 1999 and Fontana et al., 2004).
Here we investigated the role of IL-1β on leptin secretion and metalloproteinase activation as a possible regulator of embryo invasion to the endometrial wall. We found that this cytokine was able to activate (either directly or indirectly)  metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in a cytotrophoblastic model, both involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and invasion processes. When we analyzed the secretion of leptin to the culture medium, we found it increased in a dose-dependent manner with the doses of IL-1β. At this point we cannot draw a conclusion on the temporal relationship of these two events and decide whether IL-1β is acting on the enzymes through the increased expression of leptin or directly on their activity or through inhibition of the natural regulators, the TIMPs (Tissue Inhibitors of Metallo-Proteinases).
It is important to emphasize that our results parallel those found using human placental cytotrophoblast cells (Gonzalez et al., 2003) indicating that this could be a good model to reproduce these effects, for future studies, without the need of primary cultures of placental tissue.
In conclusion, the present data suggest an interrelationship between IL-1β and leptin, possible through an autocrine/paracrine system which could have a profound effect on embryo implantation and pregnancy development.


1. Alfer J, Müller-Schöttle F, Classen-Linke I, von Rango U, Happel L, Beier-Hellwig K, Rath W, Beier HM (2000). The endometrium as a novel target for leptin: differences in fertility and subfertility. Molecular Human Reproduction 6: 595-601.         [ Links ]

2. Bischof P, Irminger-Finger I (2005). The human cytotrophoblastic cell: A mononuclear chameleon. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 37: 1-16.         [ Links ]

3. Cameo P, Bischof P, Calvo JC (2003). Effect of leptin on progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and interleukin-6 secretion by human term trophoblast cells in culture. Biology of Reproduction 68: 472-477.         [ Links ]

4. Cameo M, Fontana V, Cameo P, Vauthay LG, Kaplan J, Tesone M (1999). Similar embryotoxic effects of sera from infertile patients and exogenous interferon-g on long-term in-vitro development of mouse embryos. Human Reproduction 14: 959-963.         [ Links ]

5. Cervero A, Domínguez F, Horcajadas JA, Quiñonero A, Pellicer A, Simón C (2006). The role of the leptin in reproduction. Current Opinions in Obstetrics and Gynecology 18: 297-303.         [ Links ]

6. Chaouat G, Ledee-Bataille N, Chea KB, Dubanchet S (2005). Cytokines and implantation. Chemical Immunology and Allergy 88: 34-63.         [ Links ]

7. Enders A (1968). Fine structure of anchoring villi of the human placenta. American Journal of Anatomy 22: 419-452.         [ Links ]

8. Fontana V, Choren V, Vauthay L, Calvo JC, Calvo L, Cameo M (2004). Exogenous interferon-? alters murine inner cell mass and trophoblast development. Effect on the expression of ErbB1, ErbB4 and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan). Reproduction 128: 717-725.         [ Links ]

9. Gonzalez RR, Palomino A, Boric A, Vega M, Devoto L (1999). A quantitative evaluation of alpha1, alpha4, alphaV and beta3 endometrial integrins of fertile and unexplained infertile women during the menstrual cycle. A flow cytometric appraisal. Human Reproduction 14: 2485-2492.         [ Links ]

10. Gonzalez RR, Simon C, Caballero-Campo P, Norman R, Chardonnens D, Devoto L, Bischof, P (2000a). Leptin and reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 6: 290-300.         [ Links ]

11. Gonzalez RR, Caballero-Campo P, Jasper M, Mercader A, Devoto L, Pellicer A, Simon C (2000b). Leptin and leptin receptor are expressed in the human endometrium and endometrial leptin secretion is regulated by the human blastocyst. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85: 4883-4488.         [ Links ]

12. Gonzalez RR, Leavis PC (2001). Leptin up-regulates ß3-integrin expression and IL-1ß up-regulates leptin and leptin receptor expression in human endometrial epithelial cell cultures. Endocrine 16: 21-28.         [ Links ]

13. Gonzalez RR, Devoto L, Campana A, Bischof P (2001). Effects of leptin, IL-1, IL-6 and TGF-ß on markers of trophoblast invasive phenotype: integrins and metalloproteinases. Endocrine 15: 157-164.         [ Links ]

14. Gonzalez RR, Leary K, Petrozza JC, Leavis PC (2003). Leptin regulation of the interleukin-1 system in human endometrial cells. Molecular Human Reproduction 9: 151-158.         [ Links ]

15. Guilbert I, Robertson SA, Wegmann TG (1993). The trophoblast as an integral component of a macrophage-cytokine network. Immunology and Cell Biology 71: 49-57.         [ Links ]

16. Hauguel-de Mouzon S, Guerre-Millo M (2006). The placenta cytokine network and inflammatory signals. Placenta 27: 794-798.         [ Links ]

17. Henson MC, Castracane VD (2006). Leptin in pregnancy: an update. Biology of Reproduction 74: 218-29.         [ Links ]

18. Hunt JS (1989). Cytokine networks in the uteroplacental unit: macrophages as pivotal regulatory cells. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 1: 1-17.         [ Links ]

19. Kao LC, Caltabiano S, Wu S, Strauss JF, Kliman H (1988). The human villous cytotrophoblast interaction with extracellular matrix proteins, endocrine function and cytoplasmic differentiation in the absence of syncytium formation. Developmental Biology 130: 693-702.         [ Links ]

20. Kawamura K, Sato N, Fukuda J, Kodama H, Kumagai J, Tanikawa H, Nakamura, A and Tanaka T (2002). Leptin promotes the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro. Endocrinology 143: 1922-1931.         [ Links ]

21. Kitawaki J, Koshiba H, Ishihara H, Kusuki I, Tsukamoto K, Honjo H (2000). Expression of leptin receptor in human endometrium and fluctuation during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85: 1946-1950.         [ Links ]

22. Loffreda S, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Karp CL, Brengman ML, Wang DJ, Klein AS, Bulkley GB, Bao C, Noble PW, Lane MD, Diehl AM (1998). Leptin regulates proinflammatory immune responses. FASEB Journal 12: 57-65.         [ Links ]

23. Moschos S, Chan JL, Mantzoros CS (2002). Leptin and reproduction: a review. Fertility and Sterility 77: 433-444.         [ Links ]

24. Nagase H (1997). Activation mechanisms of matrix metalloproteinases. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 378: 151-160.         [ Links ]

25. Oktay K, Brzyski RG, Miller EB, Krugman D (1994). Association of serum b-hCG levels with myosalpingeal invasion and viable trophoblast mass in tubal pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 84: 803-861.         [ Links ]

26. Sarraf P, Frederich RC, Turner EM, Ma G, Jaskowiak NT, Rivet DJ 3rd, Flier JS, Lowell BB, Fraker DL, Alexander HR (1997). Multiple cytokines and acute inflammation raise mouse leptin levels: potential role in inflammatory anorexia. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 171-175.         [ Links ]

27. Schulz LC, Widmaier EP (2004). The effect of leptin on mouse trophoblast cell invasion. Biology of Reproduction 71: 1963-1967.         [ Links ]

28. Sheth KV, Roca GL, al-Sedairy ST, Parhar RS, Hamilton CJ, al-Abdul Jabbar F (1991). Prediction of successful embryo implantation by measuring interleukin- 1 alpha and immunosuppressive factor (s) in preimplantation embryo culture fluid. Fertility and Sterility 55: 952-957.         [ Links ]

29. Shimonovitz S, Hurwitz A, Hochner-Celnikier D, Dushnik M, Anteby E, Yagel S (1998). Expression of gelatinase B by trophoblast cells: down-regulation by progesterone. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1788: 457-461.         [ Links ]

30. Simon C, Frances A, Piquette G, Hendriclson M, Milki A, Polan ML (1993). Interleukin-1 system in the materno-trophoblast unit in human implantation: Immunohistochemical evidence for autocrine/paracrine function. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 78: 847-854.         [ Links ]

31. Simon C, Gimeno MJ, Mercader A, O'Connor JE, Remohi J, Polan ML, Pellicer A (1997). Embryonic regulation of integrins beta 3, alpha 4, and alpha 1 in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 2607-2616.         [ Links ]

32. Wu MH, Chuang PC, Chen HM, Lin CC, Tsai SJ (2002). Increased leptin expression in endometriosis cells is associated with endometrial stromal cell proliferation and leptin gene up-regulation. Molecular Human Reproduction 8: 456-464.         [ Links ]

33. Yang YJ, Cao YJ, Bo SM, Peng S, Liu WM, Duan EK (2006). Leptin-directed embryo implantation: leptin regulates adhesion and outgrowth of mouse blastocysts and receptivity of endometrial epithelial cells. Animal Reproduction Science 92: 155-67.         [ Links ]

Received: December 8, 2009.
Revised version received: January 20, 2010.
Acepted: January 20, 2010.

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons