SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.14 número2La Formación de la Conciencia y la Gestión de los Grupos en las Organizacionales índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

  • No hay articulos citadosCitado por SciELO

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • No hay articulos similaresSimilares en SciELO
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Bookmark


Visión de futuro

versión impresa ISSN 1668-8708

Vis. futuro vol.14 no.2 Miguel Lanus jul./dic. 2010

 

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

Entrepreneurs Resilience in the Forestry Industrial Sector of the Province of Misiones - Argentine Republic

 

Tañski, N. C.; Báez L.; Clérici, C.

Facultad de Ciencias Económicas - Universidad Nacional de Misiones Campus Universitario - Ruta Nacional Nº 12 Km 7 ½ - Miguel Lanús
E-mail: nilda_tanski@hotmail.com

 


SUMARY

As part of the outcome of a research paper called associative management between SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) in the field of industry and forestry-related activities in the Province of Misiones, this study is carried out. It analyzes the discourses of entrepreneurs of a group of SMEs in the sector of the forest-industry, to verify the existence or not of resilient behaviors and identify the characteristics of these behaviors or styles of fighting adversity by themselves. One describes the contextual hardships which they go through and detect the resilience factors as actions carried out in the different situations.

KEY WORDS: Enterprise Resilience; Crisis; Learning.


 

INTRODUCTION

This work is part of the research called associative management between SMEs in the industry and forestry-related activities sector in the Province of Misiones, which takes place within the context of the PICTO (Project of Scientific Research and Technology Oriented) 2006. It addresses the behaviors, through the discourses of entrepreneurs, facing the various crises in the sector in a context characterized by the continuing difficulties of all kinds, experienced in the Province. The wear caused by this means for the employer, within a meso and macro context with little solidarity and cooperation, it requires defense mechanisms to cope with both endogenous and exogenous challenges that lie ahead. The way to understand and cope with adversities is a construction individual and collective, and if from it, that are derived from learning processes and strengthening it evidences the resilience capacity of the entrepreneur. Based on that, this paper aims to verify the existence or not of resilient behaviors in entrepreneurs and identify the characteristics of these behaviors or styles of facing adversity by themselves.

To achieve the objectives a qualitative research was conducted in which information was gathered through interviews to twelve entrepreneurs of the Forestry industry-sector and related activities in the Northern Province of Misiones (Argentina). These entrepreneurs were in the same territory, so they lived similar experiences with contextual adversity. Later responses were analyzed with the use of Atlas ti version 4.1,1 as well as taking into account the factors involved in resilience that were compiled by Minello (2010) on grid Resilience Pillars (Ojeda's 1997), of Resilient factors (Grotberg, 2004) and the Defense Fighting Mechanisms Styles EFD / DSM-IV-TR (Defensive Functioning Scale / Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition) (APA, 2002), made explicit within the theoretical framework.

DEVELOPMENT

Theoretical Framework

There were a lot of research and conceptualizations regarding both individual and collective resilience during the past three decades. The idea of resilience has been applied for a long time in physics and engineering, which is located as one of its precursors, the English scientist Thomas Young. Only after 1970 the term was applied in reference to human behavior. Regard this it was expressed by Melillo and Suarez (in Minello, 2010), referring to individual resilience, that the term was adapted to the Social Sciences to characterize those who, despite being born and living in high-risk situations, develop themselves psychologically healthy and successful. Research on stress was generated and these introduced concepts within psychology as to cope with difficulties and so they were identified and described mechanisms that allow people to behave and grow in adverse situations. From the etymological point of view of resilience2 the term comes from Latin, meaning returning to a previous state, jumping back, return, make move back, and shrink (Pinheiro, 2004).

Lindstrom (2003) asserts that the literature on resilience is difficult to summarize due to the plurality of concepts, approaches or different classifications on the subject. Presented below are two ways to sort between the many possible: first we summarize the different approaches according to the source of the researchers, in second place they are arranged chronologically.

There are at least three approaches by source:

Anglo-American:

It places the person as a referral center of a system of relationships that can be favorable or unfavorable to the organization. This approach highlights the interaction between the person and their environment. Infante (in Minello, 2010) distinguishes between two positions: one geneticist, individualist which studies the differences to those who adapt themselves positively to adverse situations. Another researches the processes associated with positive adaptation to adversity. From this position there are three directions: that of the psychiatrist Rutter, Michael (in Minello, 2010) which focuses on the protective mechanisms over the protective factors or of risk. He introduces the concept of resilience in the psychological environment in the 70s, directly inspired by the concept of Physics and considers it a kind of social adaptive flexibility (Rutter, M. 1993). Another direction is that of Grotberg, Edith (in Melillo, A. Suarez Ojeda, 2004) who conceptualizes resilience from the interrelation of elements and he organized them as follows:

Social Support:

I have: support, trust, boundaries, role models, stimuli;

Psychological strengths:

I am: respected and loved by others, happy to do something good and show affection for others;
I am: willing to take responsibility for my actions, confident that everything will be fine;

Psychological skills:

I can: talk about my fears and concerns, seek solutions to problems, control my impulse not to do something wrong, waiting for the right time to talk to someone, seek help when needed.

Moreover, Grotberg (2004) considers individual resilience as "the human capacity to cope with life's adversities, overcome them and even be transformed by them" (in Melillo A. and Suarez Ojeda 2004, p. 24](1). All these features constitute a distinctive profile rising from adversity, adapt it, recovers and accesses to meaningful and productive life within organizations. And finally, the orientation of Luthar and colleagues (in Suarez Ojeda E., 2002), who consider the ecological-transactional model developed by Bronfenbrenner (in Infante, 2001), author who sees human development as a result of the interrelation among personal characteristics and the immediate environments dealing with family, society and culture. From these areas come the risk and protective factors, and considers resilience as a process committed to the ecology of human development. For Luthar et al (in Minello, 2010) the atmosphere is a unit of structures in interaction, which are contained one within the others, from the so-called micro system, in which the individual finds himself developing, going through the meso-system, which identifies the conditions that positively or negatively affect development up till the macro system.

The word resilient in English refers to the idea of elasticity and rapid recovery capabilities by giving two meanings for the term: the first defines as the ability to quickly return to its normal state of health or spirit after having pains, difficulties in the past, etc. The latter emphasizes the ability of a physical body has to return to its original condition after suffering a pressure or strain on itself, giving the idea of flexibility.

European:

Consider the relationship between the person, his behavior and the environment. The representative authors are Boris Cyrulnik and Stefan Vanistendael. The neuropsyquiatist, psychoanalyst and ethologist Frenchman Boris Cyrulnik (2001) incorporates the psychoanalytic notion of trauma, for which it needs two shots: the first originates in what is real and the second originates in the representation of reality, I. e., the reading that the person does of his experience, influenced by the vision that others have of his situation. To explain the resilience he uses the concept of an oxymoron3, through this he shows the contrast of one who, upon receiving a big blow, adapts himself dividing himself.

"The part of the person who received the blow suffers and produces necrosis, while the other part better protected, still healthy but more secret, meets with the energy of despair all that can remain giving a little happiness and meaning to life. The splitting of the ego is not sutured; it remains in the subject compensated by ego resources set out as the pillars of resilience: consistent self-esteem, independence, ability for relationships, sense of humor, morality, creativity, initiative and critical thinking skills. With something of all that, plus some support from other humans that provide an indispensable support, the possibility of ensuring resilience and the subject continues his life" [Melillo et al, 2004, pg. 71] (2).

Latin America:

In Latin America, the first approaches to Resilience emerge in 1995 with authors like Melillo and Suarez Ojeda (2004). They relate to the communitarian, product of social solidarity, which is evidenced by the collective efforts of some communities when faced with emergency situations. This approach suggests that resilient communities, based on their conditions and values have provided a kind of protection shield in the micro space, which allowed them to cushion the adverse event and build on it.

When it comes to people who control emotions, impulses, autonomy, sense of humor, self-esteem, empathy, these attributes are connected to the individual's ability to cope, according to Melillo and Suarez Ojeda (in Ferrer, 2007), four (4) challenges: (a) The cognitive challenge: to manage the stable and variable representations. There are fundamental aspects as the ability to relationship, especially with influence on human action, (b) The strategic challenge: learning to create a mission, vision, strategic or tactical objectives, (c) The political challenge: to relocate the financial or humans resources where they produce higher returns, it is the possibility to overcome obstacles of organizational bureaucracy, creating innovative staff, able to exploit the opportunities offered by the enterprise and social environment, minimizing bureaucratic qualities still present in some enterprises, using all the resources, (d) The ideological challenge: to understand the importance of innovation, renewal and strategic optimization.

These four organizational challenges described contain a permanent need for the human group in the enterprise be projected in the future, be able to prospect, create and innovate, reason why it should be included in the definitions presented, especially in the one which adopts, an additional element: one can not be reactive in resilience enterprises. The propensity to reactivity would make them lose time, in many cases; it would not let them, arrive on time, nor meet the challenges that are under resilient structures. Enterprises considered resilient must have as a condition to be proactive. (Tanski et al, 2010).

As noted above, another way of arranging the multiple researches of resilience is to read it in chronological order. We distinguish at least two generations of researchers.

One, considered by Infante (in Melillo A. and Suarez Ojeda, 2005) as representative of the first generation of studies on resilience corresponds to the researches of Werner and Smith (1993) on the island of Kauai, done during many years. These were aimed at the identification of intrinsic factors possessed by the individuals who adapted themselves positively to society and were different from those who assumed risk behavior and failed to recover from adversity. Thus, they considered factors that were protective for humans, beyond the negative effects of adversity, trying to encourage them once they were detected.

This was described as follows (Melillo 2002):
Consistent Self-esteem. It is the basis of the other pillars and is the result of affective care
consequent of the child or adolescent by a significant adult, sufficiently good and capable of giving a sensible answer.
Introspection. It is the art of asking yourself and gives oneself an honest answer. It depends on the strength of the self-esteem that develops itself as from the recognition of the other.
Independence. Was defined as the know-how to set boundaries between one and environment problems, the ability to maintain emotional and physical distance without falling into isolation. It depends on the reality principle for judging a situation regardless of the wishes of the subject.
Ability for relationship. That is, the ability to establish relationships and intimacy with others, to balance one's need for affection with the attitude to provide to others.
Initiative. The desire required and tested in progressively more demanding tasks.
Humor. Finding comedy in tragedy itself. It allows saving albeit temporarily negative feelings and endure adverse situations.
Creativity. The ability to create order, beauty and finality order out of chaos and disorder.
Morality. Understood as the consequence to extend the personal desire to welfare to all alike, and the ability to engage in values. It is the basis of good treatment towards the others.
Capacity of Critical Thoughts. It is a second degree pillar the result of the combination of all others and allows analyzing critically the causes and responsibilities of the adversity that is being suffered, when it is society as a whole which is facing adversity. And it proposes ways to address them and change them.

The second generation of research focused on factors external to the individual such as socioeconomic status, family structure, and presence of a nearby adult. One evidences then that the development of studies of the first generation occurs as from the expansion of the research focus which shifts from intrinsic to extrinsic factors that influence the individual in the process of overcoming adversity. (Minello, 2010).

From the point of view of Melillo and Ojeda (2005), the human beings are not born naturally resilient nor acquire such competence in the development. They consider that the development of resilience depends on the quality of interaction between the person and the other human beings whom they have close. (in Minello, 2010).

Suarez Ojeda (2001), has made it explicit beforehand, he develops the concept of Community Resilience from which he lays the pillars that constitute it. These include collective self-esteem, which involves the satisfaction of belonging to the community itself, cultural identity, formed by the interaction process which along the development involves the integration of customs, values, idiomatic expressions, etc., social humor, consisting in the ability to find comedy in tragedy itself, to overcome it, state honestly as counterpart to the corruption that erodes the social bonds, solidarity, the result of a strong social bond.

Measuring Resilience

The complex behavior of the individual and the multiple ways of addressing the situations become very complex in measuring resilience. Most research focuses on the behavior of children in adverse situations. There are present day trends that relate to seniors and still are short of referring to mid age (35 to 60 years). One of the researches is in Resilience Medlife Scale (RIM) that according to Ryan and Catalbiano (in Minello, 2010) was built specifically to observe the behavior in middle age. It presents a structure of five factors: self-efficacy, perseverance, internal control capacity, coping4 and family support and the individual's social network.

Another scale to measure the individual's ability to cope with adverse situations was built by the American Psychiatric Association (APA 2002), included in the manual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR), which is considered one of the main diagnostic reference for mental health professionals. One of the tools used is the Defensive Functioning Scale (EFD), structured in seven defense layers, in decreasing order as to the individual's ability to defend himself or face conflicting situations.

Grotberg, E. (in Minello, 2010) states that one of the new trends in research on resilience is the measurement in order to help strengthen and for the mental health of the individual.

Table 1 presented below draws a parallel between the research conducted by Grotberg, E. (2005), the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002) and Ojeda (1997), adapted from Minello, Italo (2010).

Table 1: Resilience Pillars (Ojeda, 1997), resilience Factors (Grotberg, 2005) and the Defense Mechanisms of Fighting Styles EFD / DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2002)

Source: Adapted from Minello, Italo Fernando. Resilencia e Insucesso empresarial. Universidade de São Paulo.
Facultad de Economia, Contabilidade e Administrao. São Paulo 2010. P 60

Minello (2010) considers conceptually similar the terms defense Mechanisms or styles of fighting (DSM-IV-TR). In this paper we applied Table 1 in the discourses collected from interviews carried out with the entrepreneurs.

The Forestry Industrial Sector seen through the Resilience Optics

The entrepreneurs interviewed belong to the towns of Eldorado and Monte Carlo as part of the micro-region of the Province of Misiones called Upper Paraná. The changes result of global and domestic and national economy crisis affected at regional and province level. Thus the context of the industrial sector was undergoing repeated forestry crisis. Synthetically one can recall that early in the sector in Misiones, in the 70s, as from the replacement of sawn timber from native implanted forests, the scenario was quite adverse as it was

"Unpredictable, random, devoid of opportunities for making future projections based on present evidence (for the lack of systematic data and prior information), processes and products were outside the norm (even today many of them continue to be so) The results were not always convertible to economic values, and were generally manifested apart from the known behavior laws. "[Tanski et al, 2010, pg. 15](3)

Following the great efforts of enterprises to achieve the reconversion to enable them to respond to an external demand, it was followed by the 2001 national crisis. In 2002, the low development of the construction industry and the economic recession, which deteriorated the purchasing power of the population, joined the financial difficulties created by the restrictions on the banking availability of bank deposits, called corralito.

Moreover, the consultant STCP (2002) identifies three critical groups which present themselves interrelated and limited the development of forest-industrial SMEs: a) Management: if this were best qualified it would provide optimal use of available resources; b) Technological level:

"According to the low level of technology employed in primary processing (sawmill) and secondary (remanufacturing), the industries lose competitiveness, due to high production costs, resulting among other factors, the low yields in the transformation of raw material". [in Tanski et al, 2010, p. 20] (4).

and c) Productivity: "... it is a consequence of the relationship between the factors referred above. Their review is of fundamental importance for cost reduction and competitiveness gains" [in Tanski et al, 2010, p. 20] (5).

In 2006 enterprises, after the deep crisis of 2001, returned to repeat the records of 1998. (Tanski et al, 2010). The scenario presented in 2007, when the forest industry was trying to overcome the indicators of ‘98, showed that problems that could be summarized in four key areas that limits (again) the development of sector activity and hampered the competitiveness that one was trying to develop: the energy crisis, a sustained decline in exports -which recorded since 2006 by falling demand in the U.S. market- and province level, two more were supported: "a heavy tax burden and serious difficulties in the availability of supply of raw material. " [in Tanski et al, 2010, p. 21](6)

The entrepreneurs interviewed reported in a recurring way the contextual problems mentioned above. They referred to the situation they were facing, as follows: 'each time getting worse, at all levels, not only in economy, moral, educational, justice, all' (Case 1), 'As from 2000 activity completely stalled' (Case 1). As to referring to exports they considered: '... two or three years ago we were neither importing nor exporting, we relied exclusively on the domestic market'. (Case 1). The crisis led to lower labor costs as a precaution. Some attributed the crisis exclusively to the economic variable, 'the big enterprises are not exporting, they enter the market, flooding the domestic market, therefore the market is absolutely full of offers' (Case 1). 'Yes, yes... we.... In the 2 deposits... we have had many.... the sales have fallen greatly, imagine it...'(Case 3). 'The cost... for years we had this, when suddenly the economy is operating more or less... suddenly it falls, I. e., we are in situations where just as I come...' (Case 3).

Other cases expanded the look to different variables, 'but let's say that due to sanitary problems that we had, the timber does not manage to develop, we had before logs of ... I do not know ... a size 15, 20, 30 or 40 in diameter and Wood began to decompose. ... '(Case 4).

The lack of communication with the government also impeded growth. Case Nº 1 sets the context with two fundamental properties that indicate the political adversity and frequent changes in the rules of the game. Case Nº 3 states the perseverance in adverse circumstances, both financially and politically. Cases Nº 4, 5 and 8 mention, multiple contextual adversities and crises within the sector. Case Nº 10 performs a thorough reading of the context and details almost all adversities that arose in all respondents. In this context it survives and shows perseverance. Case Nº 12 explains the effort in a context analyzed from the standpoint of politics and the cyclicality of price fluctuations. The analysis allows one to consider the adversities as opportunities, as it operates from multiple roles, to name a few: as an entrepreneur, from his particular profession and as a politician, alternately according to his convenience and without finding in said adversity elements of real opposition. Not all think about the context, cases Nº 2, 6, 7 and 11 do not do so.

The Forestry Industrial Entrepreneur in this Context

The description of the context carried out before shows a great turmoil and constant changes for the entrepreneur, to which one could think of failure for various reasons or the impossibility of survival of enterprises, but according to Conner (1995) "the person with greater Resilience ability, is capable of absorbing high levels of change and demonstrate a minimum of dysfunctional behavior." [In Minello, 2010, pg. 71] (7).

There are many ways of conceptualizing the failure of the enterprise, and when you look at the causes one considers both endogenous and exogenous factors. Wetthen (1980) presents a concept that opposes growth to decline, highlighting two types of decline, with respect to the organizations who suffer from stagnation and reduction of market share and those in which organizations become victims of a hostile environment based on reduction of the market. (Minello, 2010). The second case is dominant in the enterprises that were surveyed for this study.

Another conceptualization of failure is the one presented by Cannon and Edmondson as "a deviation from the expected or desired results" [in Minello, 2010, p. 88] (8). Minello (2010) he says it's the end of an initiative that fails to meet its objectives.

Among the questions posed to entrepreneurs they included consultation on the objectives and expectations they had. While searching for the realization of the goals there is always the possibility of error and failure, this may be a key moment to generate learning in the growing process of an enterprise. Says Mc Grath (1995) "there is a tendency to see failure in a negative way and we know little about enterprise failure and the ability of entrepreneurs to struggle with failure and learn from it." [In Minello, 2010, p. 86] (9). For the present paper one of the questions posed to entrepreneurs inquired about this aspect as follows: Assuming that there was a crisis and that every crisis leaves a lesson, do you remember what lesson could have left the crisis experienced in the sector over the past 5 years due to technology policy, environmental, province, import / export, education, infrastructure, trade unions, R & D, financial?.

Taking into account the chart on Resilience Pillars (Ojeda, 1997), Resilience Factors (Grotberg, 2005) and Defense Mechanisms in the Kinds of Fights EFD / DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2002), the expressions of entrepreneurs showed the recurrence of the factors of resilience. First, explicit affiliation, as people, as a result of the crises lived, connect themselves, turn to those who can provide support:

'One of the key parts of a crisis is the strengthening that exists in the association, when there is a crisis at once one connects himself with some chamber...' (Case 1).

They also state:

'... The successive crisis gave me the pattern of communicating directly with staff on issues of crisis... [ ] ... Before firing people we preferred solidarity between all '(Case 1).
Another attitude shows the capacity for reflection and self-observation:
'What I learnt was that one had to be very careful when making investments, but it also leaves me with the lesson that ... when one does not make an investment sooner or later it disappears, that's the reality, then one has to find a balance'. (Case 3).
The ability to withstand the crisis they see as a lesson:
'The only lesson is survival'. (Case 7).
Also one rescues as a lesson Anticipation, I. e., and ability to anticipate:
'Rather than a lesson it left us a confirmation...to direct an enterprise with the mechanisms of permanent active reinsurance arrangements and the support needed to withstand these periods'. (Case 9).
One might infer from the analysis of the expressions that most enterprise resilience factors or defense mechanisms (affiliation, anticipation, self-assertion, and self-observation) that the entrepreneurs were learning from the ongoing crisis experienced and passed. They were building the profile of resilient and will be unveiled through the expressions recorded in the interviews.
Not only in cases of family enterprises (those are the highest percentage) Affiliation factor appears but also in the non family ones, since they also show the ability to relate to others and share:

'We are a family which has to do with timber and some of this is due because we are linked with the timber industry' (Case 1)
'Look, I was twice at the fair in Brazil and ... in Curitiba, to see a bit of technology, I think the sector was called Lake Mbarigüí, and well, there I made contact with some people' (Case 8)

Communication also occurs with other institutions:
'With educational institutions we do have a rather fluid communication, in our case with the Forestry Faculty,' (Case 1)
'We have a chamber that associates us, unionized us ...' (Case 1)
'... I personally I have sports links ...' (Case 1)
'... I have just come from another enterprise like mine and I went to see a machine I wanted to copy that one then they come here to copy another one.' (Case 2)
With respect to behavior (morality), that they hope to share with others, they express:
'... We handle with clear rules, the prices ...' (Case 3)
'... The prices are so tight in the domestic market, so tight that you have the unfair competition that exist in all enterprises. For example, a person who has a little saw makes the family work, he does not pay a single tax, I. e., the family members work to eat, he has his little truck, he drives it, he take me to Corrientes and offers me at half price, yes, and that is the informal way which in the domestic market is great ...' (Case 12).

Show initiative:
'... In these cases we resort to the Technological Centre which has enough training in that sense ..." (Case 1)
'I decided to put on added value ... we did the initial investment ... more than 1,000,000 pesos in purchasing machinery, sheds and all ... [...] we did the investment, we bought 12 new machines, sheds .... All investment ...' (Case 2)
They need the knowledge to determine the future (anticipation or reduction of uncertainty):

'... For us it is important to know what is happening in the enterprise, I do not mean to correct, because often they can not be corrected, one is conditioned by other things, but at least know and be able to determine through time towards where you are ready to go. That's what allowed us to overcome December 2001.' (Case 9)
'The running of an enterprise with the reinsurance mechanisms permanently active and the backup necessary to support these periods'. (Case 9).
Another way to anticipate, but proactively1, is shown in the following examples:
'...I started forestry for fiscal relief [...] here there were none of the paper mills, or Papel Misionero. [...] And one thought that the paper enterprises were coming to Misiones, for the fiscal relief. But it was not known if it would give income or not, one planted to say, well, I'm going to have fiscal deduction. That was the reason.' (Case 12)

'...We travelled around and we saw some products that could be done with wood and we were able to invest, this was done in manufacturing factories which did not exist before in the Province, which are beams or finger or molding or board factories...' (Case 5).
They explicit their thoughts showing assertiveness:
'It's usual to see that the customer likes the owner himself to be the one that meets his needs, so I think that is what makes all the difference to large firms...' (Case 1)
'...Obviously in terms of production there are market niches, say that we can serve, is not true, small and medium enterprises ...' (Case 2)
'We, had the flexibility of enterprises just like ours, that are able to support crisis because we can' (Case 2)
'...We have some particularities that let's say, as it is, we are leaders...in something...' (Case 2)
'Because in reality we are 3 brothers and we have everything in common, we think together and that somehow may be the secret to the success of the enterprise,
between quotation marks.' (Case 6).
They demonstrate ability to reflect on their behavior (Self-Monitoring):
'...Accomplishment, I. e., right under the terms of, in the quality in terms of quality pre- agreed, in short all that, then there is good relationship with the client, the supplier...' (Case 3).
If the effort is made, it demands a sacrifice, demands a sacrifice, demands a sacrifice, because many times ... and I insist on the same thing: the most important thing for us is the marketing and payment, and that sometimes it is a role against us, but after all what one goes through one sees the achievement, one reaches...' (Case 8).
'...There is a matter that is not absolutely necessary, I. e., they are very expensive, but we must comply, what do you want? 'But I take care', 'you did not bring your helmet', I usually say, 'the helmet helps you, if I am fined, you will not pay me'. 'And there are many, safety issues you can not imagine.' (Case 12).
Despite the situations gone through, entrepreneurs do not lose their sense of humor and look at the funny or ironic aspects of the conflict:
'[The government announced] ... Through taxes, is the only thing I can say there is no other way (laughs).' (Case 1).
To the question: What happened in the forestry industy, as from the crises experienced? And the answer was: '...from 2,001 ... we paid a lot of accounts that we are still paying (laughs)' (Case 1).
To the question: How did you begin the enterprise? The answer was, 'I began by leadership, not to say I was crazy (laughs).' (Case 6)
...One out there does not adapt quickly to....and that's what you have to have an enterprise in this country, to be able to move around ... (laughs).' (Case 11)
According to Resilience in Medlife Scale (RIM) another important factor that characterizes the resilient is perseverance. This characteristic, for 70% of the cases.
'...Hard work, and some took 4 or 5 years to obtain an achievement' (Case 2)

'Effort, effort, there was a lot. To begin with, to be able to get credit in this country is really an outrage.' (Case 2)
'Well we did everything we did, we did it by our own effort, let's say, we did have subsidies, or special loans, or what so ever ...besides special loans end up being very very expensive, then one tries to avoid them, so ... everything we accomplished here was with great effort. ' (Case 3)

CONCLUSIONS

The analysis of the discourse of entrepreneurs largely corroborate the claims of the researchers detailed in the theoretical framework. They should be read only in connection with the entrepreneurs interviewed. One could infer from the profile stories about the behaviors they had in the crisis, as well as recording the lessons obtained from them. These read data in both micro as well as macro-contextual, allowed the interpretation carried out. In each case the factors that are the pillars of resilience according to Suarez and Ojeda (1997), were identified, which was attributed to the defense mechanisms or styles of fighting (DSM-IV-TR) for, according to the previously recorded table. The members of the sample meet almost all the factors that characterize the resilient entrepreneur. Affiliation mechanisms predominate and secondly for Self-affirmation and Self-observation. With less frequency, they explicit, Anticipation, Proactivity and Humor. Another detected feature was Perseverance. With regard to Anticipation, it was evident that support was crucial, which they had from family and in some cases, colleagues or friends.

According to the literature consulted, resilience is not genetic but depends on many factors which make a complex and dynamic relationship between some specific characteristics of entrepreneurs and the environment around them. The hardships through which all the entrepreneurs in the area went through, and those interviewed agreed that the lessons obtained in each situation and the positive adaptation to them.

NOTES

1. Software for qualitative Analysis of Textual Data.

2. Basic Dictionary Latin-Spanish Spanish-Latin. Barcelona 1982

3. Oxymoron is a rhetoric figure which represents two terms which are opposite and manages with them a new meaning, as for example dark clearness.

4. Stress facing strategies. A group of cognitive efforts and behaviors which give the entrepreneur the facing capacity within the enterprise failure. Minello, Italo, Fernando, Resiliencia e Insucesso empresarial. Universidade de Sao Paulo. Facultade de Economía, Contabilidade e Admistracao. Sao Paulo 2010. P 60.

5. To be Proactive, means to be responsible for your own life, be able to choose your answer facing any stimuli. Stephen R. Covey - Los 7 hábitos de la gente altamente efectiva - La Revolución ética en la vida cotidiana y en la empresa - Buenos Aires, Paidós 1997. p 85 y ss.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL QUOTES

(1) MELILLO, A. S. (2004). Resiliencia: descubriendo las propias fortalezas. Argentina. Paidós. P. 24.

(2) MELILLO, A. et al. (2004). Resiliencia y subjetividad: los ciclos de la vida. Buenos Aires. Paidós. P. 71.

(3) MELILLO, A. S. (2004). Resiliencia: descubriendo las propias fortalezas. Argentina. Paidós. P. 71.

(4) TAÑSKI, et al. (2010). La Asociatividad de las PYMES Madereras de Misiones. ¿Por qué conviene encararla desde un cambio cultural y no desde el estructural?. Argentina, Editorial Universitaria Misiones. P 20.

(5) TAÑSKI, et al. (2010). La Asociatividad de las PYMES Madereras de Misiones. ¿Por qué conviene encararla desde un cambio cultural y no desde el estructural?. Argentina, Editorial Universitaria Misiones. P 20.

(6) TAÑSKI, et al. (2010). La Asociatividad de las PYMES Madereras de Misiones. ¿Por qué conviene encararla desde un cambio cultural y no desde el estructural?. Argentina, Editorial Universitaria Misiones. P 21.

(7) MINELLO, I. F. (2010). Resiliência e Insucesso empresarial. Universidade de São Paulo. Facultade de Economia, Contabilidade e Administração. São Paulo. P. 71. Disponible en: http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/12/12139/tde-24062010-114250/en.php

(8) MINELLO, I. F. (2010). Resiliência e Insucesso empresarial. Universidade de São Paulo. Facultade de Economia, Contabilidade e Administração. São Paulo. P 88. Disponible en:  http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/12/12139/tde-24062010-114250/en.php

(9) MINELLO, I. F. (2010). Resiliência e Insucesso empresarial. Universidade de São Paulo. Facultade de Economia, Contabilidade e Administração. São Paulo. P 86. Disponible en:  http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/12/12139/tde-24062010-114250/en.php

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (APA). (2002). Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de Trastornos Mentales. (DSM-IV-TR). Porto Alegre. 2º Edición. Artmed.         [ Links ]

2. ARTEORTÚA, M. (2002). Resiliencia: Otra perspectiva de las experiencias Sociales y personales dentro de la Empresa. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Especialista en Recursos Humanos, Bogotá. Universidad ICESI.         [ Links ]

3. CASTILLO FERRER, L. y MARTÍN LEAL GUERRA. (2007). Gestión del capital intelectual y resiliencia en el personal del sector farmacéutico. Venezuela. CICAG, V 8-Edición 1.         [ Links ]

4. COVEY, S. R. (1997). Los 7 hábitos de la gente altamente efectiva. La revolución ética en la vida cotidiana y en la empresa. Buenos Aires. Paidós.         [ Links ]

5. CYRULNIK, B. (2002). La maravilla del dolor. Barcelona. Granica.         [ Links ]

6. GROTBERG, E. (1997). La resiliencia en acción. Trabajo presentado en el Seminario Internacional sobre Aplicación del concepto de Resiliencia en Proyectos Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Lanús. Fundación Van Leer.         [ Links ]

7. GROTBERG, E. (2004). Introducción: Nuevas tendencias en Resiliencia. En Melillo Ojeda (2004). Descubriendo las propias fortalezas. Buenos Aires. Paidós. 2004.         [ Links ]

8. LINDSTRÖM, B. O significado de resiliência. Adolescência Latino Americana. Porto Alegre. V2, Nº 3. 2003.         [ Links ]

9. LUTHAR, S. "Annotation: methodological and conceptual issues in research on childhood resilience". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.1999.         [ Links ]

10. LUTHAR, S. "The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work". Journal Child Development. New York. 2000        [ Links ]

11. MELILLO, A. "El pensamiento de Boris Cyrulnik". Revista Perspectivas Sistémicas. Nº 85. marzo- abril de 2005.         [ Links ]

12. MELILLO, A. y OJEDA E. N. (2004). Resiliencia. Descubriendo las propias fortalezas. Buenos Aires. Paidós.         [ Links ]

13. MELILLO, A. et al. (2004). Resiliencia y subjetividad: los ciclos de la vida. Buenos Aires. Paidós.         [ Links ]

14. MINELLO, I. (2010). Resiliência e Insucesso empresarial. Universidade de São Paulo. Facultade de Economia, Contabilidade e Administração. São Paulo.         [ Links ]

15. PINHEIRO, D. (2004). A resistencia en discussão. Psicologia em Estudo. Vol 9 Nº1. Maringá         [ Links ].

16. RUTTER, M. "Resilience in the face of adversity: protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder". British Journal of Psychiatry, vol 147, 1985.         [ Links ]

17. RYAN Y CATALBIANO. "Development of a New Resilience Scale: The Resilience in Midlife Scale (RIM Scale)". Asian Social Science. V 5, Nº 11. Noviembre 2009.         [ Links ]

18. TAÑSKI, et al. (2010). La Asociatividad de las PYMES Madereras de Misiones. ¿Por qué conviene encararla desde un cambio cultural y no desde el estructural?. Misiones, Editorial Universitaria Misiones.         [ Links ]