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Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina

versión impresa ISSN 0373-5680versión On-line ISSN 1851-7471

Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. vol.74 no.3-4 La Plata dic. 2015



Synopsis of the family Reduviidae (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha) from Chile

Sinopsis de la familia Reduviidae (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha) de Chile


Melo, María C.1,2 & Eduardo Faúndez3,4

1División Entomología, Museo de La Plata, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:
2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
3Entomology Department, North Dakota State University, Dept. 7650, P.O. Box 6050; Fargo, ND, USA

4Departamento de Zoología Médica, Centro de Estudios en Biodiversidad (CEBCh), Magallanes, 1979, Osorno, Chile

Recibido: 25-VIII-2015
Aceptado: 15-XI-2015


RESUMEN. Se presenta una sinopsis de los Reduviidae registrados en Chile, incluyendo claves para subfamilias, géneros y especies chilenas, así como nuevos registros de distribución. Se registraron siete subfamilias, 17 géneros y 27 especies, de los cuales uno representa un nuevo registro para el país: Leogorrus litura (Fabricius); además se incluyen numerosos datos de distribución, así como extensión de los rangos de varias especies.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Biodiversidad; Chinches asesinas; Distribución

ABSTRACT. A synopsis of the Reduviidae recorded from Chile is given, including keys to subfamilies, genera, and species, as well as new distributional records. A total of seven subfamilies, 17 genera, and 27 species are here recorded, one represents a new country record: Leogorrus litura (Fabricius); there are also included many distributional data as well as extensions of the ranges of several species. 

KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Assassin bugs; Distributional records



The Chilean Heteroptera were mostly studied during the 19th Century with the foundational works of Spinola and Blanchard (1852), Signoret (1863), and Reed (1898–1901). But little work has been done on the Chilean fauna. More recently, Prado (2008) provided a checklist of Chilean Heteroptera. The morphologically diverse family Reduviidae is one of the largest within the Heteroptera (Schuh & Slater, 1995). In Chile, much research has been published mainly on those species related to Chagas disease (e.g. species of Triatoma Laporte and Mepraia Mazza, Gajardo & Jörg). Unfortunately, Reduviids are not common in Chilean collections, and there are few specimens around, mostly of Triatomines (E. I. Faúndez pers. obs.).

The aim of this contribution is to provide a synopsis of the Reduviidae from Chile, including keys to subfamilies, genera and species from Chile, to clarify the distribution of many species as well as to document new records.


For each species all the records found in the bibliography are included, as well as their citations indicating if a missidentification or doubtful identification was found. Synonymic lists were compiled based on Maldonado Capriles (1990) adding all other information found in the bibliography that was ommited in the catalog. The material studied is lodged at: the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" (MACN), Buenos Aires, Argentina; the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA (USNM); and the personal collection of Eduardo Faúndez (EIFC). Photographs were captured using an EntoVision Imaging Suite that included a JVC KY-753CCD digital camera mounted to a Leica M16 zoom lens via a Leica z-step microscope stand. Images at multiple focal planes were merged using Cartograph 5.6.0 (Microvision Instruments, France) software. A Chilean political map is included (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Map of Chile showing the administrative division of the country.


Key to Reduviidae subfamilies found in Chile

1.- Fore femora strongly dilated (Fig. 2), fore tibiae and tarsi fused; antennal flagellomeres incrassate … ........................................  Phymatinae
1’.- Fore femora not strongly dilated, fore tibiae not fused to tarsi; antennal flagellomeres slender than remaining segments ..........................  2

2.- Body elongate and slender; fore legs raptorial; fore coxae elongate (Fig. 3); hemelytra mostly membranous … ......................  Emesinae
2’.- Body less elongate and more robust; fore legs not raptorial; fore coxae not elongate; hemelytra normally divided into corium and membrane ... 3

3.- Hemelytral cubital cell usually quadrangular (Fig. 4) ............................................  Harpactorinae
3’.- Hemelytral cubitus simple, not forming such a cubital cell .........................................................  4

4.- Antennae apparently with more than four segments; scutellum bifurcate posteriorly .....  5
4’.- Antennae with four segments; scutellum not bifurcate posteriorly ...........................................  6

5.- Pedicel subdivided into 4–36 segments; head elongate with eyes located posteriorly (Fig. 5) ..........................................  Hammacerinae
5’.- Flagellomeres usually divided, forming a total of 7 or 8 apparent antennal segments;
head shorter with eyes located medially (Fig. 6) .........................................................  Ectrichodiinae

6.- Head cylindrical (Fig. 7), antennae inserted laterally before eyes; membranous articulation between 2 and 3 labial segments allowing upward  flexure  of  3  labial  segment  during feeding ................................................  Triatominae
6’.- Head not cylindrical (Fig. 8), antennae inserted dorsally before the eyes; without a membranous articulation between 2 and 3 labial segment not allowing upward flexure of 3 labial segment during feeding ..................  Reduviinae

Figs. 2-5. 2, Anterior leg of Phymatinae; 3, Anterior leg of Emesinae; 4, Hemelytron of Harpactorinae, showing quadrate cubital cell; 5, Head of Hammacerinae, dorsal view; 6, Head of Ectrichodiinae, dorsal view.

Subfamily Phymatinae Laporte

Also known as ambush bugs, these insects are known to lie among flower clusters or among the parts of large flowers with their fore legs poised to grasp the unwary diurnal insects visiting the flo­wers for pollen or nectar. For a long time, this group has been accepted as a family; but with the discovery of the genus Themonocoris Carayon, Usinger & Wygodzinsky 1958, the authors concluded it represents a point close to the origin of the phymatid bugs from the other reduvioids, and reduced the Phymatidae to a subfamily level. Recent studies clearly show that this group shares the synapomorphies of the Reduviidae (Weirauch, 2008).

In Central and South America, it is represented by eight genera and 168 species (Froeschner & Kormilev, 1989). All the species occurring in Chile belong to the tribe Phymatini.

Tribe Phymatini Anthylla Stål

1876 Anthylla Stål, 14 (4): 131, 134. Type species: Phymata nervosopunctata Signoret

This genus only includes the following species known from Chile. It is characterized by the subtriangular fore femora, with the exterior surface convex and granulated, and the sutures between abdominal sternites 2 and 3 clearly visible.

Anthylla nervosopunctata (Signoret)

1863 Phymata nervosopunctata Signoret, 3: 574 [Chile]; Wygodzinsky 1949, 1: 14 [Chile]; Handlirsch 1897, 12: 178- 179 [Chile]
1863 Phymata elongata Signoret, 3: 574 [Chile]; Reed 1900, 4 (11): 177 [near Viña del Mar]; Wygodzinsky 1949, 1: 14 [Chile]
1896 Anthylla elongata: Lethierry & Severin, 2: 28 [Chile]
1896 Anthylla nervosopunctata: Lethierry &
Severin, 2: 28 [Chile]; Kormilev 1960, 89: 326 [Chile]; Froeschner & Kormilev 1989, 6: 40 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [Chile]
1900 Phymata nervopunctata: Reed, 4(11): 176 [between Viña del Mar and El Salto]
1900 Phymata elongata: Reed, 4(11): 177 [near Viña del Mar, seems female of P. nervopunctata]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species was known only from Valparaíso and Metropolitan Regions in central Chile; here we add new records, extending its distribution to the Araucanía Region in southern Chile.

Material studied: Metropolitan Region: 1, Santiago, La Dormida, 26-II-1984, L.E. Peña col. (USNM); 22, 1 nymph, Santiago, Tantehue, Co. Matancilla, 1900 m, 7-I-[19]82, M. Marin col. (USNM). O´Higgins Region: 1, Los Arrayanes, NW Rancagua, 1500 m, XI-[19]81, M. Marin col. (USNM). Maule Region: 1, Curicó, Las Tablas, 700 m, II-1985, D. Veas col. (USNM); 1 nymph, Curicó, El Durazno, 800 m, II-1985, D. Veas col. (USNM). Bío Bío Region: 1, Chillán, Las Trancas, III-1984, D. Veas col. (USNM). Araucanía Region: 11, malleco, Termas Tolhuaca, 15-III-1986, Madariaga col. (USNM).

Phymata Latreille

1802 Phymata Latreille, 3: 247. Type species: Acanthia crassipes Fabricius

About 84 species are known from Central and South America (Froeschner & Kormilev, 1989). Phymata is characterized by the middle and hind tibiae convex on upper side, neither carinate nor sulcate. It includes four subgenera: Euryphymata Kormilev, Neophymata Kormilev, Phymata Latreille and Phymatispa Kormilev. Only the subgenus Phymata has been reported from Chile (Froeschner & Kormilev, 1989).

Phymata ( P. ) chilensis chilensis Handlirsch (Fig. 9)

1852 Phymata carinata: Blanchard, 7: 206 [Chile]; Lethierry & Severin 1896, 2: 27 [Chile]; Pennington 1918, 22: 175 [Rio Blanco]; Porter 1918, 22: [Curacautín]; Porter 1920a; 159 [Rio Blanco; La Ligua; Victoria]
1897 Phymata erosa chilensis Handlirsch, 12: 171 [Chile]; Porter 1933a, 37: 182 [Atacama, Valle de Copiapó]
1863 Phymata  carinata: Signoret,  3: 574 [Chile]; Berg 1879, 7 (1): 47 [Chile]; Reed 1900, 4 (11): 176 [Chile]
1951 Phymata carinata chilensis: Kormilev, 2: 69 [Valparaíso; Limache; Bio- Bio; Aconcagua, Guardia Vieja; San Bernardo; El Canelo; Santiago]
1949 Phymata chilensis: Wygodzinsky, 1: 13 [Chile]; Froeschner & Kormilev 1989, 6: 47 [Chile]
1960 Phymata chilensis chilensis: Kormilev, 89: 445 [Santiago, Aconcagua, Bio- Bio, Angol]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species is one of the most common reduviids in Chile; it has been recorded from Atacama to Araucanía Regions. Here we extend its known distribution southwards to the Los Ríos Region.

Material studied: Coquimbo Region: 53, Conquimbo, Los Vilos, Quereo, 30-XI-1986, G. Carrasco col., Drake coll. (USNM). Valparaíso Region: 21, Chile, El Tabo, 1976, Phymata carinata chilensis det. Carpintero (MACN). Metropolitan Region: 1, Chile, Cordillera prov., El Tollo, 16-XII-1987, J.E. Barriga leg. (MACN); 1, Vallegrande, Salto, XI-1940, Kormilev coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 22, Santiago, El Camelo, R. Gutierrez col., Kormilev coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 21, Santiago, Guayacan, II-[1]951, R. Gutiérrez col., Kormilev coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 2, Aconcagua, Guardia Vieja, XII-[19]49, Kormilev coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Santiago, San Bernardo, XII-[19]49, Kormilev coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 12, Santiago, Maipo, San J. de Maipo, 28-XII-1979, N. Zambrano col. (USNM); 21, Santiago, Maipo, Rio Colorado, 23-II-1980, N. Zambrano col. (USNM); 1, Santiago, Maipo, Rio Colorado, 12-II-1984, L.E. Pena col., Drake coll. (USNM); 33, Santiago, Cuesta El Melón, 17-XII-1980, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 83, Santiago, La Obra, I-1979, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 73, Santiago, Cantillana, 1700 m, XII-[19]81, M. Marin col., Drake coll. (USNM); 54, same data, 2000 m (USNM); 42, Santiago, El Manza­no, 6-II-1983, Madariaga col., Drake coll. (USNM); 31, Santiago, Aculeo, 22-III-1982, L.E. Pena col., Drake coll. (USNM); 6, Santiago, El Alfalfal, 31-I-1983, Drake coll. (USNM); 4, Santiago, La Dormida, 1200 m, 2-III-[19]82, M. Marin col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Santiago, Q. Macul, 27-II-1983, Madariaga col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Puchuncavi, 150  m, 3-III-1982, M.  Marin col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Chacemo, W Temuco, 22-I-1983, Madariaga col., Drake coll. (USNM); 2, Santiago, La Pirámide, 13-I-1980 (USNM); 218, same data, N. Zambrano col., Drake coll. (USNM); 43, Santiago, Farellones, III-1983, Drake coll. (USNM). O’Higgins Region: 124, Santiago, Maipo, El Toyo, 7/8-III-1981, N. Zambrano col. (USNM); 55, O’Higgins, La Sepultura, XII-1985, Irarrazabal col., Drake coll. (USNM). Maule Region: 24, Chile, Romeral, XII-1977 (MACN); 1, Chile, Curicó, 15 km E Curicó, Cº Huela- Huelan, Zapallar, XII- [19]97, malaise, Barriga col. (MACN); 11 nymph, Los Quenes, Rio Teno, 800 m, XI-[19]81, L.E. Pena col., Drake coll. (USNM); 21, Curico, El Maqui, 800 m, II-1985, D. Veas col., Drake coll. (USNM); 53, Talca, Tonlemo, 14/21-XII-1984, Irarrazabal col., Drake coll. (USNM). Bío Bío Region: 1 nymph, Chile, Ñuble prov., Las Trancas, 16-I-1989, J.E. Barriga leg. (MACN); 12, Chile, Curicó, Mina Bio-Bio, XII-[20]02, 2000m, B.A. Barriga col. (MACN); 11, Bio Bio, Los Angeles, I-[19]53, Fritz col., Kormilev coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 2, Nuble, San Fabián de Alico, Fundo El Sauce, I-1986, L. Irarrazával col. (USNM); 1413, Talca, Alto Vilches, XII-1979, L.E. Peña col, Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Chillán, Atacama, 18-III-1983, L.E. Peña col. (USNM); 11, Concepción, Tome, II-1985, P. Salinas col. (USNM); 1, Chillan, Las Trancas, II-[19]81, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Chillán, Quirihue, 24-II-[19]77, Drake coll. (USNM). Araucanía Region: 1, Malleco, Pino Hachado, 28-I-[19]94, Pena & Ugarte cols., Drake coll. (USNM); 5, Parral, Malcho, I-1993, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 11, Parral, Digua, I-1993, L.E Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 63, Arauco, Contulmo, Manzanar, 16-XII-[19]85, Madariaga col., Drake coll. (USNM). Los Ríos Region: 56, Valdivia, Purolon, 10-I-1986, Madariaga col., Drake coll. (USNM).

Figs. 7-12. Dorsal habitus. 7, Mepraia spinolai (Porter), female; 8, Leogorrus litura (Fabricius); 9, Phymata chilensis chilensis Handlirsch; 10, Hybomatocoris penai Wygodzinsky; 11, Racelda alternans Signoret, male; 12, R. alternans Signoret, female.

Subfamily Emesinae Amyot & Serville

The thread-legged bugs constitute a group of reduviids with a long and slender body, the fore coxal cavities opening anteriorly, with lateral campaniform sensilla on the fore tibia; and without ocelli (Weirauch, 2008). This subfamily is the most diverse in Chile; it is represented by four tribes, six genera, and 12 species.

Key to the tribes of Emesinae from Chile: (modified from Wygodzinsky, 1966)

1.- Simple claws; insertion of M limiting the discal cell on the r-m cross vein (Fig. 13) .............................................................................  Leistarchini
1’.- Claws with incisions or projections; migration of M along Sc + R (Fig. 14) ........................  2

2.- Spines on the under surface of fore tibia well developed; syngonapophysis of female well developed ................................................................  3
2’.- Spines on the under surface of fore tibia reduced, only with strong setae; syngonapophysis of female reduced ........................  Ploiariolini

3.- Eyes small in macropterous and brachypterous, never surpassing dorsal or ventral margin of head in lateral view; beginning of postero-ventral series of fore femur distant from the base of the segment; hemelytron with only discal cell or accompanied by a much reduce subbasal cell; hind wings, M shifted to touch Cu directly for a short distance so as to eliminate the m-cu cross vein (Fig. 15) .......................................  Metapterini
3’.- Eyes large of winged forms, often surpassing dorsal margin of head in lateral view; beginning of postero-ventral series of fore femur inserted near base of the segment; hemelytron with two or three cells (discal, subbasal and basal cells); hind wings with m-cu well developed (Fig. 16) ...................................................  Deliastini

Figs. 13-16. 13, Leistarchini, hemelytron; 14, Empicoris vagabundus (Linnaeus), Ploiariolini, hemelytron; 15, Bergemesa pacifica Wygodzinsky, Deliastini; 16, Metapterini, hind wing.

Tribe Leistarchini Stål

This tribe is comprised of winged, micropterous and apterous forms known from all zoo-geographic regions. Twenty three genera are included but only one is found in the New World. The species shows small to large size (5-25 mm) specimens; they generally present a rather uniform color, rarely with more or less conspicuous markings; the hemelytra with a single cell and the hind wings with a transverse thickening; the pretarsi with short arolia, and the phallosoma with spinelike processes (Wygodzinsky, 1966).

Ploiaria Scopoli

1786 Ploiaria Scopoli, 1: 60. Type species: Ploiaria domestica Scopoli

This genus is comprised of a large number of species known from all zoogeographical regions (Maldonado Capriles, 1990). In America, it is represented by about 40 species (Wygodzinsky, 1966).

Ploiaria chilensis (Philippi)

1862 Stenolemus chilensis Philippi, 21: 38 [Inter Chonchoral, Chillan]; Wygodzinsky 1966, 133: 177 [Juan Fernández Is., San Ambrosio Is.]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 110 [Juan Fernández Is.]
1863 Emesella dohrni Signoret, 3: 587 [Chile]; Walker 1873a, 8: 148 [Chile]; Reed 1901, 5 (3): 67 [Cordillera de Santiago]; Porter 1932, 36: 192 [El Salto; Los Andes; Marga- Marga, Los Perales]; Porter 1939, 43: 185 [Chile: Copiapó]
1896 Ploiaria dohrni: Lethierry & Severin, 2: 73 [Chile]; Porter 1932, 36: 192 [El Salto; Los Andes; Los Perales, Marga- Marga]; Wygodzinsky 1948, 21(3): 473 [Valparaiso, Juan Fernandez]; Wygodzinsky 1951, 1: 113 [Valparaíso]
1923 Ploearia huttoni: Bergroth, 3: 398 [Juan Fernández: Masafuera]
1952 Ploiaria chilensis: Wygodzinsky, 2: 15, 18 [Masatierra: Bahía Cumberland; Gruta de los Patriotas. Masafuera: Quebrada de las Vacas; Quebrada de las Casas]; Wygodzinsky 1966, 133: 177 [Isla San Ambrosio]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [continental Chile and Archipelago Juan Fernández]

Geographic distribution: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Azores Is., Canary Is., Chile, Colombia, Madeira Is., Morocco, New Zealand, Peru, Spain, and USA (California) (Wygodzinsky, 1966).

Comments: This reduvid is highly sinantropic in Chile, it has been usually observed in houses of Valparaíso, Metropolitan and O’Higgins Regions. Material studied: Valparaíso Region: 11 without abdomen, Valparaíso, 15-II-[19]44, in bedroom, E.P. Reed col., Sinop, Hem. Chile Reed coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 22, ex Sinop, Hem. Chile E.P. Reed coll., Drake coll. (USNM).

Tribe Ploiariolini Van Duzee

Small species (3–11 mm); generally with conspicuous markings; mostly winged, rarely micropterous or apterous forms. They are known from all zoogeographical regions, the tribe is comprised of 16 genera from which six are found in Central and South America: Empicoris Wolff, Hybomatocoris Wygodzinsky, Malacopus Stål, Nesidiolestes Kirkaldy (Hawaii), Panamia Kirkaldy, and Saicella Usinger (Hawaii) (Wygodzinsky, 1966).

Key to the species of Ploiariolini from Chile: (modified from Melo & Faundez, 2011)

1.- Hemelytra rugose, carinulate, discal cell bullate (Fig. 10); pronotum without distinct lateral carinae ..............................  Hybomatocoris penai
1’.- Hemelytra smooth or delicately rugose, with numerous small spots; pronotum with distinct lateral carinae (Figs. 17-18) ....  (Empicoris) ......  2

2.- Lateral carina of posterior lobe of pronotum distinguishable only at anterior portion (Fig. 17); apex of pterostigma generally reddish; posterior margin of pygophore deeply emarginate ...........................................................  E. rubromaculatus
2’.- Lateral carina of posterior lobe of pronotum complete (Fig. 18); pterostigma only rarely red
dish at apex; posterior margin of pygophore not deeply emarginate .............................................  3

3.- Hind wings conspicuously spotted apically; lateral carina of pronotum in most specimens with a small projecting process (Fig. 18); pterostigma more or less extensively darkened ... E. errabundus
3’.- Hind wings not spotted apically; lateral carina of pronotum lacking anterior projection; pterostigma darkened or not ............................  4

4.- Pterostigma with two or three dark spots; parameres bilobed apically (Fig. 19) ... E. culiciformis
4’.- Pterostigma uniformly whitish; parameres pointed apically (Fig. 20) ..........  E. vagabundus

Figs. 17-20. 17, Empicoris rubromaculatus (Blackburn), lateral view of head and pronotum; 18, E. errabundus (Say), lateral view of head and pronotum; 19, E. culiciformis (De Geer), paramere; 20, E. vagabundus (Linnaeus), paramere.

Hybomatocoris Wygodzinsky

1966 Hybomatocoris Wygodzinsky, 133: 387. Type species: Hybomatocoris penai Wygodzinsky

This is a monotypic genus and is endemic from Chile. It is easily recognized by the heavily wrinkled and bullate regions of the forewings.

Hybomatocoris penai Wygodzinsky (Fig. 10)

1966 Hybomatocoris penai Wygodzinsky, 133: 391 [Región Metropolitana: Santiago: Cerro San Ramón; El Manzano]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 152 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species was previously known just from the Metropolitan Region, here we extend its range to the north in Valparaíso Region and to the south in Maule Region.

Material studied: Valparaíso Region: 1, El Cobre Q. El Soldado, P. Valparaiso, 8-VIII-1968, Berlesse funnel, C.W. O’Brien col. (USNM). Maule Region: 5, Curicó, El Relvo, 20 km E Potrero Grande, 1100 msnm, 3-IV-2004, Barriga col. (MACN).

Empicoris Wolff

1811 Empicoris Wolff, 5. Type species: Gerris vagabundus Linné

This genus is known from all zoogeographical regions; in the New World it is represented by 16 species (Gil-Santana et al., 2005; Melo & Faundez, 2011).

Empicoris rubromaculatus (Blackburn) (Fig. 17)

1889 Ploiariodes rubromaculatus Blackburn, 3: 349 [Hawaii: Mauna Loa]; Bergroth 1923, 3: 398 [Juan Fernández: Masatierra]
1952 Empicoris rubromaculatus: Wygodzinsky, 2: 15, 19 [Juan Fernández; Masatierra]; Wygodzinsky 1966, 133: 383 [Juan Fernandez]; Montero & Chavarria 1969 [central Chile]; Putshkov et al. 1999, 35(1): 61 [Juan Fernández Is.,Rancagua; Ramagua; Contaluso]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [continental Chile and Archipelago Juan Fernández]; Melo & Faundez 2011, 51(1): 13. [Maule Region: Curicó: 20 km E Potrero Grande, Fundo El Coihue; 5 km E Potrero Grande, camino al Relvo; El Relvo, 20 km E Potrero Grande]

Geographic distribution: This species has a Pantropical distribution, although it is also distributed in subtropical and tempered regions (Putshkov et al., 1999). In America it has been recorded from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, and the contiguous USA, and it is known also from Hawaii (McAtee & Malloch, 1925; Wygodzinsky, 1966; Putshkov & Putshkov, 1996; Forero, 2006; Melo & Faundez, 2011).

Comments: This is a very variable species, especially in coloration and size. In continental Chile it is known from O’Higgins and Maule Regions, here we extend its northern limit to the Metropolitan Region.

Material studied: Metropolian Region: 1, Santiago, San Juan de Maipo, 950 m, 10-II-1986, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Chile, in garlic bulbs, intercept N. Orleans, 22-VI-[19]37 (USNM). Maule Region: 121 nymph, Chile, Curicó: 20 km E Potrero Grande, Fdo. El Coihue, 23-V-2004, leg. J.E. Barriga, fogging s/ Podocarpus saligna, 1035 msnm, 35º10’739"S- 57º 800"W (MACN); 21, 1 without abdomen, same data, 25-V-2004 (MACN); 1, 5 km E Potrero Grande, camino al Relvo, 29-XII-2003, fogging s/ N. dombeyi, 35º12’21.7"S- 70º57’45.6"W, leg. J.E. Barriga (MACN); 11 without abdomen, El Relvo, 20 km E Potrero Grande, 35º11’13"S-70º56’7"W, 3-II-2004, J.E. Barriga col., fogging s/ Nothofagus dombeyi (MACN); 643 nymphs, El Relvo, 20 km E Potrero Grande, 1100 msnm, 35º11’13"S- 70º56’7"W, fogging s/ Nothofagus dombeyi, 3-V-2004, J.E. Barriga col. (MACN); 645 nymphs, same data, 24-V-2004 (MACN); 1, same data, 24-I-2004 (MACN); 1, same data, 16-I-2004, fogging s/ N. dombeyi, C. hystrix, Chusquea culeau y retamo (MACN); 11 nymph, same data, 14-I-2004, fogging s/ Lomatia dentata, Nothofagus obliqua (MACN); 1, 20 km E Potrero Grande, El Relvo, 8-II-2004, fogging s/ Nothofagus dombeyi, 35º11.13’S- 79º56.7’W, leg. J.E. Barriga (MACN); 2, Cº Huela- Huelan, 10 km E Curicó, III-1998, Malaise, Barriga col. (MACN); 3, Potrero Grande, 10-IX-1997, leg. J.E. Barriga (MACN).

Empicoris errabundus (Say) (Fig. 18)

1832 Ploiaria errabunda Say: 34 [USA]
2011 Empicoris errabundus: Melo & Faundez, 51(1): 12 [Maule Region: Curicó: Cerro Huela-Huelan, Zapallar; Zapallar, 15 km E Curicó]

Geographic distribution: This species is known from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and southern and western USA (Wygodzinsky, 1966; Maldonado Capriles, 1990; Melo & Faundez, 2011).

Material studied: Maule Region: 1 without abdomen, Curicó: Cº Huela- Huelan, Zapallar, I-1998, Malaise, Barriga col. (MACN); 1, Zapallar, 15 km E Curicó, Malaise, II-1998, Barriga col (MACN).

Empicoris culiciformis (De Geer) (Fig. 19)

1773 Cimex culiciformis De Geer, 3: 223 [France]
1966 Empicoris culiciformis: Wygodzinsky, 133: 371 [Chile]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 147 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [Chile]; Melo & Faundez 2011, 51(1): 14 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: With a cosmopolitan distribution, this species is widely distributed in Europe, northern Africa, eastern and middle Asia (Wygodzinsky, 1966; Maldonado Capriles, 1990; Putshkov & Putshkov, 1996; Putshkov et al., 1999). According to McAtee and Malloch (1925) this species is frequent in North America, it has also been recorded in South America from Argentina and Chile without an exact locality (Wygodzinsky, 1966; Maldonado Capriles, 1990; Prado, 2008; Melo & Faundez, 2011).

Empicoris vagabundus (Linné) (Fig. 20)

1758 Cimex vagabundus Linné, 1: 450 [Europe]
2011 Empicoris vagabundus: Melo & Faundez 51(1): 16 [Metropolitan Region: Cajón del Maipo; Maule Region: Altos de Vilches; Curicó, El Relvo, 20 km E Potrero Grande]

Geographic distribution: This species has a Holarctic distribution (Europe from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, from England to southern Russia), Siberia, Canada (British Columbia), and the USA (Putshkov & Putshkov, 1996; Putshkov et al. 1999). Recently it has been recorded from Andean Chile (Melo & Faundez, 2011).

Material studied: Maule Region: 4, Curicó, El Relvo, 20 km E Potrero Grande, 14-I-2004, J.E. Barriga col., 35º11’0.8"S- 70º55’57.5"W, fogging s/ Nothofagus dombeyi (MACN); 1, same data, fogging s/ Lomatia dentata, Nothofagus obliqua (MACN); 2, El Relvo, 20 km E Potrero Grande, 3-II-2004, J.E. Barriga col., 35º11’13"S- 70º56’7"E, fogging s/ Nothofagus dombeyi (MACN).

Species insertae sedis Lutevopsis chilensis Porter

1923 Lutevopsis chilensis Porter, 25: 505 [Región IX: Cautín]; Porter 1932, 36: 191 [Cautín prov.; Quilpué; Marga- Marga, Los Perales]; Porter 1938a, 42: 166 [Región IV: Coquimbo: La Serena; Región IX: Cautín; Región V: Quilpé, Marga- Marga]; Wygodzinsky 1949, 1: 34 [Chile]; Wygodzinsky 1966, 133: 419 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: According to Wygodzinsky (1966), this species possibly belongs to Empicoris by its conspicuous color pattern; we were unable to find a specimen matching with the description of Porter, so we keep the species as insertae sedis.

Tribe Deliastini Villiers

Small to medium size species (6–5 mm); con-colorous or with inconspicuous markings; winged and apterous forms. Endemic from Central and South America, includes three genera and ten species. Wygodzinsky (1966) noted that the restricted range, as well as the small number of genera in the tribe, shows that the Deliastini are a relict taxon; and that it is considered to be the plesiomorphic component of a group containing the Deliastini and the more specialized Metapterini.

Bergemesa Wygodzinsky

1950 Bergemesa Wygodzinsky, 150: 30. Type species: Deliastes brachmanni Berg.

This genus is endemic from South America; and it is more diverse in the semiarid region of central Argentina (Wygodzinsky, 1966). It includes six species, one endemic from Chile.

Bergemesa pacifica Wygodzinsky

1950 Bergemesa pacifica Wygodzinsky, 150: 42 [Chile]; Wygodzinsky 1966, 133: 423 [Región Metropolitana: Santiago: Renca]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 81 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This is an endemic species from the semiarid central Chile. Here we add the first records for this species from Maule Region, extending its range to the south.

Material studied: Metropolitan Region: 1 without abdomen, Santiago, Quilicura, X-1979, L.E. Pena G. col., Drake coll. (USNM); 11, same locality, VIII-[19]79, Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Santiago, La Pirámide, 13-I-1980, N. Zambrano col. (USNM). Maule Region: 1, Curicó, Cº Huelan-Huelan, 10 km E Curicó, IV-1998, Malaise, Barriga col. (MACN).

Tribe Metapterini Stål

Small to very large species (6–42 mm); generally concolorous, rarely with conspicuous markings; predominantly micropterous and apterous forms. Known from all zoogeographic regions; includes 26 genera seven of which (Barce Stål, Emesaya McAtee & Malloch, Emesella Dorhn, Ghilianella Spinola, Ghinallelia Wygodzinsky, Liaghinella Wygodzinsky, and Pseudometapterus Wygodzinsky) are found in America (Wygodzinsky, 1966).

Pseudometapterus Wygodzinsky

1966 Pseudometapterus Wygodzinsky, 133: 547. Type species: Ghilianella argentina Berg.

This genus contains part of the New World species previously included in Metapterus Costa; currently known from the Nearctic, Neotropical and Andean regions. Several groups of species can be recognized, the largest, the argentinus group, is composed mostly by southern South American species. Many of these species are very similar and may prove to be geographical races only (Wygodzinsky, 1966). The group of species known from Chile reaches the forest region of southern Chile, in the Araucanian subregion.

Key to the species of Pseudometapterus from Chile:

1.- Ventral surface of head with a uniform or almost uniform pale stripe which occupies entire interocular space; lateral piceous fascia entire .........................................................  P. frutillarensis
1’.- Ventral surface of head with conspicuous dark stripes and spots, or lateral dark fascia conspicuously interrupted behind eyes ..........  2

2.- Lateral piceous fascia of head widely interrupted behind eyes ...........................  P. addititius
2’.- Lateral dark fascia of head not interrupted ................................................................................  3

3.- Fore femur annulated with dark and light; seventh sternite of female extending to apex of abdomen, covering genitalia from below, eight tergite subrectangular, its apical emargination wide; parameres subcylindrical, slightly narrowed toward apex ............................  P. kuscheli
3’.- Fore femur striped longitudinally with light and dark; seventh sternite of female not reaching the apex of abdomen, eight tergite long and slender, with very narrow incision apically; parameres laterally compressed, strongly widened apically ......................................  P. masatierrensis

Pseudometapterus frutillarensis Wygodzinsky

1966 Pseudometapterus addititius Wygodzinsky, 133: 553 [Región X: Osorno, Frutillar, Lago Lanquihue]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 137 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species presents the most southern distribution of the genus, and it is endemic from Chile, here we extend its northern distribution to the Bío Bío Region.

Material studied: Bío Bío Region: 1, Las Trancas, Cord. Chillán, 9/30-XII-1975, P. Vidal G.H. col., coll. P. Vidal G.H. (MACN).

Pseudometapterus addititius (Wygodzinsky)

1952 Metapterus addititius Wygodzinsky, 2: 16 [Juan Fernández Island, Masatierra, Plazoleta del Yunque]
1966 Pseudometapterus addititius: Wygodzinsky, 133: 550 [Masatierra: Juan Fernandez Is.,]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 136 [Juan Fernández Is.]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Archipelago Juan Fernández]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species is restricted to the insular portion of Chile in Juan Fernández Archipelago.

Pseudometapterus kuscheli (Wygodzinsky)

1951 Metapterus kuscheli Wygodzinsky, 1: 126 [Masatierra: Juan Fernández; Miradero de Slekirk; M. Yunque]; Wygodzinsky 1952, 2: 15, 18 [Masatierra, Miradero de Selkirk, Yunque, Plazoleta del Yunque]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 137 [Juan Fernández Is.]
1966 Pseudometapterus kuscheli: Wygodzinsky, 133: 555 [Juan Fernández Islands, Masatierra]; Prado 2008, 57: 38 [Archipelago Juan Fernández]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species is restricted to Juan Fernández Archipelago.

Pseudometapterus masatierrensis (Wygodzinsky)

1951 Metapterus masatierriensis Wygodzinsky, 1: 124 [Masatierra: Juan Fernández; Miradero de Selkirk]; Wygodzinsky 1952, 2: 15, 18 [Masatierra, Plazoleta del Yunque]
1966 Pseudometapterus masatierrensis: Wygodzinsky, 133: 555 [Masatierra: Juan Fernández Is.,]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 137 [Juan Fernández Is.]
2008 Pseudometapterus mastierrensis (sic): Prado, 57: 39 [Archipelago Juan Fernández]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species is restricted to Masatierra Island in Juan Fernández Archipelago.

Subfamily Harpactorinae Reuter

Harpactorinae is the largest subfamily of Reduviidae, comprising more than 300 genera and more than 2000 species (Weirauch & Munro, 2009). It is characterized by the presence of a quadrate cell in the fore wing, the absence of the dorsal connexival suture, the reduction of the vermiform gland, and absence of the metathoracic scent glands (Weirauch,

Atrachelus Amyot & Serville

1843 Atrachelus Amyot & Serville: 374, 378. Type species: Reduvius cinereus Fabricius.

This genus can be recognized by the small size (6-15 mm), the dull color with short adpressed setae, the spined antennal tubercles and humeral angles, the long wings extending beyond abdomen, the fore and hind femora subequal in length, the pygophore with a median process, and the absence of parameres (Elkins, 1954). It includes 11 species ranging from USA to Argentina and Chile (Melo & Coscarón, 2005a).

Atrachelus cinereus (Fabricius)

1796 Reduvius cinereus Fabricius: 545 [Carolina]; Walker 1873a, 8: 137 [Chile]
1848 Atrachelus cinereus: Wygodzinsky, 8: 220 [Chile]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 167 [Chile]
1863 Atrachelus curvidens Signoret, 3: 580 [Chile]; Stål 1872, 10: 78 [Chile]; Reed 1901, 5 (3): 64 [Chile] 2008 Atrachelus cinereus cinereus: Prado, 57: 39 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: From USA to Argentina.

Comments: This is the best known and widely distributed species of the genus (Elkins, 1954); it includes three subspecies that are not easy to separate because of the great variability of the characters.

Zelus Fabricius

1803 Zelus Fabricius: 281. Type species: Cimex longipes Linné

The genus Zelus is one of the most speciose genera among the New World Harpactorinae (Baena, 2010); Hart (1986, 1987) revised the genus from North America and West Indies, and Maldonado Capriles (1990) catalogued ca. 60 species ranging from southern Canada to central Argentina.

Zelus renardii Kolenati

1857 Zelus renardii Kolenati, 29: 460. [USA: California]; Curkovic et al. 2004, 34: 164 [Región Metropolitana: Buin; Colina; Maipú; Peñaflor; la Pintana; San Bernardo (Chena); Pique; Río Clarillo; Curacaví (Los Lingues). Región Quinta. Región Sexta]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]; Weirauch et al. 2012, 95(3): 642 [O’Higgins, Valparaíso, Santiago in Metropolitan Region, from of 33° to 35°S]
2004 Zelus cervicalis: Elgueta & Carpintero, 68: 99 [Missidentification. From Fifth to Sixth
sections. Valparaíso: San Felipe; Los Andes; barrera fitosanitaria de Los Andes. Metropolitana: Colina; Los Condes; San Gabriel; Pirque; Lonquén; Santa Ana de Chena; Calera de Tango; Buin. General Bernardo O’Higgins: Rancagua; Reserva Nacional Río de Los Cipreses]

Geographic distribution: Chile, Guatemala, Greece, Hawaii, Jamaica, Johnston Is., Mexico, Philippines, Samoa, Spain, and USA (SW) (Maldonado Capriles, 1990).

Comments: The native range of this species is mainland North and Central America, but it has been also reported to have invaded Hawaii (Kirkaldy, 1903, 1910; Zimmermann, 1948); Johnston Is., Samoa, and the Philippines (Hart, 1986); Chile (Curkovic et al., 2004; Elgueta & Carpintero, 2004); Greece (Davranoglou, 2011), and Spain (Vivas, 2012).

Subfamily Hammacerinae Stål

This is a small subfamily characterized by the presence of a blunt process on the right maxillary stylet; the pedicellus with membranous rings inserted between sclerotized areas; the hind wing with a broad postcubital sector; hook-shaped parameres; endosomal struts absent; genital sclerites hidden between sternite 7 and tergite 8; proximal portion of the lateral spermathecal duct has a very elaborate and thick wall; they also show a bifid scutellar posterior process (Weirauch, 2008).

Microtomus Illiger

1807 Microtomus Illiger, 2: 240. Type species: Cimex purcis Drury

This genus is comprised of 12 species known from southern North America to southern South America (Melo & Coscarón, 2005b). It is characterized by the long anteocular region of head, the granulated surface of head, pronotum and legs, and by the presence of dense hairy patches on abdominal sterna.

Microtomus gayi (Spinola)

1852 Hammacerus gayi Spinola, 7: 211 [Chile]; Signoret 1863, 3: 579 [Chile]; Reed 1901, 5 (2): 47 [southern provinces of Chile]; Porter 1930, 34: 296 [La Ligua; Osorno]
1858 Hammacerus chilensis Stål, 15: 443 [Chile]
1873a Hammatocerus gayi: Walker, 8: 66 [Chile]; Stål 1872, 10: 100 [Chile]; Lethierry & Severin 1896, 2: 143 [Chile]; Porter 1924: 82 [termas del Manzanar, 800 m a.s.l., near Curacautín; la Ligua; Marga- Marga]; Porter 1929, 33: 304 [Prov. Aconcagua, Marga- Marga, Fundo Los Perales]
1926 Microtomus gayi: Stichel, 187 [Temoro; Santiago; Contulmo; Araucanía]; Costa Lima 1935, 7: 318 [Chile]; Wygodzinsky 1949, 1: 51 [Chile]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 157 [Chile]; Giacchi & Coscarón 1992, 47: 67. [Victoria; Los Angeles, Bío Bío; Cordillera de Pimehue; Arauco: Contulmo; Lanfeteu; Pto. Montt; L. Caburgua]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Argentina and Chile.

Comments: This species can be easily distinguished by the uniformly colored hemelytra and by the bicolored connexivum (anterior half brown, posterior half red). Stichel (1926) described a second variety and named it signoreti characterized by the presence of a pale spot on hemelytra surrounding the posterior process of scutellum. Microtomus gayi gayi is distributed from Valparaíso to Los Lagos Regions, while M. gayi signoreti is distributed from the Metropolitan to Araucanía regions. As both subspecies overlap distributions further analyses are needed in order to resolve the status of both taxa.

Material studied: M. gayi gayi. Metropolitan Region: 413 nymphs, Santiago, 8-IV-1948, E.P. Reed col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1 without abdomen, El Manzano, 1976 (MACN). Maule Region: 1, Romeral, XII-1977 (MACN); 1, Cord. Parral, Estero Leiva, X/XII-1953, Villalobos col., Drake coll. (USNM); 13 nymphs, Maule, Tregualemu, I-1993, L.E. Peña col. (USNM). Bío Bío Region: 1, Bio Bio (USNM); 1, Las Trancas, Chillan, I- [19]81, Peña leg. (MACN); 443 nymphs, Valdivia, II-[19]79, Krahmer col., Drake coll. (USNM); 12, same locality, IV-1979, A. Krahmer col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1 nymph, Bio Bio, Guariluhue, II-[19]85, P. Salinas col. (USNM); 1 nymph, Bío Bío, Sa. Velluda, 1100 m, I-[19]91, L.E. Peña col. (USNM); 1, Bio Bio, XII-1900, P. Herbst col., Drake coll. (USNM). Araucanía Region: 1, Peillem- Pille, 600- 800 m, Nahuelbutá W, Arauco, 14/20-I-[19]54, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Caramavida, Nahuelbuta W, Arauco, 750 m, 1/10-I-[19]54, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 2, Arauco, Caramavida, 37˚42’S- 73˚13’W, 10-II-1953, L.E. Peña col., J.C. Lutz coll. (USNM); 1 nymph, Lag. Jesús María, Lonquimay, I-[19]82, Philipi col. (USNM); 2, Villarica, Ajunalhue, III-1977, J. Traimk col., Drake coll. (USNM); 13, Temuco, I-1906, P. Herbst col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, ex E.C. Reed Chilean Coll., Sinop. Hem. Chile, Drake coll. (USNM); 12, P. Malleco, 6 km W Angol, 11-II-1968, at light, L. & C.W. O’Brien cols. (USNM); 1, Angol, 28-XI-1946, J. Perez col. (USNM); 1, same locality, 29-XI-1935, J.C. Lutz coll. (USNM); 1, same locality, 17-II-1928, J.C. Lutz coll. (USNM); 2, Nehuentue, 5-IV-1929, J.C. Lutz coll. (USNM); 1, Victoria, 15-II-1929 (USNM); 21, Temuco, Chacamo (W), II-1986, P. Salinas col. (USNM); 5 nymphs, Malleco, Curacautín, III-1986, Madariaga col. (USNM); 1, Arauco, Butamalal, 25-II-1953, L.E. Peña col., J.C. Lutz coll. (USNM). Los Ríos Region: 13, Valdivia, Panguipulli, 19-II-1985, P. Salinas col. (USNM); 475 nymphs, Osorno, Puyehue, Anticura, 26/31-VIII-[19]83, L.E. Peña col. (USNM); 1 nymph, Correntoso, Llanquihue, I-1930, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 13 nymphs, Llanquihue, S Lago Chapo, Hornohyinco, XII-[19]68, L. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 22, Pucatrihue, Costa, Osorno, II-1967, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 11, Correntoso Riv. nr Calbuco Vulcano, prov. Llanquihue, 21-II-1952, L.E. Peña col., J.C. Lutz coll. (USNM). Microtomus gayi signoreti: 1, Chile, P.R. Uhler coll. (USNM). O’Higgins Region: 1, Linares prov., Estero de Leiva, 1100 m, 6-IV-1953, L.E. Pena col., J.C. Lutz coll. (USNM). Maule Region: 21, Cord. Parral, Estero Leiva, X/XII-1953, Villalobos col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, same locality, 9-XII-[19]53, L.E. Pena col. (USNM); 2, Chillán, Las Trancas, I/III-1984, S. Ocare col. (USNM); 1, Nuble, Las Trancas, 1100 m, III-[19]77, S. Ocare col. (USNM); 1, Cord. Nuble, Recinto, XI-1952, M. Rivera col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, Cord. Chillán, La Invernadera, I-1969, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM).

Subfamily Ectrichodiinae Amyot & Serville

This subfamily is one of the largest within the Reduviidae, including approximately 528 species in 117 genera (Maldonado Capriles, 1990). Most of them are found in Asia, the Pacific islands and Africa; in Central and South America it is represented by 22 genera and 135 species (Dougherty, 1995). In Chile, only two genera and species are found.

Racelda Signoret

1863 Racelda Signoret, 3: 579. Type species: Racelda alternans Signoret

This genus is comprised of five species from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and French Guiana (Carpintero & Maldonado Capriles, 1996). Species are colored with different shades of brown, ornamented with blackish or yellow; they show a remarkable sexual dimorphism: females are distinguished by the lack of wings, the absence of ocelli, and the small eyes (Carpintero & Maldonado Capriles, 1996). These strongly modified females make it impossible to identify them to species level without its association with males (Dougherty, 1995).

Racelda alternans Signoret (Figs. 11-12)

1863 Racelda alternans Signoret, 3: 579 [Chile]; Stål 1872, 10: 103 [Chile]; Lethierry & Severin 1896, 2: 133 [Chile]; Reed 1901, 5 (2): 48 [Chile]; Porter 1924: 82 [Termas del Manzanar, 800 m a.s.l., near Curacautín]; Porter 1929, 33: 304 [Prov. Aconcagua, Marga- Marga, Fundo Los Perales; La Ligua; Curacautín]; Wygodzinsky 1949, 1: 24 [Chile]; Carpintero 1980, 14: 23 [Chile]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 69 [Chile]; Dougherty 1995, 121: 241 [Chile]; Carpintero & Maldonado Capriles 1996, 323: 138 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]
1873a Ectrichodia alternans: Walker, 8: 61 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Argentina and Chile.

Comments: This species can be easily distinguished by the characteristic color pattern of thorax of males (fig. 11). It has been previously recorded from the central to southern regions of Chile; here we add new records which extend its distribution to the north (Coquimbo to Araucanía Regions). Racelda alternans inhabits from mediterranean climates in the north and center of Chile to very humid and forested habitats in the south.

Material studied: Coquimbo Region: 1, Coquimbo, Los Vilos, Quereo, V-1984, G. Carrasco col. (USNM); 4, Coquimbo, Fray Jorge Parque Nacional, 20-VI-1968, L. & C.W. O’Brien cols. (USNM). Valparaíso Region: 11, Placilla, I-2009 (EIFC); 1, Talanquén, Aconcagua, 2-VI-1982 (USNM). Metropolitan Region: 1, P. Santiago, 11 km S S. Melipilla, 300’, 16-IX-1967, L. & C.W. O’Brien cols. (USNM); 1, Santiago, XII-[19]76, L. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, El Canelo, Cord. Santiago, 26-XI-1954, L.E. Pena col. (MACN); 4 females, Santiago, El Canelo, XII-[19]76, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 1, same locality, XII-[19]50, Drake coll. (USNM); 1, same locality, 18-IX-1981, Drake coll. (USNM); ^S, Santiago, La Obra, IX-[19]78, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM) O’Higgins Región: 1$, Rancagua, XI-2008, C. Iglesias col. (EIFC); 1$, La Goyana W. Graneros, 1700 m, Xl-[19]81, M. Marín col., Drake coll. (USNM) Maule Región: 1$, Talca, Alto Vllches, 19-XII-1982, Drake coll. (USNM); 1¿\ same locality, XII-1979, L.E. Peña col. Drake coll. (USNM); 2$, Maule, W. Cauquenes, X-1983, L.E. Peña col. (USNM); ^S, Maule, Cobquecura, 7-XI-1993, Peña & Ugarte cois (USNM); ^S 2$, Maule, Altos de Vllches, IX-2003 (EIFC). Bío Bío Región: 9$, Chillán, Las Trancas l-[19]87, L.E. pena G. col. (USNM); 1$, same locality, 24/26-XI-1994, L.E. Peña G. col. (USNM) 2$, same locality, 111-1984, D. Veas col. (USNM) 1$, Cord. Nuble, Las Trancas, Shangri-La, 1600 m, 19/22-l-[19]79, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM) 1¿\ Chillán, Shangrila, 1600 m, 15-XII-1983, L.E. Peña col. (USNM); 1$, ex E.C. Reed Chilean coll. Sinop. Hem. Chile, Drake coll. (USNM); 3¿\ Bio Bio, Raleo, 21-XI-1994, L. Peña & Escobar cois. (USNM). Araucana Región: 1$ 1 nymph, 20 km E Pucón, Ojos del Caburgua, I- [19]87 (MACN) 1$, Malleco, Malacahuello, I- [19]87 (MACN); 1$ Arauco, 18 km N Tres Pinos, I- [19]87 (MACN); 1$ 1 nymph, Malleco, Termas de Tolhuaca, 15-111-1986, Madariaga col. (USNM); 1$, Malleco, Victoria, 22-XI1-1985, Madariaga col. (USNM); 3$, Malleco, Las Raíces, 11-1975, L. Peña col. Drake coll. (USNM) 1$, same data, 25-XII-[19]76 (USNM); 1$, same locality, 1100- 1200 m, ll-[19]79, L.E. Peña col Drake coll. (USNM); ^S, Malleco, Cord. Las Raíces 11-1975, L.E. Peña col., Drake coll. (USNM); 2$ 1 $ Malleco, Rio Blanco, ll-[19]95, L. Peña & A. Ugarte cois. (USNM); 1$, Malleco, Malalcahuello, 8/15-XII-1985, Zambrano col. (USNM).

Genus Rhigina Stål

1859a Rhiginia Stål, 16: 176, 181. Type species: Reduvius lateralis Lepeletier & Serville

This genus includes about 16 species from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, southern USA, and Venezuela (Dougherty 1995). The species are mostly blackish, sometimes with metallic luster and ornamented with various shades of red, yellow or orange (Carpintero & Maldonado Capriles, 1996)

Rhiginia immarginata Stål

1866 Rhiginia immarginata Stål, 23(9): 302 [Ecuador]
1897 Ectrichodia (?) immarginata: Breddin: 9 [Valdivia]
2008 Rhigidia immarginata [sic]: Prado, 57: 39 [Valdivia]

Geographic distribution: Chile, Ecuador, and Peru (Dougherty, 1995).

Comments: The presence of this species in Chile seems strange and it was not possible to corroborate it, as no specimens were found in the collections examined.

Subfamily Triatominae Jeannel

Key to the species of Triatominae from Chile:

1.- Large size species (ca. 30 mm length), dorsal and ventral plates of connexiva fused, species rarely braquipterous .....  (Triatoma) .......  2
1’.- Small to medium size species (15–22 mm length), dorsal and ventral plates of connexivum united by a membrane in females, wing polymorphism in males and micropterous females ..............  Mepraia .................................  3

2.- Legs black except yellow trochanters and adjacent regions of femora; femora unarmed; yellow markings on corium, legs and connexivum ......................................................  T. infestans
2’.- Legs entirely black; fore and median femora with a pair of small subapical denticles; spots of connexivum red, orange or very rarely yellow, anterior pronotal lobe black, posterior pronotal lobe with reddish pattern ...............  T. rubrovaria

3.- Small species, 15.5–19 mm; with two red spots on female urotergite II; Pan de Azúcar Island and coastal regions of Antofagasta (II) and Tarapacá (III) between 25˚12’20"S 70˚26’7"W and 26˚10’10"S 70˚40’3"W ........  M. parapatrica
3’.- Larger species, 19–21 mm; with one spot or absent on female urotergite 2 .....................  4

4.- Urotergites of females with brown spots; dark brown connexivum, brachypterous males ......................................................................  M. gajardoi
4’.- Urotergites of females with a continuous reddish orange band; reddish connexivum, polymorphic wings in males ............  M. spinolai

Genus Mepraia Mazza, Gajardo Tobar & Jörg

1940 Mepraia Mazza, Tobar & Jörg, 44: 3. Type species: Triatoma spinolai Porter

This genus includes three species known exclusively from Chile. It has been hypothesized that the origin of the genus is related to the uplift of the Andes Cordillera (Moreno et al., 2006), from and ancestor of the Triatoma breyeri complex that occurs in desert and semi-desert areas from Argentina, as well as all Mepraia species (Frias Laserre, 2010).

Mepraia gajardoi Frías, Henry & González

1998 Mepraia gajardoi Frías et al., 71: 179 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]; Frías Lasserre 2004, 5: 2 [zona costera del desierto de Atacama]; Moreno et al. 2006, 6: 229 [Region I: Arica (18.5˚S, 70.3˚W), Iquique (20.3˚S, 70.2˚W); Region II: Tocopilla (22.2˚S, 70.3˚W), Antofagasta (23.7˚S, 70.4˚W)]; Calleros et al. 2010, 10: 222 [from 188 to 268S in the Chilean coastal desert of Regions I and II; Region I: Arica, Morro Arica; Caleta Vitor]; Frías Lasserre 2010, 39 (4): 572 [along the northern coast of Chile, between 18˚S and 26˚S]; Faúndez & Carvajal 2012, 50: 495-497 [Morro de Arica]; Campos et al. 2011, 11: 330 [Arica and Parinacota Region: Arica, El Morro (18˚28’47"S- 70˚19’27"W); Arica, Playa Corazones (18˚28’47"S- 70˚19’27"W); Caleta Vitor (18˚45’45"S- 70˚20’34"W); Caleta Camarones (19˚12’16"S- 70˚16’8"W)]; Campos et al. 2013a, 19: 232 [Arica and Parinacota Region: Corazones (18˚28’47"S- 70˚19’27"W); Caleta Vitor 18˚45’45"S 70˚20’34"W; Caleta Camarones (19˚12’16"S- 70˚16’8"W); Tarapacá Region: Río Seco 21˚0’6"S 70˚9’52"W; San Marcos (21˚6’56"S- 70˚7’30"W)]; Campos et al. 2013b, 13(1): 73 [Arica and Parinacota Region: Caleta Vitor (18˚45’45"S- 70˚20’34"W)]; Toledo et al. 2013, 88(2): 285 [Corazones (18°28’47"S- 70°19’27"W); Vitor (18°45’45"S- 70°20’34"W); Camarones (19°12’16"S- 70°16’08"W); Rio Seco (21°00’6"S-70°9’52"W); San Marcos (21°6’56"S- 70°7’30"W)]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species inhabits mostly in wild habitats (Frias et al., 1998; Faundez & Carvajal, 2012); and it has been found being infested with the vector of Chagas’ disease (Carvajal et al. 2007; Botto-Mahan et al. 2008).

Mepraia spinolai (Porter)

1933b Triatoma spinolai Porter, 37: 193 [Coquimbo: Vicuña]; Neiva & Lent 1936, 6: 178, 184 [Chile]; Gajardo Tobar 1938, 42: 134 [Elqui; Piuquenes, Paihuano]; Porter 1938b, 42: 155 [Paihuano]; Porter 1938c, 42: 155 [Paihuano]; Mazza et al. 1940, 44: 3 [Coquimbo: Elqui, Paihuano, Cordillera de los Piuquenes]; Neiva & Lent 1940b, 35: 355 [Coquimbo, Cruz Grande]; Neiva & Lent 1943, 39: 56 [near Vicuña]; Wygodzinsky 1949, 1: 76 [Chile]; Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979, 163: 334 [Chile, between 18ºS –34ºS]; Frías et al. 1987, 14: 156 [Chile, 18ºS- 34ºS; Region IV: Flor del valle, Ovalle; Observatorio de la Silla, Ovalle; Ramadilla, Combarbalá; Reserva de Aucó, Illapel; Región Metropolitana: Colina]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 560 [Chile]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]
1939  Triatoma chilena Usinger, 7: 45 [Coquimbo: Cruz Grande]
1940 Mepraia spinolai: Mazza et al., 44: 3 [Chile]; Lent et al. 1994, 89: 352 [desert zones of Chile]; Galvao et al. 1998, 93(1): 35 [Chile, from 18˚S to 34˚S, altitudinal range from sea level to 3000 masl]; Cattan et al. 2002, 97: 285 [Santiago: Colina]; Cepeda Pizarro & Pizarro Araya 2004, 3: 1 [IV Region Coquimbo, Elqui province, Valle de Elqui: El Molle (29°97.035´S- 70°95.789´ W, 450 msnm), Diaguitas (30°0.419´S- 70° 62.442´W, 1006 msnm), Pisco Elqui (30°15.854´S- 70°49.565´W, 1507 msnm), Horcón (30°24.538´S- 70°49.412´W, 1850 msnm)]; Frías Lasserre 2004, 5: 2 [entre la III Región a la Región Metropolitana]; Botto- Mahan et al.
2005, 100(3): 237 [Las Chinchillas National Reserve (31°30’S- 71°06’W)]; Moreno et al. 2006, 6: 229 [Region III: Chañaral (29˚ S, 71.5˚W); Region IV: Vicuña (30˚S, 70.8˚W), Combarbalá (31.2˚S, 71˚W), Illapel (31.6˚S, 71.1˚W), Region Metropolitana: San Felipe (32.7˚S, 70.7˚W), Til Til (33.2˚S, 70.8˚W)]; Bacigalupo et al. 2006, 134: 1232 [Región Metropolitana: Calera de Tango; Til- Til]; Campos et al.
2007, 104: 26 [IV Region: Las Chinchillas National Reserve (31˚30’ 03"S- 71˚06’20"W)]; Acuña- Retamar et al. 2009, 23: 107 [IV Region: Las Chinchillas National Reserve (31°30′S- 71°06′W)]; Coronado et al. 2009, 81(4): 656 [Coquimbo Region: Las Chinchillas National Reserve (31°30′S- 71°06′W)]; Frías Lasserre 2010, 39(4): 572 [Chile, between 26˚S and 33˚S]; Calleros et al. 2010, 10: 222 [Chilean interior, including the mountain areas of Regions III–V and Metropolitan Region, as well as on the Pan de Azúcar Island; Region III: Copiapó: Inca de Oro; Region IV: Choapa: Pueblo Hundido; La Loja; Region IV: Limari: Caleta Punta Sierra; Metropolitan Region: Chacabuco: Las Tunas; Puente Ventarrón]; Campos et al. 2011, 11: 330 [Atacama
Region: Inca de Oro 26˚45’8"S 69˚54’16"W; Coquimbo Region: Las Chinchillas National Reserve 31˚3’28"S 71˚6’19"W; Pueblo Hundido, Pedregal, 31˚13’24"S 70˚57’25"W; Metropolitan Region: Til
Til (33˚6’19"S- 70˚55’53"W)]; Campos et al. 2013a, 19: 232 [Atacama Region: Llanos de Challe National Park (28˚8’52"S- 71˚4’32"W); Peral Norte (28˚43’21"S- 70˚31’2"W); Coquimbo Region: Ca­leta Toro (30˚44’30"S- 71˚42’5"W); Monte Patria 930˚51’16"S- 70˚41’51"W); Las Chinchillas National Reserve (31˚30’28"S- 71˚6’19"W); Metropolitan Region: Til Til (33˚6’19"S- 70˚55’53"W)]; Campos et al. 2013b, 13(1): 73 [Metropolitan Region: Til Til (33˚6’19"S- 70˚55’53"W)]; Ramírez et al. 2013, 26: 594 [Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas (31°30′ S-71°06′W)]
1940a Triatomaptera porteri Neiva & Lent, 54: 266 [Santiago de Chile]; Neiva & Lent 1940b, 35: 358 [Coquimbo]; Neiva & Lent 1943, 39: 62 [Coquimbo, Santa Cruz]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: Mepraia spinolai is often found in stony hills, rock crevices, nest of birds and mammals, and corrals of domestic animals, but it can occasionally be collected in human dwellings (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979; Apt & Reyes, 1986; Frías et al., 1995). This is a diurnal insect which shows a peak of activity at noon (Canals et al., 1997).

Material studied: Valparaíso Region: 1, Casablanca, 1940, Tobar col., Triatoma spinolai Porter det. Carpintero (MACN); 12 nymphs, Mina Sta. María, Cta. La Dormida, 23-XII-[19]84, Irarrázaval col. (USNM); 111 nymph, Aconcagua, e. Guardia Vieja, 3-XI-[19]76, Gurney & Barra col. (USNM).

Mepraia parapatrica Frías

2010 Mepraia parapatrica Frías Lasserre, 39(4): 574 [Región III Atacama: Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar (26˚9’5"S- 70˚40’53"W), Pan de Azúcar Island: Caleta Pan de Azúcar; Cerro del Soldado; Región II Antofagasta: Caleta Bandurrias (25˚12’20"S- 70˚26’07"W) 21 km S of Paposo city; Cachinales, 22 Km S Paposo; northern coast of Chile, region II Antofagasta and region III Atacama, in desierto litoral between 25˚12’20"S 70˚26’7"W and 26˚10’10"S 70˚40’3"W]; Campos et al. 2013a, 19: 232 [Antofagasta Region: Médano (24˚36’51"S-70˚33’31"W); Atacama Region: Caleta Zenteno (26˚51’8"S- 70˚48’36"W)]
2000 Mepraia spinolai: Sagua Franco et al., 95(2): 167 [Pan de Azúcar Island, located in Chilean Administrative Región III]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This recently described species is confined to the Pan de Azúcar Island and coastal Regions of Antofagasta (II) and Tarapacá (III) between 25˚12’20"S- 70˚26’7"W and 26˚10’10"S- 70˚40’3"W. Mepraia parapatrica feeds mainly on birds and lizzards, although it was also found in peridomestic environments (Frías Laserre, 2010).

Genus Triatoma Laporte

1833 Triatoma Laporte, 2: 11. Type species: Reduvius gigas Fabricius

This genus is the most speciose of the sub-family, it is found from the United States to the Patagonia, in Argentina and Chile. Most of the species are associated with mammals, but rarely with birds and reptiles; several are domestic and peridomestic (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979).

Triatoma infestans (Klug)

1834 Reduvius infestans Klug: 412 [Chile]; Reed 1901, 5 (3): 65 [Atacama, from Copiapó to the south]
1859b Conorhinus rengerri: Stål, 112 [Chile]; Signoret 1863, 3: 580 [Chile]; Stål 1872, 10: 112 [Valparaíso]; Walker 1873a, 8: 16 [Chile]
1860 Conorrhinus octotuberculatus Philippi: 156 [Atacama]; Stål 1872, 10: 112 [Atacama]
1860 Conorhinus Paulseni Philippi: 156 [Atacama]; Stål 1872, 10: 112 [Atacama]
1860 Conorhinus gracilipes Philippi: 156 [Atacama: near Pan de Azucar]; Stål 1872, 10: 112 [Pan de azucar]; Lethierry & Severin 1896, 2: 118 [Chile]
1879 Conorhinus infestans: Berg, 7 (6): 266 [from Atacama to Valdivia]; Lethierry & Severin 1896, 2: 116 [Chile]
1920b Triatoma infestans: Porter, 7: 16 [Iquique; from Tarapacá to Valdivia]; Porter 1920a: 159 [Iquique]; Porter 1933a, 37: 182 [Atacama, Valle de Copiapó]; Neiva & Lent 1936, 6: 171, 184 [Chile]; Porter 1938c, 42: 155 [Copiapó]; Gajardo Tobar 1938, 42: 134 [Atacama: Domeyko; Elqui, Paihuano, Chañar Blanco, Viñita, Chanchoquim, Pisco, Pabellón, Horcón, Alcohuás, Cochihuás, Huanta]; Neiva & Lent 1943, 39: 50 [Iquique]; Abalos & Wygodzinsky 1951, 601: 54 [Chile]; Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979, 163: 248 [Chile]; Maldonado Capriles 1990, 555 [Chile]; Bacigalupo et al. 2006, 134: 1232 [Region Metropolitana: Calera de Tango; Til- Til]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]
1852 Conorhinus sex- tuberculatus: Blanchard,
7: 218 [Chile]; Philippi 1860: 156 [Atacama]

Geographic distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.

Comments: This is the most important vector of Chagas’ disease parasite, and it is almost an exclusively domestic species. The anthropic environments this species prefers are simple rural houses with mud walls and palm fronds roofs, where simple cracks on the walls can occur. The individuals hide in these cracks, behind pictures hanged on the walls, among matresses, in hammocks, in woodpiles, etc. (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979), where they hide during the day.

Material studied: 1, Chile, Reed coll., Drake coll. (USNM); 66, Reed coll., Sinop. Hem. Chile, C.J. Drake coll. (USNM). Coquimbo Region: 1, Coquimbo, Elqui, Huanta, 31-I-1976, E. Gutiérrez A. col. (USNM).

Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard)

1843 Conorhinus rubro-varius Blanchard, 6: 219 [Uruguay: Maldonado]
1951 Triatoma rubrovaria: Abalos & Wygodzinsky, 601: 101 [Chile]; Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979: 318 [Chile, but considered as a spurius reference]
1943 Eutriatoma rubrovaria: Neiva & Lent, 39: 55 [Coquimbo: Membrillo] Prado 2008, 57: 39 [erroneuously recorded by Neiva & Lent 1940a, b; 1943]

Geographic distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Chile? and Uruguay.

Comments: According to Galvão et al. (2003) this species is not distributed in Chile.

Triatoma sordida (Stål)

1859b Conorrhinus sordidus Stål: 108
1943 Eutriatoma sordida: Neiva & Lent, 39: 55 [Chile]
1979 Triatoma sordida: Lent & Wygodzinsky: 318 [Chile, considered an unconfirmed record]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [erronueously recorded by Neiva & Lent 1940a, b; 1943]

Geographic distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile?, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

Comments: According to Galvão et al. (2003) this species is not distributed in Chile.

Subfamily Reduviinae Latreille

This subfamily is poorly represented in Chile, the only species recorded has been found from Coquimbo Region to Araucanía Region (Curacautín).


1859c Leogorrus Stål: 404. Type species: Reduvius formicarius Fabricius.

This genus includes 12 species, all endemic from the New World. It can be distinguished by its small to middle size (up to 20.5 mm length), its brown coloration, the subcylindrical head, the presence of two ventral tubercles at apex of femora, the brown hemelytra with pale markings, and the pygophore with an elongate spiniform posterior process (Melo, 2009).

Leogorrus litura (Fabricius) NEW COUNTRY RECORD (Fig. 8)

1787 Reduvius litura Fabricius: 310 [Cayenna]

Comments: This is the first record of this species from Chile. Although the specimens examined belong to Reed’s collection (at USNM) it apparently was not included in his synopsis probably because he could not be able to identify the species. Leogorrus litura is the most common species of the genus, and it is widely distributed from Mexico to Argentina, and Caribbean islands (Melo, 2009).

Material studied: 1, ex E.C. Reed Chilean coll., Sinop. Hem. Chile, Drake coll. (USNM).

Zelurus Hahn

1826 Zelurus Hahn, 6: 6. Type species: Reduvius eburneus Lepeletier & Serville.
This genus includes about 133 species distributed from Central America to southern South America. It is characterized by an elongate head, a long pedicel, the large eyes and ocelli, the last ones on conspicuous tubercles; the anterior lobe of pronotum spined, and frequently with spinous humeri.

Zelurus armaticollis (Blanchard)

1852 Arilus? armaticollis Blanchard, 7: 222 [Coquimbo]; Signoret 1863, 3: 580 [Chile]; Stål 1872, 10: 128 [Chile]; Lethierry & Severin 1896, 2: 118 [Chile]; Reed 1901, 5 (2): 49 [Chile, probably belonging to Spiniger]
1873b Spiniger? armaticollis: Walker, 7: 157 [Chile]; Porter 1918, 22: 180 [Curacautín]
1949 Zelurus armaticollis: Wygodzinsky, 1: 59 [Chile]; Lent & Wygodzinsky 1951, 11: 173
[Chile: Rio Blanco]; Prado 2008, 57: 39 [Chile]

Geographic distribution: Chile.

Comments: This species is usually misidentified by local people as a Triatoma or Mepraia species, and it could be one of the reasons why it is highly unknown.


This family is represented in Chile by seven subfamilies, 17 genera, and 27 species. The Chilean Reduviidae are distributed from the Arica y Parinacota regions, in the north, to Los Lagos Region in the south, including some oceanic islands (Juan Fernandez Archipelago). However, the major abundance and richness are concentrated in the middle region which is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, followed towards the south by the Valdivian Forest. Although this contribution presents a lot of new information about the distribution of most of the species- filling distributional gaps, assessing the correct distribution of the species, and giving new records- further collecting and research is needed especially about doubtful species for which more specimens are necessary to clarify its taxonomic status.


We thank Tom J. Henry for his warm welcome to the senior author during 2013 at the Laboratory of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA, and for allowing her to study the collection of truebugs. This study was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina.


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